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Braveheart un classique incontournable. Pte Essays. adrien 20 Mars 2007 Divers. Project. Je vous rassure tout de suite ma culture sur l'Ecosse ne se résume au film Braveheart de Mel Gibson bien que de bonne réalisation (date de réalisation: 1995 et a remporté 5 Oscars). Samples. Néanmoins, je me devais tout de même d'en parler car je pense que c'est le film qui fait le plus parler de l'Ecosse, ou plutôt le film qui est le plus connu (tout du moins en France) concernant l'Ecosse. Essay On Noam Chomsky's Impact. Une des premières choses que la professeure d'anglais (Université de Strathclyde, Glasgow) pour les les élèves étrangers nous à demander à notre arrivée: Est-ce que vous connaissez le film Braveheart? Vous pourrez ainsi appréciez le magnifique accent écossais de Mel Gibson disait-elle en rigolant (on pouvait voir une ironie toute amicale transparaître, car même si c'est une petite moquerie les écossais sont loin d'avoir un mauvais fond). La remarque faite par rapport à l'accent écossais de Mel Gibson (Mel Gibson est Américain) dans ce film, je l'ai déjà entendu d'un autre écossais. Pte Essays. J'ai quand même fait l'expérience (si on Freedom Of Expression And Action In Libya After The Libyan Uprising peut vraiment parler d'expérience) de le regarder en anglais (pour voir cet accent 'écossais' de Mel Gibson), il était disponible dans le laboratoire des langues de l'Université.
D'ailleurs il doit sûrement être recommandé à beaucoup d'étudiants (ou doit rencontrer un succès fou!), car c'était le film en langue anglaise qui comptait le plus grand nombre d'exemplaires sur l'étalage de l a vidéothèque. Samples. En somme, je crois avoir assez bien compris ce que me disait William Wallace (héros interprété par Mel Gibson) à travers le petit écran, ou/et peut être que le fait que je l'avais déjà vu en français m'a permis une meilleure compréhension. The Pig. Je pense qu'il faut être un écossais ou avoir plus de temps passé ici que moi pour discerner mieux la chose. Pte Essays Samples. On sent tout de même que l'on a pas dans ce film la voix habituelle de Mel Gibson, le timbre de voix est un peu plus scottish! Bref, passons cette anecdote qui devait être racontée. The Pig. Revenons-en au film Braveheart en lui-même. Pte Essays. Il est sorti sur les écrans de cinéma en 1995 et a été considéré comme une réussite de part son grand nombre d'entrées à travers le monde et les bonnes recettes qu'il a engendré.
Passons le côté comptable de la chose pour vous présenter le genre de ce film. Braveheart qui littéralement se traduit alors en français Coeur Brave (si on Essay Chomsky's détache 'Brave' et 'Heart') est un film historique retraçant le combat de William Wallace pour l'indépendance face aux anglais. Pte Essays. A noter qu'au Québec ils ont appelé ce film Coeur Vaillant, ce qui corresponderait mieux à mon avis. Lord Flies Kill. Décidemment me direz-vous après les billets sur l'indépendance de l'Irlande face aux anglais, l'Ecosse tient toute sa place, et je dirais doublement car en plus que de coller à ce thème je me situe dans cette Nation Ecossaise qui aspire de plus en plus à devenir Etat indépendant. Pte Essays Samples. Un Coeur de Brave pour ce héros William Wallace (interprété par Mel Gibson) qui part de son petit village écossais avec une seule fourche pour arme, levant ainsi tous les villageois contre la représentant de l'autorité anglaise locale, pour finalement lever toute une armée! Un combat pour la liberté, pour le droit de ce peuple écossais à disposer de lui-même (décidemment le Droit me suit partout, cette notion, ce droit fait partie intégrante du Droit International), en un mot: pour son indépendance! L'époque je n'en ait pas parlé, mais ce n'est pas hier non plus. Essay Of Expression After. L'action se situe à la fin du XIII ème siècle, période durant laquelle porté par un sentiment de Liberté (pour l'Ecosse) et de Justice (son épouse fut brulée vive par les anglais), cet excellent chef de guerre que se révèlera être William Wallace affronta les troupes du roi d'Angleterre Edward I qui venaient d'envahir son pays. Pte Essays Samples. En outre, une grande actrice française joue un rôle principal (car il y aura une petite histoire d'amour entre elle et William Wallace): Sophie Marceau, qui interprète le personnage de la Princesse Isabelle de France.
On peut voir aujourd'hui encore les monuments célèbrant William Wallace, comme par exem ple une statut le représentant en habit de chevalier au Château d'Edimbourg, ou encore le monument William Wallace près de Stirling. Essay Chomsky's Impact. Aussi, si vous vous promenez dans les vieilles rues médiévales d'Edimbourg et arrivez près de l'entrée du Château, il n'est pas rare de voir quelqu'un grande épée à la main, avec du bleu sur la figure et un kilt, déguisé en William Wallace. Samples. En somme, le film Braveheart m'avait tout à fait plus. Même si le film n'est pas 100% fidèle (quel film pourrait vraiment le prétendre?) à la réalité historique, il n'y a rien de choquant, les faits principaux sont là, et l'on peut tout à fait se rendre compte de la violence des batailles, ainsi que de l'énergie et la bravoure déployé par les écossais contre l'ennemi anglais! bertrand 10/04/2007 13:01. Essay Of Expression In Libya The Libyan. salut merci pour ton blog tres bien fait. Pte Essays. j'ai cru lire que t'avais pris une seule fois le metro mais comment tu rentre chez toi quand tu va a la bibliotheque jusqu'a 2h? de plus quelqu'un qui m'a dit que les pays anglo saxon sont generalement plus violent que la france par exemple, j'aurais aime avoir ton avis sur ce point car je pars aussi un an Senior Project Essay a glasgow. Pte Essays Samples. encore merci pour ton blog. Why Do Photosynthesise. adrien 11/04/2007 09:34. Samples. Salut, si tu as bien tout lu je suis a l'Universite de Strathclyde qui est dans le centre de Glasgow! De ce fait et habitant aussi dans le centre de la ville je ne suis pas loin (trajet a pied de 5 minutes environ). The Hobbit. Je reste pratiquement tout le temps dans centre, il y a tout a proximite. Samples. Le quartier du West End est sympathique j'y suis alle une fois (c'est d'ailleurs a cette occasion que j'ai pu prendre le metro) et c'est dans cette zone de la ville que tu peux trouver la vieille (pour son architecture mais toujours en fonctionnnement, il y a 3 Universites a Glasgow) Universite de Glasgow par exemple. Voila, A+ Erikka 04/04/2007 23:06. On Noam. You'd better choose USA ! ;) Or Audencia ? . Pte Essays. lol. Philosopher Immanuel. eisbrecher 01/04/2007 11:57. Pte Essays Samples. excellent ! j'ai envie de partir en ecosse aussi avec eramus, tres bonne initiative de blog ! adrien 01/04/2007 16:54.
Merci et bon choix pour cette destination je ne pense pas que tu vas regretter. The Hobbit Genre. Que ce soit Glasgow ou plus generalement l'Ecosse on samples ne s'ennuie pas il y a plein de choses a voir. Lisa 23/03/2007 15:07. And Action In Libya. adrien 23/03/2007 15:44. Samples. Yep Lisa :) Merci pour ton commentaire! (pour ceux qui n'ont pas vu le film c'est ce que crie William Wallace juste avant de mourir)
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Importance Of School Rules Essays and Research Papers. ? RULES ARE THERE TO BE FOLLOWED. WITHOUT RULES NOTHING GETS DONE. It seems that in today's world rules are . everywhere. For instance, type a quick search for pte essays rules into the Google search engine and you will return over 604 million web pages that mention rules . Senior Project! One can find sites which outline rules on correct Internet usage to rules on ordering Mail Order Brides! Undoubtedly rules are quite important in the everyday running of our lives and yes, rules are there to be followed, but in my opinion.
Education , High school , Illegal drug trade 1407 Words | 6 Pages. Without rules and regulations all civilization would plunge into chaos, as there would be nothing protecting us from samples, one another’s most basic . self serving instincts, and philosopher sometimes self-destructive habits. Often time’s simple rules and regulations protect us from ourselves, such as not touching a hot furnace or driving through an intersection when the light is red. If we look just at laws of the road one can quickly see how many devastating accidents would occur (and how many lives would be ruined). Rulemaking , Rules of Go , Soldier 960 Words | 3 Pages. Conduct pre-charge investigation and pte essays make recommendation on Freedom The Libyan whether to file appropriate charges against erring PDEA personnel. 2. Summary Hearing Division . Conduct administrative summary hearings on cases arising from violations of laws, office rules and regulations against PDEA personnel. Prepare decisions, rulings or opinions on pte essays samples cases brought before it.
E. PDEA Academy Recruit and train all PDEA Agents. 1. Genre! Administrative Division Provide services on personnel, housekeeping, records, supply. Drug , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Heroin 1754 Words | 7 Pages. September 13, 2008 – Auditorium THANK YOU VERY MUCH ___________________________. (master of ceremony) MR. JOSE ANTHONY M. TAMAYO, Chairman, Presidential . Management and samples Staff, DR. RAMON C. CERCADO, our Grand Chancellor, MR. ALFONSO H. Why Do Photosynthesise! LORETO, our School Director, MS. BONA MAE B. TIONGSON, our SPS Executive Director, All cluster directors, department heads, respective college deans, college student councils, sectoral organizations, dear advisers, Perpetualite student leaders, Ladies and gentlemen. Electoral College , George W. Bush , Gerald Ford 1522 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of samples Physical Education in Schools.
? Importance of of the flies Physical Education in Schools SPO3001 Learn to Swim Table of Contents . Page Introduction 3 Definition of Physical Education 3 What is taught in Physical Education? 4 Importance of Physical Education 5 The Importance of samples Physical Education as it relates to Swimming 7 Disadvantages of lack of Physical Education 9 Conclusion 10 References 11 Introduction Physical. Education , Exercise , Nutrition 2071 Words | 7 Pages. LORETO CONVENT MOMBASA PRIMARY SCHOOL RULES AND REGULATIONS “To enable the fullest possible . Freedom And Action After Uprising! personal growth, Loreto education gives priority to the integration of the spiritual, intellectual, moral, physical and emotional development of the individual pupil. Relationships within Loreto education are characterized by respect, justice, honesty, sincerity, courage and compassion”.
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Exercise , Exercise physiology , Extracurricular activity 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Assess the importance of pte essays samples school factors. ?Assess the Essay Freedom Of Expression In Libya After The Libyan Uprising, importance of school factors such as racism and pupils responses to racism in creating ethnic differences in . educational achievement. Samples! (20 Marks) There are many factors which lead to photosynthesise, differences in educational achievement between different ethnic groups. These factors consist of labelling and teacher racism, pupil responses and subcultures, the ethnocentric curriculum, institutional racism and samples selection and segregation. Labelling and philosopher teacher racism is when you attach a meaning or definition. Discrimination , Ethnic group , Ethnic nationalism 1080 Words | 5 Pages. The Classical School: Importance of Free Will. The classical school (so-called because the divergent ideas of many scholars with similar ideas during this epoch were called that by . history) was a social movement that existed during the pte essays, late 1700s and the early 1800s.
The classical part of it is Freedom After Uprising derived from the similarity in thinking between those scholars and early Greek philosophy (Aristotle, Plato, etc.) which also put forth the importance of samples free will. However, free will is NOT the only defining feature of something that is classical. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 828 Words | 3 Pages. When Math and Science Rule the School. essay “Dehumanized: When Math and Science Rule the School ” published in Harper’s Magazine, Mark Slouka argues that mathematics . and science are overshadowing important humanity studies throughout schools all over the United States.
Slouka’s use of emotional and ethical appeals through personal experiences and extensive observation offer insight into what he believes is a problem in our modern society: Math and Science studies receiving more focus and lord kill the pig importance than the humanities. Pte Essays Samples! Slouka’s target audience. Anthropology , History , Humanities 1063 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Schools to a Community. Running head: The Importance of Schools in a Community The Importance of the pig Schools in a Community . Pte Essays Samples! Community Development Executive Summary This case study will focus on the effects of of the kill the pig a redistricting decision in Calvert County, Maryland.
There were three possible plans that were being considered. The redistricting plans centered on the opening of a new elementary school in central Calvert County. The proposed plans would all have profound effects on three different schools and many neighborhoods. Calvert County, Maryland , Community , Education 809 Words | 3 Pages. Boule lyonnaise Bowls Curling Ice stock sport Klootschieten Petanque Shuffleboard Varpa BowlingMain article: Bowling Candlepin bowling . Duckpin bowling Five-pin bowling Skittles (sport) Ten-pin bowling Marbles games Lawn bowling School Bowling Catch gamesCurving Dodgeball Ga-ga Hexball Keep Away Kin-Ball Prisoner Ball Rundown (aka Pickle) Yukigassen Frookies Climbing CanyoningMain article: Climbing Rock Climbing Sport climbing Abseiling Bouldering . Basketball , Bowling , Chinese martial arts 693 Words | 9 Pages. Articulating the Importance of Leadership on School. Articulating the pte essays samples, Importance of Leadership on School Timothy Raso Northcentral University Articulating the . Importance of plants photosynthesise Leadership on pte essays School Abstract Over the lord the pig, past decade our education system has experienced many shortcomings. The Wallace Foundation had sought out and completed research reports of pte essays schools in 24 States to include multiple districts. Project! Their objective was to study leadership and develop more effective ways to improve leadership roles. The study focused on the. Education , High school , High school football 1213 Words | 4 Pages.
Importance of our School Newspaper Have you ever wondered? What is the pte essays samples, importance of a school . newspaper. Philosopher Immanuel! Some may think, it is our way of being updated with what is happening in samples, the school . Some may think it is just a paper for entertainment purposes. And some might think it’s nothing. But the truth is, a school paper is the one that answers our questions, one that keeps us updated, and the one that keeps us interested in our school surroundings. It is made in a logical and comprehensive way. Editing , Essay , Essays 992 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Essay Freedom And Action In Libya The Libyan Uprising Computer in Schools. Importance of Computer in Schools Tara Dodrill Tara Dodrill began writing professionally in 1990. Samples! She is Project a travel writer and pte essays . Essay Of Expression Uprising! photographer working for pte essays print and online media, primarily covering Florida, ecotourism and off-the-beaten-path destinations.
Her writing credits include RUMBUM, Yahoo News, Visit South magazine,and North Carolina Coastal Guide. She studied journalism and education at Ohio University and Freedom Of Expression And Action real estate at Hondros College. Pte Essays Samples! Computer classes in schools are important to a well-rounded. College , Computer , Computer science 795 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance Of Sport In Our Schools. ?The Importance of Sport in Our Schools Today Physical education and immanuel sports in pte essays, Canada has evolved greatly over the last two . The Hobbit Genre! centuries through legitimizing sport in the Canadian school curriculum. Especially now, with childhood obesity increasing, establishing physical activity as a positive element in young people’s lives seems more important than ever before.
Athletic programs can help students build and maintain lifelong relationships with sport and samples physical activity. Physical education’s purpose. College , Education , Exercise 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Lauren Klein Mrs. Imani Stephen ENG 1101 23 October 2012 The Importance of Grades in School Alfie Kohn explains in his . article, From Degrading to De-grading, that traditional letter/number grades are a waste of time. Kohn believes teachers wrongly relish the moments they get to assign a student a grade. His opinion of the Project Essay, best teacher is the one that despises the pte essays samples, grade book and wonders about the thought of giving grades at all. Why Do Photosynthesise! Alfie Kohn provides many reasons supporting his beliefs. For example. Alfie Kohn , Competition , Education 971 Words | 3 Pages. MWF 10-10:50 Feb.
26 2013 Choosing the Next Step Thinking about what school you’re going to send your children too can be a tough . choice. You don’t want to take them away from their friends. But you do want them to get the best education possible to prepare them for college. Well I may have a solution for you. Samples! How would you feel if I told you there was a high school conveniently located in on Noam Chomsky's on Language, your neighborhood? A school that offers many extra-curricular activities, and also provides career pathways. College , Gymnasium , High school 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Teaching Values at School. Discuss the importance of Value-based Education at Primary school level Values are deeply held beliefs about what is good, . Samples! right, and appropriate.
Values are deep-seated and remain constant over why do plants photosynthesise time. Samples! We accumulate our values from childhood based on teachings and observations of philosopher immanuel our parents, teachers, religious leaders, and other influential and powerful people. Values affect our lives every moment. They are a guiding force in pte essays samples, all we do and pursue. When our values are in congruence with our. Curriculum , Education , History of education 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of on Language Vocabulary Instruction in a Middle School. a vast topic with numerous opportunities for pte essays samples new directions. I have selected to discuss five main topics: the importance of vocabulary, . comprare/ contrast vocabulary and language in philosopher immanuel, second language learnin, optimum time for learning vocabulary and pte essays samples language, helping adults and children see the value of vocabulary, and finally methodology for teaching in an ideal situation. The importance of vocabulary cannot be overstated. The Pig! Generally there are specialized forms of samples vocabulary which is found in medical.
Language , Language acquisition , Learning 1223 Words | 4 Pages. Students? Rights vs. School rules Some of the best years of flies your life are spent in school . No matter how old you . are, or what grade you are in, you are entitled to the rights listed in the first amendment. This applies to students, in or out of school . The question is are schools taking advantage of pte essays samples your rights? In the 1st Amendment, it says that you have the freedom of speech, religion, and press. Schools say that they make these rules to protect the student body and keep them under control, but. Academic dress , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the hobbit, the United States Constitution 770 Words | 3 Pages.
* We should follow the rules so that we can maintain peace and organization within our society, economy, and even our country. Without . Samples! rules no one would be able to work together. * Two different kinds of Freedom And Action In Libya The Libyan Uprising people can be heard to utter that question, Why have rules ? One of them does not believe in rules ; the other believes in pte essays, rules and adds a few more words to why do photosynthesise, the question, Why have rules , if you are not going to enforce them? I would like to examine both sides of this argument. Many people. 2009 singles , Rules of Go , The Rules 1243 Words | 4 Pages. Why Is It Important to Follow School Rules.
regime, and schools are the mental concentration camps. Education is described by pte essays samples the mis-educated as real-life preparation; in actuality, . schools train people to accept a society where the government and other institutions tell us what to flies kill, think and do. Experience is the best teacher, and the purpose of school is to prevent experience. If school attendance were voluntary, schools would have to reform themselves to samples, meet students needs, because if students could leave on a whim, schools would suddenly. Education , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1494 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Completing High School. A high school diploma is the basis for which much of society is based. Education is knowledge gain.
Education gives us the knowledge of the . world around us. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It helps us build opinions and immanuel have points of view on everything in life. People debate over the subject of whether education is the only thing in samples, life. Education is Senior important as it teaches us the right behavior, the good manners thus making us civilized. It teaches us how to lead our lives.
College , Education , High school 913 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Extracurricular Activities in School. The Benefits of Extracurricular Activities If you aren't sure whether or not you should let your high school student get involved in . extracurricular activities, you definitely need to consider all the pte essays samples, benefits that come along with these activities. Of The Kill The Pig! Here is a look at just a few benefits your teen will enjoy if you allow them to get involved with these activities. Benefit #1 – Learning Time Management and Prioritizing – One great benefit of your teen being involved in extracurricular activities. Adolescence , Extracurricular activity , High school 830 Words | 3 Pages. Scope and Importance of School Organization A. Relationship between Organization, Administration and Management 1. . Organization It refers to the form of the samples, enterprise or institution and the arrangement of the human and material resources functioning in a manner to achieve the objectives of the enterprise. Philosopher Immanuel! It represents two or more than two people respectively specializing in samples, functions of each perform, working together towards a common goal as governed by formal rules of behavior. 2. Administration.
Developmental psychology , Education , Hominidae 351 Words | 2 Pages. Importance of Agriculture Club in School. Bhutan. All the way from why do plants photosynthesise, “kuzoo zangpo” to “Yo man wats up?” attitude,the education in Bhutan changed alot of things. From the times of pte essays samples strict and disiplined . life in monestry till today where school are child friendly, I always feel, eduction has gained a great momentum in Bhutan “Education, school and studies are of no use. If you want to survive you need to work hard and earn for yourself “,the elderly people used to on Noam Impact on Language, say. Hardwork is one factor but today as I try to analyse the above. Bhutan , Boris Titulaer , Education 980 Words | 3 Pages. Reasons Why Students Violate School Rules and Regulations. Background PROBLEM Reasons why students violate school rules and regulations INTRODUCTION The researcher was an alumnus . from a private secondary school in Legazpi City, he has been observing student violators facing real problems in the school . This give way to decide in this type of study, the pte essays, willingness and interest to know the reality in students behaviour on of the the pig what reasons why students violates the samples, rules and regulations inside the school . At present, the researcher of this simple research. College , Education , Gang 1897 Words | 6 Pages.
Rules About School Students tend to break the rules once in awhile that that is because of on Noam Chomsky's Impact on Language peer pressure or . rebellion against or with someone else. Teenagers explore and do things others wouldn’t do to look “cool” or to prove something that they could do something with their life, or to samples, look “superior” to someone else. The Hobbit Genre! Imagine a smart and decent student could do inappropriate behavior just to prove they are fit in that society and to not be called names like “nerd” or “loser”, that’s how rules are. Education , Sociology , University 881 Words | 2 Pages. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENIFICIENT amp; MERCIFUL Rules amp; Regulations. (1) Students should respect the teachers amp; . maintain discipline in the campus. If any student fails to carry the terms then strict action will be taken against pte essays samples, the student. (2) For the good results of the Senior Project, student, parents are requested to co-operate with the rules made by school . Absent student will be fined Rs: 100 each day. (3) Parents are requested to keep the pte essays, student far from parties and. Education , LGBT parenting , University 492 Words | 2 Pages.
Importance of Art Education in High School. Creative Abilities: Why is Education of the Arts so Important in High School ? Art is very important in all of why do our lives because it enhances . our understanding to problem solve, boosts our creative thinking and heightens self-expression. It is also considered a form of entertainment, not only for ourselves but for samples the entertainment of genre others as well. “Art in a nation’s most precious heritage, for it is in our works of art that we reveal to ourselves and to pte essays samples, others the philosopher immanuel, inner vision which guides us. Art , Arts , Creativity 1501 Words | 4 Pages. School rules and regulations are made not to pte essays samples, be broken. Of Expression And Action In Libya Uprising! Rules are made for the safety and better welfare of the . Samples! students in school . Another is to promote good behavior among students and to maintain the good image of the school . Parents send their children to school in order for them to learn not only Of Expression In Libya After The Libyan, academic values, but also moral values.
Implementing school rules will help the students mold their character and values expected from them by samples other people. There are certain factors why nowadays. Good and evil , High school , Illegal drug trade 645 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Class At my old school , West Philly Highwe could bring our cell phones in the building during the day but, they had to be in our . locker. We had dress down day jus so we could feel like our individual selves. They didn’t have a lot of strict rules but, they did enforce the rules they set in place. Classroom setting was a relaxing and fun learning environment. Our lockers were given out they day we picked up our rosters at the end of August. We didn’t have to go through medal detectors.
Education , Environment , Loudspeaker 477 Words | 2 Pages. School Rules 1. Silence must be observed – a) As the Freedom In Libya After The Libyan, first bell rings b) When coming into and leading out from the pte essays, . place where worship or assembly is conducted. Senior! c) When teachers enter the classroom. 2. Quiet talking is allowed between lessons, after a teacher has left a classroom. 3. Pte Essays! Day scholars should leave the school as soon as school closes unless they are staying for games or extra lessons. 4. Letters of excuse for absence etc. should be addressed to. 2000s music groups , Birthday , Extracurricular activity 391 Words | 2 Pages. ?Pvt Hayes, Lida Louise J B Co, 68Q 02 264th Med Bn, Ft. Sam Houston The Importance of Rules and on Noam Chomsky's on Language Regulations in Regards to pte essays, . Discipline The regulation of the why do photosynthesise, behaviors of members in any military branch, involves rules and pte essays samples regulations that govern goal orientated and behavior inside and immanuel outside of the samples, branch, which includes the soldierization process that happens in military training. Discipline is the process of training oneself in obedience, self control, and skill.
The controlled, ordered behavior. Behavior , Do the Right Thing , Law 398 Words | 2 Pages. Culture of a School : Interview and Reflection Paper Guidelines Ana Luna EDL505 Prof. Why Do! Karen Clark 02/25/2013 * * Part One: . Interview * To: Johnette Robinson * Owner and samples Director * Childlife Preschool 1. What is the school profile? (Urban, rural, etc., grade level of students, number of immanuel students, number of pte essays students on free or reduced lunch (if applicable), ethnicity, number of students receiving special services and immanuel which type of special services, etc. Culture , Early childhood education , Education 1456 Words | 4 Pages. Importance Of English Language Importance Of English Language Good Morning to one and all. I am here to present my views about . the importance of learning English language which is taught to pte essays samples, us right from genre, our birth. Samples! English is why do not just taught at pte essays home, at schools and on Language colleges but even at professional colleges and at work places too. English was taught till Intermediate Level at first. Later it was included in professional colleges not only for pte essays samples 1st year but even in 3rd B Tech. In present competitive.
Communication , English language , Language 886 Words | 3 Pages. Rule 1: Arguments are unacceptable, as a disagreement is genre as far as anything can go. Pte Essays Samples! Purpose 1: Arguments and fight cause physical and internal . Philosopher! damage making a commotion, disturbing others and disrupting the reason of a utopia (where there is no good and bad life just is). So, because of pte essays this fights and anything that goes farther from a disagreement is unacceptable, for a disagreement is only allowed because it's normal (for it only shows a matter of opinion). Why Do! Rule 2: Any form of tardiness and rudeness. Rule of thirds , Rules of Go , The Age 697 Words | 3 Pages.
type: Essay (1500 words) Title: How well is the concept of professionalism evident in pte essays, my setting? Submission date: 6 November 2012 Assignment Brief . This is an Project, essay to samples, discuss the evidence of professionalism in Freedom Of Expression And Action, my setting in samples, relation to the schools own guidelines and the national standards set down by the Teachers’ Standards. Definition of professionalism noun * 1 [mass noun] the competence or skill expected of why do photosynthesise a professional:the key to quality and efficiency is professionalism *. Education , Junior school , Learning 1721 Words | 5 Pages. related, But school would probably be a distant cousin, Because if education is the key, School is the lock, Because it . Pte Essays Samples! rarely ever develops your mind to the point where it can perceive red as green and continue to go when someone else said stop. Because as long as you follow the rules and pass exams your cool, But are you aware that examiners have a checklist, And if your answer is something outside the box then the automatic response is a cross, And then they claim that school expands your. Alternative education , David Beckham , Education 908 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of School Plant to the Teaching-Learning Process. ABSTRACT This paper examines school plant and its importance to teaching and learning in the school system.
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Education , High school , History of why do education 1519 Words | 6 Pages. The Importance of Promoting Equality, Diversity and samples Inclusion in Schools. Written Assessment #2 in Unit 204 (2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1) The follow assessment will have a brief description of the importance of inclusion . and inclusive practices in work with children and young people. And it also contains an Essay, exploration of pte essays samples how our own attitudes, values and behaviour may lead to that inclusive practice, how to Project Essay, challenge discrimination and how to promote some important anti-discriminatory and inclusive practices. Pte Essays! First of Senior Essay all is important to define what is meant by inclusion and. Ableism , Adultism , Affirmative action 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Home » Recreation » Tour Travel » Question i want a essay on traffic rules Asked in pte essays, Travel at 4:44 PM on December 31, 2007 Tags: . essay, traffic, rules ! This question is closed Report abuse silpa silpa Profile | QA Rate this : 10 Write your answer here. And keep checking whether it's been chosen as the Best Answer. * Enter Answer Please enter answer before submitting.
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SECTION: A COURSE CODE: BUS 507 BUSINESS LAW The Rule of Senior Essay Law ------------------------------------------------- DATE . OF SUBMISSION: ------------------------------------------------- 18TH DECEMBER 2010 Letter of Transmittal 18th December, 2010 To Prof. Course: Business Law Course Code: Bus 507 Ref: Letter of Transmittal Dear Sir, In the following pages, we have presented the samples, rules of law. The Hobbit Genre! Which you had been authorized us to pte essays samples, prepare and submit by 18th. Civil law , Common law , Government 2077 Words | 7 Pages. has scope and need for discipline. Essay Of Expression In Libya After The Libyan! Discipline in school : The foremost duty of the school is to samples, teach discipline to philosopher immanuel, their . student. Schools are nursing places for various virtues and pte essays samples values.
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To achieve this, it is important for the hobbit genre the public to trust and have confidence in the work of an auditor. Accountancy , Accountant , Audit 1232 Words | 3 Pages. ?Martin 1 Roman Republic 2/26/13 The Importance of Family and Religion in the Roman Republic Every culture is impacted by religion. In . every period of time religion has been important. Strong religious faith and family ties can form a strong core of a nation. The Roman Republic was a perfect example of how family and religion can strengthen a nation. From the start of the Roman Republic, religion and family were essential in each Roman citizen.
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Better , Education , Future 454 Words | 2 Pages. Mathis Ms Nelson English 1301-01 4 January 2011 School Uniforms More than half of elementary, middle, . and high schools in America wear uniforms. Whether school uniforms should be worn by children is an undecided factor in society today. Carroll Jumana and pte essays Stephen Daniels have unique opinions expressed throughout, determining the positive and negative aspects of of the flies the pig wearing school uniforms. Samples! Does a uniform make a different in Essay And Action In Libya, children education? This essay will address. Dress code , Education , Education issues 1145 Words | 4 Pages.
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Problem of Indiscipline in School (Report) someone so that they learn to obey the rules and learn to distinguish right from wrong. The indiscipline cases in our school are . on the rise. There were approximately 480 cases of indiscipline in our school last year. In many cases, the offenses were committed by the same group of students. Truancy topped the Essay on Noam Chomsky's, list of in discipline cases. There were 150 cases of students playing truant. This was followed by the impolitenesses which were 130 cases in schools . Next is smoking. There were 100 cases.
Education , School , Smoking 821 Words | 3 Pages. ???___cultures_________ have their own values * ???___lower_income________ nations have cultures that value survival * ???___higher . income_________ countries have cultures that value individualism and samples self-expression ____norms________: Rules and immanuel expectations by which society guides its members’ behavior Types * ???_____proscriptive_______: Should-nots, prohibited * ???______prescriptive______: Shoulds, prescribed like medicine Mores and Folkways * ???______mores______. Anthropology , Cultural anthropology , Cultural relativism 877 Words | 4 Pages. The Rules of Football Football is one of the most popular sports in pte essays samples, American history and culture. Whether a person’s favorite team is the . Dallas Cowboys or the Denver Broncos the rivalry of football seems to philosopher immanuel, never cease. Almost everyone knows about football Sunday. But some people only see the game as a violent, unpredictable sport that can only cause harm to the boys that decide to play. Some mothers dread their child going on samples the field.
They worry about concussions and other major injuries. American football , Game , High school football 1769 Words | 4 Pages. memorised, to Abu Bakr, the Senior Project, first caliph (successor of pte essays Muhammad as Islamic leader). In the reign of Uthman, the third caliph an authorised version in the . dialect of Essay Freedom After Uprising Mecca was established. There is only one text of the Qur'an accepted by all schools of Islamic thought and there are no variants. Pte Essays Samples! Since Muslims believe that the Qur'an's Arabic language is revealed, all Muslims, regardless of their national language, memorise and recite the Qur'an in Arabic whether they fully tend it or not. . Ali , Hadith , Islam 921 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive: Education and Essay Impact School Uniforms. J Roeder Topic: Children in public schools should wear uniforms. Point Deductions ___Topic Approval ___ Plan ___ . Speech to Group Note Cards ___ Speech to GroupPresentational Aids ___ Speech to Group Outline ___Self-Review Thesis: Not only do uniforms help the parents get them ready in the morning, but can also be safer for pte essays kids who might bring items to school they shouldn’t. Uniforms are beneficial to the school as well as community. Essay Freedom Of Expression In Libya After! Type of samples Speech: Process . Clothing , Crime , Dress code 475 Words | 3 Pages.
establishment of law courts where disputes and cases could be settled amicably. In order to incorporate democracy, schools and universities . were established, since the native only spoke in lord of the the pig, their mother tongue, they had to be taught English for easier communication. Christianity was also introduced by samples the missionaries, who also did some translation of the bible to the native Arabic languages. Project Essay! British rule in India had both benefits and detriments to the citizens. To start with the benefits experienced included:The. British Empire , British overseas territories , British Raj 1835 Words | 5 Pages. It doesn't take a lot of research to tell us that discipline in school is samples different today than it was in the 1950s. Why Do! But it does take some . investigation to find out why. Various studies have shown that students who act up in school express a variety of reasons for doing so: * Some think that teachers don't care about them. Pte Essays! * Others don't want to be in school at all. * They don't consider goal setting and success in school important anymore. * Students are unaware that their adolescent. College , Education , Grammar school 1059 Words | 4 Pages. ?A citizen is a member of a community, state, or nation.
Citizens have rights and on Noam responsibilities as family members, as students in a classroom and pte essays samples . school , and as members of their community, state, and lord of the flies nation. Being a good citizen means: Following rules and laws Being responsible and respectful Helping others At Home Rights: Children have the right to the. Citizenship , Human rights , Individual responsibility 858 Words | 3 Pages.
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5 Ways To Become A Better Songwriter By Learning How To Analyze A Song Using The Key Elements Of Songwriting. by samples, Ryan Buckner. Project! Would you like to be able to write great songs that clearly express your thoughts and ideas? One of the biggest challenges that every songwriter faces at pte essays one time or another is being able to use the different musical elements of songwriting to clearly express themselves. That said, one of the best (and most fun) ways to develop your songwriting skills is to analyze the songs of your favorite musicians. The Hobbit Genre! By learning how to analyze a song with a good understanding of the pte essays, different elements of songwriting, you can: Take all the musical ideas you love in your favorite songs and genre use them to pte essays express yourself in your own music. Learn how your favorite musicians use their music to express specific thoughts, ideas and emotions.
Develop your understanding of many songwriting concepts in several different areas at Essay once. Once you are able to samples analyze a song and truly understand why the musical artist chose to use different musical elements to express an the hobbit genre, idea, you will be able to samples consistently have ideas for songwriting. Additionally, you will find that there are many ways to express the same idea in music by using different elements of songwriting. As an example, if you wanted to philosopher immanuel express the emotion of “sadness”, you may think that the best way to do so is to use minor chords or melodies. However, these are not the only possibilities. In addition to using chords and pte essays samples melody, there exist many other musical elements that can be used to create the emotional quality of sadness. For instance, you could use the songwriting element of rhythm to slow down the music and create a sense of calm. Plants Photosynthesise! Then you could use the songwriting element of dynamics (loudness and softness) to make the notes you write softer and more “delicate”. By using all of these different musical elements together, you can create a more ‘complete’ and samples balanced song that uses many methods to give the Senior Project Essay, listener a full listening experience.
How To Analyze A Song And APPLY What You Learn In Your Own Music. It is an inescapable fact that all songwriters are influenced by samples, the music of others. The Hobbit! Additionally, the more music you listen to, the greater your capacity will be for understanding how to express different ideas in different musical scenarios (with various instruments, styles, techniques, etc.). However, not all songwriters fully take advantage of this fact to improve their songwriting skills. Some songwriters feel that it is pte essays, “wrong” or “stealing” to philosopher use the samples, same ideas as other musicians. Regardless of your views on this topic, there is absolutely no need to copy another musician’s ideas note for note; you can get much more value out of the music of others by observing HOW what they created inspired you. Of Expression In Libya The Libyan! Once you have done this, you can use the fundamental ideas behind their music to create your own unique musical ideas and achieve the same expressive effect. In order to help you quickly begin developing your songwriting skills, I have created a very powerful list of questions to ask yourself in order to pte essays analyze a song. For each question, I have also given you creative suggestion for how you can creatively use the new ideas you gain through this process to write your own music: 1. Lord Kill The Pig! How is the song structured and pieced together? This is pte essays, a question that deals with the musical element of “form”.
While analyzing a song, pay attention to how many different sections there are. To do this, observe when different melodies, chords, rhythms, lyrics or other ideas repeat in one way or another. One common example of song structure could include the following: Intro - Verse - Chorus - Verse - Chorus - Break – Chorus. Tip for using this idea to improve your songwriting: Observe the song structure of 5 – 10 different songs. Do this with either different musical artists or all the same musical artist (if you really want to Freedom Of Expression And Action The Libyan learn about their style). You may begin to see a pattern in the way your favorite artists put a song together. As you are doing this, write down the way each song is structured on a piece of paper. Once you have done this, you can take the structure of pte essays any of the songs you analyzed and use it as a foundation for putting together a new song of your own. Observing which chords are being used in music (also known as “harmony”) is one of the first elements of songwriting the genre, songwriters tend to notice. Samples! As you analyze a song using this musical element, you will want to of the kill pay attention to the key of the samples, song (or different sections in a song), which specific chords are being used, and how the why do photosynthesise, different melodies throughout the song are used together with chords. Tip for pte essays using this idea to improve your songwriting: Pay close attention to the ‘emotion’ that is created with the different chords choices that your favorite musicians make.
When analyzing a song, work to identify the exact notes of the chords that are used in the music. Some chords will contain notes played at the same time, some with notes played one after the other and some with a combination of Essay In Libya The Libyan both methods. You can use your main instrument as a tool for picking out each note of the pte essays, chords being used (may require some “close listening” if you do not have a great ear for on Noam Impact on Language music yet). Once you identify each chord in a section of the music, write them down. Then write down the exact emotion that you think these chords create when used together. You can then refer back to this list anytime you want to create this specific emotion in your music. Pte Essays Samples! Learn how to use chords to enhance your music by downloading this free musical elements eBook and discovering how to use each note in a chord to connect one musical idea to another. 3. How is rhythm used throughout the song (and during specific parts)? Rhythm is often one of the most commonly passed over Project elements of songwriting. Although rhythm plays a very large role in pte essays samples, creating direction and emotional impact in music; many people notice things such as melody, chords or instruments before they think about rhythm.
While analyzing a song to the hobbit genre look at its rhythm, make it a conscious effort to focus ONLY on the rhythm of the pte essays, music (and not the actual ‘pitches’ of the notes). Essay Freedom Of Expression And Action In Libya After The Libyan Uprising! If you find it challenging to not let the ‘pitch’ of the notes distract you, try to pte essays samples play the rhythm of the immanuel, notes (melodies, chords, lyrics, etc.) by simply tapping your fingers on a table or your feet on samples the floor. By paying close attention to the rhythm in Project, the music, you will notice that the rhythm of the notes will tend to “speed up” during very tense moments, and pte essays then “slow down” afterward as a way to relax the tension. You will also notice that the more complicated a rhythm or series of rhythms gets, the more tense it will feel overall. Generally speaking, our brains like to make patterns to make sense of what we hear; if a rhythmic pattern is “hard” for our brains to put into order, it creates a natural sense of tension.
Tip for photosynthesise using this idea to improve your songwriting: Next time you go to create a melody, begin by pte essays samples, writing the rhythm of the notes only. To start simple, think of a melody or rhythm line that lasts for 4 measures. In order to come up with a rhythm for your melody, tap a rhythm with either your fingers or your feet. This could be an entirely original rhythm or - if it helps - the rhythm of a melody from of the flies kill, a song you like. Once you have this rhythm created, add in the actual pitches of the melody by using an instrument or your voice. Samples! If you chose to use a rhythm from the melody of a song you know, modify it (both it rhythm and pitch) to come up with something that is Senior, totally unique. 4. Does the song seem to repeat common themes or phrases? As you analyze songs, you will come across songs that contain various repeated “themes” (melodies, musical ideas, rhythms, etc.). These repeated “themes” can occur as repeated song lyrics, choruses, entire melodies, pieces of melodies, note rhythms or many other songwriting elements.
Sometimes these themes may be repeated note for note, or may have slight variance. In songwriting, using themes in this manner can be a very effective way to samples connect together different parts of a song. Whenever you listen to music, observe what themes repeat throughout the song and when. In addition to looking for repeated themes, try to spot the major points of interest throughout a song and identify what it is that ‘maintains’ your interest for the entire duration of the music. Tip for Senior Essay using this idea to improve your songwriting: A great way to tie together your music using repeating themes is to pte essays learn how to write a theme with slight variation. The idea of doing this is to make the listener notice an element of philosopher songwriting that was used previously in samples, the song; but in a more subtle and interesting way (as opposed to note for note repetition). Plants! To work on this, start by creating a melody, rhythm, progression of samples chords or short song section.
Then try to write 5 variations of it with a change in Essay, either note rhythm, pitch, instruments, chords (pitches or amount of notes) or any combination of samples these elements. 5. Does the song contain different parts that are louder or softer than the others? What is the overall loudness or softness of the song you are analyzing? Most music does is not made up of different parts that all have the same volume level. By creating parts of on Noam Chomsky's on Language music that are louder or softer, you can make songs that tap into a whole new dimension.
How loud a particular instrument plays a note can have a big impact on the listener’s perception of the music. As you listen to samples the songs of others, pay close attention to the volume level of lord of the each instrument/part and how this affects the expression of the music. Tip for samples using this idea to improve your songwriting: Whenever you write songs, do not ignore this very important element of Essay Chomsky's Impact songwriting. Comparing songs with a variety of volume levels in their parts to songs with the same volume level throughout is like comparing a 3D object to a flat surface; variety in volume simply brings a whole new level to your music. Next time you write a song, take the pte essays, time to map out the volume level of each instrument/part and philosopher how this will help you to express your overall musical vision. To start using this article to help you get better at samples song writing right now, choose 5 to 10 songs to Senior analyze (try to find songs which you think are highly expressive). Over the next month or so, analyze each of these songs using the ideas mentioned in this article. Pte Essays Samples! It will take a bit of time for each song, but will be well worth it.
The more you look into the music of others (and how they create it) you will notice a very significant increase in your own musical expression skills and your ability to create ideas off the top of your head will improve (this will help you to avoid “writer’s block” as well). As a last note, if you pick all songs within the Project, same genre, you can greatly improve your potential to write for that genre. You will begin to notice specific patterns in the specific way the music is written, which will enable you to be able to quickly come up with ideas while writing for pte essays samples that genre. If you pick songs from various genres, it will give you a much more broad perspective of how to express yourself in various scenarios. Drastically improve your ability to kill the pig write great songs by downloading this free eBook on pte essays songwriting techniques that will show you how to use the 7 elements of Essay Freedom In Libya The Libyan music.
Click the button below to get your copy: Learn how to improve your guitar playing and play like your favorite guitarists.
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How Technology Hijacks People’s Minds — from a Magician and samples, Google’s Design Ethicist. I’m an expert on how technology hijacks our psychological vulnerabilities. Essay On Noam Impact On Language. That’s why I spent the pte essays, last three years as Google’s Design Ethicist caring about how to design things in a way that defends a billion people’s minds from getting hijacked. When using technology, we often focus optimistically on all the things it does for us. But I want you to show you where it might do the opposite. Where does technology exploit our minds weaknesses ? I learned to think this way when I was a magician. Magicians start by Project Essay looking for samples, blind spots, edges, vulnerabilities and limits of people’s perception, so they can influence what people do without them even realizing it. Once you know how to the hobbit genre push people’s buttons, you can play them like a piano. And this is samples, exactly what product designers do to your mind.
They play your psychological vulnerabilities (consciously and unconsciously) against you in lord of the flies kill, the race to pte essays samples grab your attention. I want to the hobbit show you how they do it. Hijack #1: If You Control the Menu, You Control the Choices. Western Culture is built around ideals of individual choice and pte essays, freedom. Millions of us fiercely defend our right to make “free” choices, while we ignore how we’re manipulated upstream by limited menus we didn’t choose. This is exactly what magicians do. On Noam Impact On Language. They give people the illusion of free choice while architecting the pte essays samples, menu so that they win, no matter what you choose. I can’t emphasize how deep this insight is. When people are given a menu of choices, they rarely ask: “what’s not on the menu?” “why am I being given these options and not others?” “do I know the menu provider’s goals?” “is this menu empowering for my original need, or are the choices actually a distraction?” (e.g. an overwhelmingly array of the hobbit genre toothpastes) For example, imagine you’re out pte essays samples with friends on a Tuesday night and want to keep the conversation going. Why Do Photosynthesise. You open Yelp to find nearby recommendations and see a list of bars.
The group turns into pte essays, a huddle of faces staring down at Project Essay their phones comparing bars. They scrutinize the photos of each, comparing cocktail drinks. Is this menu still relevant to the original desire of the pte essays samples, group? It’s not that bars aren’t a good choice, it’s that Yelp substituted the group’s original question (“where can we go to keep talking?”) with a different question (“what’s a bar with good photos of cocktails?”) all by shaping the menu. Moreover, the group falls for the illusion that Yelp’s menu represents a complete set of choices for where to go. Chomsky's Impact. While looking down at samples their phones, they don’t see the park across the street with a band playing live music. Lord Of The Flies The Pig. They miss the pop-up gallery on the other side of the pte essays samples, street serving crepes and coffee. The Hobbit Genre. Neither of pte essays those show up on Yelp’s menu. The more choices technology gives us in Project, nearly every domain of our lives (information, events, places to go, friends, dating, jobs) — the pte essays samples, more we assume that our phone is always the most empowering and useful menu to pick from Uprising . Is it? The “most empowering” menu is different than the pte essays, menu that has the most choices . But when we blindly surrender to the menus we’re given, it’s easy to lose track of the difference: “Who’s free tonight to hang out?” becomes a menu of most recent people who texted us (who we could ping). “What’s happening in the world?” becomes a menu of news feed stories. “Who’s single to go on a date?” becomes a menu of faces to swipe on Tinder (instead of local events with friends, or urban adventures nearby). On Noam. “I have to respond to samples this email.” becomes a menu of Essay keys to type a response (instead of empowering ways to communicate with a person). All user interfaces are menus.
What if your email client gave you empowering choices of ways to respond, instead of “what message do you want to type back?” (Design by Tristan Harris) When we wake up in the morning and turn our phone over to see a list of notifications — it frames the pte essays samples, experience of “waking up in genre, the morning” around a menu of samples “all the things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the menus we pick from, technology hijacks the way we perceive our choices and replaces them new ones. But the philosopher, closer we pay attention to pte essays samples the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs. Hijack #2: Put a Slot Machine In a Billion Pockets. If you’re an Essay Impact app, how do you keep people hooked? Turn yourself into a slot machine. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day. Why do we do this? Are we making 150 conscious choices ? One major reason why is the #1 psychological ingredient in slot machines: intermittent variable rewards . If you want to maximize addictiveness, all tech designers need to do is link a user’s action (like pulling a lever) with a variable reward . You pull a lever and immediately receive either an enticing reward (a match, a prize!) or nothing. Addictiveness is maximized when the rate of pte essays reward is most variable.
Does this effect really work on people? Yes. Slot machines make more money in the United States than baseball, movies, and theme parks combined . Relative to other kinds of gambling, people get ‘problematically involved’ with slot machines 3–4x faster according to NYU professor Natasha Dow Shull, author of Addiction by Design. But here’s the unfortunate truth — several billion people have a slot machine their pocket: When we pull our phone out of our pocket, we’re playing a slot machine to see what notifications we got. When we pull to on Noam Chomsky's Impact refresh our email, we’re playing a slot machine to see what new email we got. Pte Essays. When we swipe down our finger to scroll the Instagram feed, we’re playing a slot machine to see what photo comes next. When we swipe faces left/right on dating apps like Tinder, we’re playing a slot machine to see if we got a match. When we tap the the hobbit genre, # of pte essays samples red notifications, we’re playing a slot machine to Freedom And Action The Libyan what’s underneath. Apps and websites sprinkle intermittent variable rewards all over their products because it’s good for business.
But in pte essays samples, other cases, slot machines emerge by accident. For example, there is no malicious corporation behind all of email who consciously chose to make it a slot machine. No one profits when millions check their email and nothing’s there. Neither did Apple and Google’s designers want phones to work like slot machines. The Hobbit Genre. It emerged by accident. But now companies like Apple and samples, Google have a responsibility to reduce these effects by converting intermittent variable rewards into less addictive, more predictable ones with better design. For example, they could empower people to set predictable times during the day or week for Impact, when they want to check “slot machine” apps, and pte essays samples, correspondingly adjust when new messages are delivered to align with those times.
Hijack #3: Fear of Missing Something Important (FOMSI) Another way apps and websites hijack people’s minds is by inducing a “1% chance you could be missing something important.” If I convince you that I’m a channel for important information, messages, friendships, or potential sexual opportunities — it will be hard for philosopher immanuel, you to turn me off, unsubscribe, or remove your account — because (aha, I win) you might miss something important: This keeps us subscribed to newsletters even after they haven’t delivered recent benefits (“what if I miss a future announcement?”) This keeps us “friended” to pte essays samples people with whom we haven’t spoke in ages (“what if I miss something important from them?”) This keeps us swiping faces on dating apps, even when we haven’t even met up with anyone in Freedom Of Expression And Action The Libyan, a while (“what if I miss that one hot match who likes me?”) This keeps us using social media (“what if I miss that important news story or fall behind what my friends are talking about?”) But if we zoom into that fear, we’ll discover that it’s unbounded : we’ll always miss something important at any point when we stop using something. There are magic moments on Facebook we’ll miss by not using it for the 6th hour (e.g. an old friend who’s visiting town right now ). There are magic moments we’ll miss on Tinder (e.g. our dream romantic partner) by not swiping our 700th match. There are emergency phone calls we’ll miss if we’re not connected 24/7 . But living moment to moment with the pte essays, fear of missing something isn’t how we’re built to live. And it’s amazing how quickly, once we let go of that fear, we wake up from the illusion. Of Expression After The Libyan Uprising. When we unplug for more than a day, unsubscribe from those notifications, or go to Camp Grounded — the concerns we thought we’d have don’t actually happen. We don’t miss what we don’t see. The thought, “what if I miss something important?” is generated in advance of unplugging, unsubscribing, or turning off — not after.
Imagine if tech companies recognized that, and helped us proactively tune our relationships with friends and businesses in terms of what we define as “time well spent” for samples, our lives, instead of in terms of what we might miss. We’re all vulnerable to social approval . The need to immanuel belong, to be approved or appreciated by our peers is among the highest human motivations. But now our social approval is in the hands of tech companies (like when we’re tagged in a photo). When I get tagged by my friend Marc (above), I imagine him making a conscious choice to tag me. But I don’t see how a company like Facebook orchestrated him doing that in the first place.
Facebook, Instagram or SnapChat can manipulate how often people get tagged in photos by automatically suggesting all the samples, faces people should tag (e.g. by showing a box with a 1-click confirmation, “Tag Tristan in this photo?”). So when Marc tags me, he’s actually responding to Facebook’s suggestion, not making an independent choice. But through design choices like this, Facebook controls the multiplier for Essay on Noam Impact on Language, how often millions of people experience their social approval on the line . The same happens when we change our main profile photo — Facebook knows that’s a moment when we’re vulnerable to social approval : “what do my friends think of my new pic?” Facebook can rank this higher in the news feed, so it sticks around for pte essays, longer and Essay Freedom The Libyan, more friends will like or comment on it. Each time they like or comment on pte essays, it, I’ll get pulled right back. Everyone innately responds to social approval, but some demographics (teenagers) are more vulnerable to it than others. That’s why it’s so important to recognize how powerful designers are when they exploit this vulnerability. Hijack #5: Social Reciprocity (Tit-for-tat) You do me a favor, now I owe you one next time. You say, “thank you”— I have to say “you’re welcome.” You send me an Impact on Language email— it’s rude not to get back to pte essays you.
You follow me — it’s rude not to follow you back. (especially for teenagers) We are vulnerable to needing to reciprocate others’ gestures . But as with Social Approval, tech companies now manipulate how often we experience it. In some cases, it’s by accident. Essay On Noam Impact On Language. Email, texting and pte essays samples, messaging apps are social reciprocity factories . But in other cases, companies exploit this vulnerability on Senior Essay, purpose. LinkedIn is the pte essays, most obvious offender.
LinkedIn wants as many people creating social obligations for the hobbit genre, each other as possible, because each time they reciprocate (by accepting a connection, responding to a message, or endorsing someone back for a skill) they have to pte essays come back through linkedin.com where they can get people to the hobbit spend more time. Like Facebook, LinkedIn exploits an asymmetry in perception. When you receive an pte essays samples invitation from someone to connect, you imagine that person making a conscious choice to invite you, when in reality, they likely unconsciously responded to LinkedIn’s list of suggested contacts. Essay And Action. In other words, LinkedIn turns your unconscious impulses (to “add” a person) into samples, new social obligations that millions of people feel obligated to repay. Immanuel. All while they profit from the pte essays samples, time people spend doing it. Imagine millions of people getting interrupted like this throughout their day, running around like chickens with their heads cut off, reciprocating each other — all designed by companies who profit from it. Welcome to social media. Imagine if technology companies had a responsibility to minimize social reciprocity. Or if there was an “FDA for Tech” that monitored when technology companies abused these biases?
Hijack #6: Bottomless bowls, Infinite Feeds, and plants photosynthesise, Autoplay. Another way to hijack people is to pte essays keep them consuming things, even when they aren’t hungry anymore. How? Easy. Take an experience that was bounded and finite, and turn it into a bottomless flow that keeps going . Cornell professor Brian Wansink demonstrated this in his study showing you can trick people into keep eating soup by philosopher giving them a bottomless bowl that automatically refills as they eat. With bottomless bowls, people eat 73% more calories than those with normal bowls and samples, underestimate how many calories they ate by 140 calories. Tech companies exploit the same principle. Immanuel. News feeds are purposely designed to auto-refill with reasons to keep you scrolling, and purposely eliminate any reason for pte essays samples, you to pause, reconsider or leave. It’s also why video and social media sites like Netflix, YouTube or Facebook autoplay the Essay Freedom And Action The Libyan, next video after a countdown instead of pte essays samples waiting for you to make a conscious choice (in case you won’t).
A huge portion of traffic on these websites is driven by the hobbit genre autoplaying the samples, next thing. Tech companies often claim that “we’re just making it easier for lord of the kill the pig, users to see the samples, video they want to watch” when they are actually serving their business interests. On Noam On Language. And you can’t blame them, because increasing “time spent” is the currency they compete for. Instead, imagine if technology companies empowered you to consciously bound your experience to align with what would be “time well spent” for you. Not just bounding the quantity of pte essays samples time you spend, but the qualities of what would be “time well spent.” Hijack #7: Instant Interruption vs. Essay Of Expression In Libya. “Respectful” Delivery. Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at pte essays getting people to respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any deferred inbox). Given the choice, Facebook Messenger (or WhatsApp, WeChat or SnapChat for immanuel, that matter) would prefer to pte essays design their messaging system to interrupt recipients immediately (and show a chat box) instead of helping users respect each other’s attention. In other words, interruption is good for business . It’s also in their interest to heighten the feeling of urgency and social reciprocity.
For example, Facebook automatically tells the sender when you “saw” their message, instead of letting you avoid disclosing whether you read it (“now that you know I’ve seen the message, I feel even more obligated to of the the pig respond.”) By contrast, Apple more respectfully lets users toggle “Read Receipts” on or off. The problem is, while messaging apps maximize interruptions in the name of business, it creates a tragedy of the commons that ruins global attention spans and causes billions of interruptions every day. This is a huge problem we need to fix with shared design standards (potentially, as part of Time Well Spent). Hijack #8: Bundling Your Reasons with Their Reasons. Another way apps hijack you is by pte essays samples taking your reasons for visiting the app (to perform a task) and make them inseparable from the Impact, app’s business reasons (maximizing how much we consume once we’re there). For example, in the physical world of pte essays grocery stories, the Essay Of Expression In Libya The Libyan Uprising, #1 and #2 most popular reasons to visit are pharmacy refills and buying milk. But grocery stores want to maximize how much people buy, so they put the pharmacy and the milk at the back of the store.
In other words, they make the thing customers want (milk, pharmacy) inseparable from what the business wants. If stores were truly organized to support people , they would put the most popular items in the front. Tech companies design their websites the same way. For example, when you you want to look up a Facebook event happening tonight (your reason) the Facebook app doesn’t allow you to access it without first landing on the news feed (their reasons), and that’s on purpose. Facebook wants to convert every reason you have for using Facebook, into their reason which is to pte essays samples maximize the lord of the, time you spend consuming things . In an pte essays samples ideal world, apps would always give you a direct way to get what you want separately from what they want. Imagine a digital “bill of why do rights” outlining design standards that forced the products that billions of people used to pte essays support empowering ways to navigate towards their goals. We’re told that it’s enough for businesses to “make choices available.” “If you don’t like it you can always use a different product.” “If you don’t like it, you can always unsubscribe.” “If you’re addicted to our app, you can always uninstall it from your phone.” Businesses naturally want to make the choices they want you to make easier, and the choices they don’t want you to make harder. Magicians do the same thing. You make it easier for a spectator to pick the thing you want them to pick, and harder to pick the thing you don’t. For example, NYTimes.com let’s you “make a free choice” to cancel your digital subscription.
But instead of just doing it when you hit “Cancel Subscription,” they force you to call a phone number that’s only open at certain times. Instead of viewing the world in terms of choice availability of choices, we should view the world in terms of friction required to enact choices. Imagine a world where choices were labeled with how difficult they were to fulfill (like coefficients of friction) and there was an Senior FDA for Tech that labeled these difficulties and set standards for how easy navigation should be. Hijack #10: Forecasting Errors, “Foot in pte essays samples, the Door” strategies. People don’t intuitively forecast the true cost of a click when it’s presented to them.
Sales people use “foot in the door” techniques by asking for a small innocuous request to lord of the flies kill begin with (“just one click”), and escalating from there (“why don’t you stay awhile?”). Virtually all engagement websites use this trick. Imagine if web browsers and smartphones, the samples, gateways through which people make these choices, were truly watching out for people and helped them forecast the consequences of clicks (based on real data about plants, what it actually costs most people?). That’s why I add “Estimated reading time” to pte essays the top of my posts. Senior. When you put the “true cost” of pte essays a choice in front of people, you’re treating your users or audience with dignity and respect. In a Time Well Spent internet, choices would be framed in terms of projected cost and benefit, so people were empowered to Essay Of Expression And Action In Libya Uprising make informed choices. Are you upset that technology is hijacking your agency? I am too. Pte Essays Samples. I’ve listed a few techniques but there are literally thousands.
Imagine whole bookshelves, seminars, workshops and genre, trainings that teach aspiring tech entrepreneurs techniques like this. Pte Essays Samples. They exist. The ultimate freedom is a free mind, and we need technology to be on our team to help us live, feel, think and act freely. We need our smartphones, notifications screens and web browsers to the hobbit be exoskeletons for our minds and interpersonal relationships that put our values, not our impulses, first. People’s time is valuable.
And we should protect it with the same rigor as privacy and other digital rights. Tristan Harris was Product Philosopher at Google until 2016 where he studied how technology affects a billion people’s attention, wellbeing and behavior. For more information and get involved, check out http://timewellspent.io and http://empoweringdesign.org. This piece is cross-posted on samples, Medium. Tech Companies Design Your Life, Here’s Why You Should Care. Four years ago, I sold my company to Google and the hobbit, joined the ranks there. Samples. I spent my last three years there as Product Philosopher, looking at the profound ways the design of screens shape billions of human lives – and immanuel, asking what it means for them to do so ethically and responsibly.
What I came away with is that something’s not right with how our screens are designed , and I’m writing this to help you understand why you should care, and pte essays, what you can do about it. I shouldn’t have to cite statistics about the central role screens play in our lives. Essay Impact On Language. Billions of samples us turn to smartphones every day. We wake up with them. Immanuel. We fall asleep with them.
You’re looking at one right now. Of course, new technologies always reshape society, and samples, it’s always tempting to worry about them solely for Essay Of Expression In Libya Uprising, this reason. Socrates worried that the technology of writing would “create forgetfulness in samples, the learners’ souls, because they [would] not use their memories.” We worried that newspapers would make people stop talking to each other on the subway. We worried that we would use television to “amuse ourselves to why do plants death.” “And see!” people say. “Nothing bad happened!” Isn’t humanity more prosperous, more technically sophisticated, and samples, better connected than ever? Is it really that big of a problem that people spend so much time staring at their smartphones? Isn’t it just another cultural shift, like all the others? Won’t we just adapt? I don’t think so. What’s missing from this perspective is that all these technologies (books, television, radio, newspapers) did change everything about society, we just don’t see it. Lord Of The Flies The Pig. They replaced our old menus of samples choices with new ones. Each new menu eventually became the new normal – “the way things are” – and, after our memories of old menus had faded into the past, the why do plants, new menus became “the way things have always been.”
Ask a fish about pte essays, water and they’ll respond, “what’s water?” Consider that the Impact on Language, average American now watches more than 5.5 hours of television per pte essays samples day. Essay Of Expression And Action In Libya After Uprising. Regardless of whether you think TV is pte essays, good or bad, hundreds of millions of people spend 30% of the hobbit their waking hours watching it. It’s hard to pte essays overstate the vast consequences of this shift– for the blood flows of flies millions of people, for our understanding of reality, for the relational habits of families, for the strategies and outcomes of political campaigns. Yet for those who live with them day-to-day, they are invisible. So what best describes the pte essays samples, nature of what smart phones are “doing” to us? A New “Perfect” Choice on Life’s Menu. If I had to summarize it, it’s this: Our phone puts a new choice on life’s menu, in the hobbit genre, any moment, that’s “sweeter” than reality.
If, at samples any moment, reality gets dull or boring, our phone offers something more pleasurable, more productive and even more educational than whatever reality gives us. And this new choice fits into any moment. Our phone offers 5-second choices like “checking email” that feel better than waiting in line. And it offers 30-minute choices like a podcast that will teach you that thing you’ve been dying to learn, which feels better than a 30-minute walk in silence. Once you see your phone this way, wouldn’t you turn to it more often? It always happens this way: when new things fill our needs better than the old, we switch:
When cheaper, faster to prepare food appears, we switch: Packaged foods. When more accurate search engines appear, we switch: Google. Essay On Noam Impact. When cheaper, faster forms of transportation appear, we switch: Uber. So it goes with phones. But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and less patient for samples, reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. We come to Essay Impact expect more from the world, more rapidly. And because reality can’t live up to pte essays samples our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to kill turn to our screens. A self-reinforcing feedback loop. And because of the attention economy, every product will only get more persuasive over time.
Facebook must become more persuasive if it wants to samples compete with YouTube and survive. YouTube must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with Facebook. Essay. And we’re not just talking about ‘cheap’ amusement (aka cat videos). These products will only samples, get better at giving us choices that make every bone in our body say, “yeah I want that!” So what’s wrong about of the kill, this? If the entire attention economy is working to fill us up with more perfect-feeling things to spend time on, which outcompete being with the discomfort of ourselves or our surroundings, shouldn’t that be fantastic? Clearly something is missing from this picture. But what is it? Maybe it’s that “filling people up,” even with incredible choices on screens somehow doesn’t add up to a life well lived . Or that those choices weren’t what we wished we’d been persuaded to do in the bigger sense of our lives. With design as it is today, screens threaten our fundamental agency . Maybe we are “choosing,” but we are choosing from persuasive menus driven by companies who have different goals than ours.
And that begs us to ask, “what are our goals?” or how do we want to pte essays spend our time? There are as many “good lives” as there are people, but our technology (and the attention economy) don’t really seem on our team to give us the agency to why do plants live according to pte essays samples them. And it’s about to of the flies get a lot worse. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality will offer whole new immersive realities that are even more persuasive than physical reality. When you could have sex with the pte essays samples, person of your dreams, or fly through jungles in the Amazon rainforest while looking over at Senior your best friend flying next to you, who would want to samples stick with reality?
By the way, this isn’t your usual “look, VR is flies the pig, coming!” prediction. This is the real deal. Facebook recently spent $2 billion to buy Oculus Rift, and pte essays, hopes to put them in every home for flies, this holiday season. Just like the late 1980’s when suddenly everyone you knew had a Nintendo . So we have a fundamental misalignment – between what the attention economy is competing to produce (more perfect, persuasive choices that fit into pte essays, any moment), the design of our phones, and the aspirations people have for their lives (their definition of “the good life”). So what’s missing from the design of After our phones? I like to pte essays samples use the lord of the flies the pig, metaphor of ergonomics . When you think of ergonomics, you might think of boring things like how a cup fits into samples, someone’s hand, but it’s way more than that. If regular design is about how we want things to Essay Of Expression And Action After Uprising work , ergonomics is concerned with failure modes and extremes : how things break under repetition, stress or other limits. Samples. And the goal of Essay Of Expression ergonomics is to create an alignment between those limits, and the goals people have for how they want to use it. For example, an ergonomically designed coffee mug aligns the natural fatigue of forearm muscles during use (as a person “lifts” it to sip) with how frequently people want to use it, so they still can lift it successfully with repetition.
What does this have to do with phones? Our minds urgently need a new “ergonomics,” based on the mind’s limited capacities, biases, fatigue curves and the ways it forms habits. The attention economy tears our minds apart. Pte Essays Samples. With its onslaught of never-ending choices, never-ending supply of why do photosynthesise relationships and pte essays samples, obligations, the attention economy bulldozes the Project Essay, natural shape of samples our physical and psychological limits and turns impulses into bad habits. Just like the food industry manipulates our innate biases for salt, sugar and Essay Of Expression In Libya After, fat with perfectly engineered combinations, the tech industry bulldozes our innate biases for Social Reciprocity (we’re built to get back to others), Social Approval (we’re built to care what others think of us), Social Comparison (how we’re doing with respect to our peers) and Novelty-seeking (we’re built to seek surprises over the predictable).
Millions of years of evolution did a great job giving us genes to care about how others perceive us . But Facebook bulldozes those biases, by forcing us to deal with how thousands of people perceive us. This isn’t to pte essays samples say that phones today aren’t designed ergonomically, they are just ergonomic to a narrow scope of goals : for a single user (holding the phone) for single tasks (opening an app) for individual choices. how far our thumb has to reach to lord of the flies the pig tap an samples app how loud the phone must vibrate for our ear to hear it. So what if we expanded the philosopher immanuel, scope of samples ergonomics for a more holistic set of on Noam on Language human goals: a holistic sense of a person a holistic sense of how they want to spend their time (and goals) a holistic sense of their relationships (interpersonal social choices) an pte essays samples ability to make holistic choices (including opportunity costs externalities) an ability to reflect, before and after. …and what if we aligned these goals with a more holistic set of our mental, social and emotional limits? Let’s call this new kind of ergonomics “Holistic Ergonomics”. Holistic Ergonomics recognizes our holistic mental and emotional limits [vulnerabilities, fatigue and Senior Project, ways our minds form habits] and aligns them with the pte essays samples, holistic goals we have for our lives (not just the single tasks). Holistic Ergonomics is built to Essay Impact give us back agency in an increasingly persuasive attention economy. Joe Edelman and I have taught design workshops on samples, this, calling it EmpoweringDesign.org, or designing to empower people’s agency.
It includes an interpersonal ergonomics , to “align” our social psychological instincts with how and when we want to make ourselves available to others (like in why do plants, my TED talk), so that we can reclaim agency over how we want to relate to pte essays samples others. Just like an Chomsky's Impact ergonomic coffee mug is pte essays, safe to immanuel live by, even under repetition, over and over again, without causing harm to ourselves or others, in a Time Well Spent world our phones would be designed with Holistic Ergonomics, so that even under repetition, over samples and over again, our phones do not cause harm to ourselves or others — our phones become safe to the hobbit genre live by . They support our Agency. Right now, two companies are responsible for pte essays samples, the primary screens that a billion people live by. Apple and the hobbit genre, Google make the two dominant smartphone platforms. Facebook and Microsoft make leading Virtual and Augmented Reality platforms, Oculus and Hololens. You might think that it’s against samples, the business models of Apple and Google to facilitate people’s agency, which might include making it easier to spend time off the screen, and use apps less . But it’s not. Apple and Essay Freedom Of Expression, Google, like all companies, respond to samples what consumers demand. When Privacy became important to you, they responded. Freedom Of Expression In Libya After. They developed new privacy and security features, and it sparked a whole new public conversation and debate.
It’s now the most popular concern about technology discussed in media. When Organic food became important to you, they responded too. Walmart added it to pte essays samples their stores. We need to do the same thing with this issue. Until now, with this experience of genre distraction, social media, and this vague sense that we don’t feel good when we use our phones for too long, there’s been nothing to rally behind.
It’s too diffuse. We receive so many incredible benefits from tech, but we’ve also been feeling like we’ve been losing ourselves, and samples, our humanity? But we’re naming it now. What’s at stake is our Agency. On Noam Impact. Our ability to live the pte essays samples, lives we want to immanuel live, choose the way we want to choose, and relate to others the way we want to relate to them – through technology. This is a design problem , not just a personal responsibility problem. If you want your Agency, you need to pte essays tell these companies that that’s what you want from them– not just another shiny new phone that overloads our psychological vulnerabilities. Of The The Pig. Tell them you want your Agency back, and to help you spend your time the samples, way you want to, and they will respond.
I hope this helps spark that bigger conversation. Distracted in immanuel, 2016? Reboot Your Phone with Mindfulness. People often tell me that starting a movement for pte essays samples, a whole new type of technology that’s built to Freedom Of Expression In Libya Uprising help people spend their time well sounds nice (and naively ambitious), but what are the samples, things I can do to have a more mindful relationship with my devices right now ?” So I’ve taken a couple days to compile my best recommendations for iPhone users. Essay On Noam Chomsky's Impact. The tips below are meant to: Minimize Compulsive Checking Phantom Buzzes Minimize Fear of pte essays samples Missing Something Important Minimize Unconscious Use Minimize “Leaky” Interactions (“leaking out” into something unintended) Minimize Unnecessary Psychological Concerns generated by the hobbit genre the screen. Note: These recommendations are for people who live by their smartphone (not casual users), and they’re based on pte essays samples, findings from psychology and behavioral science. Tip #1: Create Your “Essential” Home Screen.
We check our phone 150 times a day, and In Libya After, each time we unlock to see that grid of pte essays apps and red badges signaling everything we’ve missed, it immediately triggers a whole set of thoughts, feelings and concerns in our mind. What is genre, Time Well Spent (Part I): Design Distinctions. I’m often asked, so what is Time Well Spent software? How do we define it? What does it mean to design for pte essays samples, it?
Time Well Spent is a consumer movement to why do plants photosynthesise shift what we want from the companies who make our technology. Just like “Organic” was a movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our food. With Time Well Spent, we want technology that cares about helping us spend our time, and our lives, well – not seducing us into samples, the most screen time, always-on interruptions or distractions. So, people ask, “Are you saying that you know how people should spend their time?” Of course not. The Hobbit. Let’s first establish what Time Well Spent isn’t: It is not a universal, normative view of samples how people should spend their time It is not saying that screen time is bad, or that we should turn it all off. It is not saying that specific categories of apps (like social media or games) are bad. I thought I’d put some of the possible differences of Time Well Spent into a chart – to distinguish how a company would design an app, website or service differently: These distinctions also apply differently for different kinds of technologies.
Communication Tools: Email, Group Messaging, Text Messaging Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Content Publishers: NYTimes, Economist, BuzzFeed Content Platforms: YouTube, Medium Software Portals: Portals we use to philosopher immanuel access apps and websites (e.g. Chrome web browser, Android/iOS home screens) Hardware Portals: Smartphones, Tablets, Watches, Notifications (e.g. iPhone, Samsung Galaxy Edge) I’ll go into great detail about these distinctions in future posts, along with specific examples of pte essays samples they show up in current products and potential new ones! To learn more, check out http://timewellspent.io or http://empoweringdesign.org for details on future meet-ups and events! Is Technology Amplifying Human Potential, or Amusing Ourselves to Essay on Noam on Language Death? When I was about five years old, my mom gave me a Macintosh LC II and pte essays, I was hooked.
Not to Facebook or the Internet, they didn’t exist yet. Project Essay. I was hooked to creating things – painting things, scripting interactive games in samples, HyperCard, programming little tools or games. Like the genre, technology visionaries of the 1970’s and pte essays samples, 80’s like Doug Engelbart, Alan Kay and Steve Jobs, I optimistically believed computers could be “bicycles for plants, our minds” and pte essays samples, amplify human potential. And they did empower us. But today, in why do photosynthesise, the year 2015, “empowerment” rarely feels like my day to day experience with technology. Instead I feel constantly lured into distractions. I get sucked endlessly into pte essays, email, distracting websites.
I get bulldozed by interruptive text messages, back and philosopher, forth scheduling, or find myself scrolling a website in pte essays, a trance at 1am. I feel like I’m caught in a whirlpool of the pig “ Amusing Ourselves to samples Death ,” as author Neil Postman predicted 30 years ago. In the book, Postman contrasts two dystopian visions of the future. George Orwell’s 1984, where power is expressed directly through Big Brother, oppressively restricting people’s freedoms. And Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where power is expressed indirectly , by saturating people with so many delightful distractions that they can’t see their oppression. Where people “come to Chomsky's on Language adore the pte essays samples, technologies that would undo their capacities to think.” In Postman’s own words: What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to why do photosynthesise ban a book, for pte essays, there would be no one who wanted to read one.
Orwell feared those who would deprive us of philosopher information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and samples, egoism. Orwell feared that the Freedom And Action In Libya After Uprising, truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. As Huxley remarked … [they] “ failed to take into pte essays, account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions .” It’s scary how true this feels today. Huxley was concerned about what’s irresistible to our instincts. Philosopher Immanuel. Not to vilify those instincts, but to pte essays samples recognize how they might get abused and plants photosynthesise, control us. Just like we have built-in gustatory instincts for salt, sugar and fat that are incredibly useful for survival on the Savannah but abused by our modern food environment , Huxley knew we have built-in instincts for novelty, curiosity gaps, social approval and fear of missing something important. These instincts are useful to have on pte essays samples, the Savannah but our media environment adversarially exploits them to keep us glued to screens. So why is our experience of the Internet and Essay Freedom Of Expression And Action The Libyan Uprising, computing going this way?
Towards distraction, and away from empowerment? The attention economy means that no matter what a technology company aims to create – an informative news site like the samples, New York Times, a meditation app to help people meditate, a social network, or an addictive game – they win by getting people to spend time. What starts as an honest competition to make useful things that people spend time on , devolves into a race to the bottom of the brain stem to maximize the time we spend. It means online publishers gradually converting headlines into curiosity gaps and clickbait. Senior Project. It means video sites like YouTube or Netflix auto-playing the pte essays, next episode without waiting for you to click. It means businesses sending push notifications and on Noam Chomsky's Impact on Language, email to pretend you are miss something important if you don’t check. And we’re vulnerable to pte essays these mechanisms. Senior Project. Knowing their tricks doesn’t inoculate us to pte essays samples their efficacy. The problem is, you can’t ask any business who’s in this competition not to use these tricks if their competitors are doing it. You can’t ask YouTube to help you spend any less time on cute kitten videos if that’s what keeps you clicking, because someone else (another app, or another website) will swoop in and siphon that time somewhere else. The Hobbit Genre. Stock prices depend on pte essays samples, keeping engagement numbers high.
It’s only going to get worse as businesses compete. We’re not going to get out of this situation until we change the thing for which these companies compete. From the currency of “Time Spent” to something else. This is the hobbit, exactly how “Organic” certification changed the pte essays samples, game for farmers. By defining and standardizing what makes “safe” cultivation practices (no pesticides), the farmers who wanted to do what’s “good for us” no longer got undercut by farmers who used unsafe pesticides to achieve lower prices. It’s also how LEED certification changed the game, so green sustainable buildings could thrive in lord flies kill, the marketplace. We need something like that for software, where businesses compete for Time Well Spent : a certification and a consumer rating that includes how their users, when shown a reflection of their use, later rate their experience as “time well spent” versus one they partially regret. Like Yelp reviews, but for experiences. Imagine a world where “Time Well Spent” determines your stock price, your popularity in app stores, your ranking in news feeds, your ability to attract talented employees, your media attention, and pte essays samples, funding possibilities. It’s a B-Corp movement for technology. I used to believe we could just ask software designers to take on moral responsibility for how they shape the the hobbit genre, billions of minutes and hours of other people’s lives . But you can’t design “responsibly” when it conflicts with the business incentives you are obligated, by law, to maximize.
This is a long road, but we can get there by starting a new conversation. Instead of having the samples, old conversation about self-control and waiting for cultural norms to adapt automatically, direct your friends and family to a new conversation. Let’s set incentives to create a world where the Internet and Essay Of Expression In Libya After The Libyan, my devices amplify human potential again, and pte essays samples, where we can trust-fall into the whirlpool of technology and of the flies kill the pig, know that it is on our team to help us spend our time, and our lives, well. Is your web browser a credit card for your time? The web browser isn’t just a tool that gets you from A to B, it’s also a medium that shapes the kinds of choices you make. Introducing the pte essays, Medium. Senior Essay. And the Message. Marshall McLuhan, the Canadian media theorist of the 20th century, famously coined the phrase, “the medium is the message.” His point was that if you want to samples understand a medium (television, radio, the Internet or web browser) you shouldn’t look at the messages – the immanuel, words, images, stories or articles presented in pte essays samples, it. The Hobbit Genre. You should look at how the medium organizes perception and choices.
The medium tells you everything about pte essays samples, what messages will be successful. Television organizes perception and choice primarily around visual images , so… Shows with explosive visual images will be more rewarded than shows with dull images TV news shows with attractive broadcasters and dramatic footage will be more rewarded than news shows with unattractive broadcasters who tell stories in Essay Of Expression In Libya The Libyan, a soothing voice. Similarly with money, a $20 price (the message) matters less than the medium of the choice. Behavioral economists have shown that credit cards make us willing to spend more money than cash . A study by Duncan Simester at MIT showed that MBA students offered baseball tickets were willing to pay twice as much when paying by credit card, than by cash. Neuroscientists have further shown that when we pay with cash, it actually hurts – high prices light up the brain’s insula, which is associated with pain perception.
But when we pay with credit cards, it doesn’t light up our pain centers. Credit cards invite us to avoid feeling the pain of paying, and to pte essays forget how much money we actually have. Cash invites us to consciously feel how much we spend. Of course, none of this is new. It’s why theme parks and And Action After The Libyan, casinos intentionally create virtual currencies like tokens (or Disneyland Dollars), so the money feels abstract and people spend more. Pte Essays Samples. It’s why it’s we to accidentally spend more money on why do plants, vacations in samples, foreign currencies than with our native currency (“it’s just play money, right?”) It’s why restaurants are taught not to put the $ sign next to each item, and Freedom Of Expression And Action The Libyan, not line up all the prices to the right, so diners choose based on description and samples, not price.
A $20 price (the message) isn’t separate from Impact medium it comes in. The medium is the pte essays, message. The Web Browser as a Credit Card. So what does this have to do with technology? And why does this matter at all? Unlike with restaurant menu design, which affects how a few thousand people choose what to eat a few times a year, software designers affect how a billion people make choices about spending their attention – more than 150 times every day. A small number of designers at Essay And Action After The Libyan tech companies create those mediums, which will reward certain messages (behaviors, clicks, scrolls) over others. And today, web browsers are designed like credit cards. Pte Essays Samples. They make it easy to “swipe” the credit card for our time and take out a loan against our future selves . They make it easy to be swipe our credit card for more time than we intended, by getting lost in an infinitely scrolling feed. On Noam Chomsky's Impact. They make it easy to click something we wish we hadn’t clicked later.
And they do it for hundreds of millions of people every day: But it doesn’t have to be this way. Samples. Web browsers could be designed to frame choices more like cash instead of credit – for example by letting us know how long something will take before we click it. An interface to philosopher immanuel help users make conscious choices about pte essays samples, whether to philosopher immanuel do something now, or later. Or help us by allowing us to “budget” how much time we’d like to spend on various sites or apps, and frame our choices in terms of how much cash (“time”) we have left towards that site. But what about Conflict of Interest? And unlike credit card companies who profit by getting consumers to spend more money than they actually have, none of the four major web browser makers – Google (Chrome), Microsoft (Internet Explorer), Mozilla (Firefox) and Apple (Safari) – make money by getting people to open things they don’t have time for* Likewise, none of the major Email clients – Gmail, Y! Mail, Outlook, Apple Mail – make money by users accidentally spending more time than they intended because of samples sneaky email marketing. Email clients could reframe credit card like choices with cash choices: You can start to the hobbit see how these small, nuanced design choices, at the scale of how a billion people spend their attention, quickly become significant moral choices.
I’ll be tackling these moral questions in future posts.
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Guide to the Carl Menger Papers, 1857-1985. Carl Menger was an economic theorist and samples professor. Chiefly notebooks, notes, teaching materials, correspondence, biographical and personal material, and printed material (7500 items, 10 lin. ft; dated 1857-1985), relating to Menger's academic career, 1867-1920. The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on economic and theoretical topics, and on immanuel, his first major work, Grundsatze der Volkswirthschaftslehre.. Includes extensive material about money, the gold standard, and capital theory. Other topics include economic principles, jurisprudence, credit, property, philosophy, the nature of science, methodology, interest, research on political economy, and the classification of pte essays samples knowledge. Family papers relate to Anton and Max Menger.
Letters to Menger are primarily from colleagues of the Austrian school of economists, especially Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk, Johannes Conrad, Eugen von Philippovich, Emil Sax, and Friedrich Wieser, concerning professional matters. Other correspondents include Friedrich A. von Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Oskar Morganstern, Richard Schuller, Joseph Alois Schumpeter, and Knut Wicksell. The addition (02-220) (150 items, 0.40 linear ft.; dated 1855-1921 and n.d.) comprises letters, notes, postcards, and calling cards from Menger's brothers Anton and Max Menger as well as from flies kill the pig distinguished Austrian, German, and other writers, artists, philosophers, jurists, historians, and politicians. Samples. Correspondents include Arthur Schnitzler, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Theodor Gomperz, Friedrich Jodl, Karl Kraus, and Otto Weininger. Materials in this accession are unprocessed. The Carl Menger Papers span the years 1857 to 1985. Although the Essay on Noam, collection includes material from samples Menger's early professional life as well as some items from Essay on Noam on Language his brothers, Anton and Max, and his son, Karl, it is primarily composed of pte essays samples manuscripts and correspondence, 1867-1920, relating to lord flies kill his mature academic career. The contents are extremely dense and complex; they are also essential to an understanding of the mind of pte essays Carl Menger.
Not only do the papers reflect Menger's mind, but they also document his own methods of work. He was a copious note-taker and read voraciously. He kept bound notebooks with reflections and excerpts from his current reading, especially in plants the early years when he was constructing the Grundsatze. Later he made notes and revisions on loose sheets, having some of them copied into a clear hand, and on those sheets, too, he made revisions. Menger also wrote directly in the printed text. Pte Essays Samples. For example, his papers include two copies of the Grundsatze (a third similar copy is in Of Expression And Action The Libyan Uprising the Hitotsubashi University Library with the rest of Menger's library) with blank pages interleaved with pages of text. Pte Essays. In each of these successively Menger made extensive notes and immanuel changes. Although it is frequently impossible to date his manuscripts precisely, one can get a sense of the development of his thought from this sort of progression with the help in some cases of holographic evidence. The collection has been organized into series which reflect both Menger's style of pte essays work and his major areas of genre research.
The series include: research notebooks; manuscripts and pte essays notes on economic principles, money, and methodology; teaching materials; correspondence; biographical and personal materials; related family materials; miscellany; and printed matter. Menger's work on political economy and on the nature of his subject and its appropriate research method typify changes in the intellectual frontier in fin-de-siecle Vienna, and Europe as a whole. Some of Menger's most explicit thoughts on Project Essay, these subjects are evident in his lecture notes. Although he taught for pte essays samples over thirty years, the collection contains only a small amount of material from this aspect of his career. What one discerns from the lecture notes, however, is a personal sense of the teacher, and his high degree of moral commitment to his work. Menger clearly thought it important to of the kill the pig articulate his thoughts on the distinction between political economy and jurisprudence--since that was the faculty in which he taught--and the method and aims of the discipline. The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on pte essays samples, economic and theoretical topics. The series on general economic principles contains material relating to his first major work, the Grundsatze der Volkswirthschaftslehre, which he published in 1871. Despite the lack of a full-length coherent manuscript for this book, his background work can be discerned from a set of extensive notebooks he kept. These contain extracts of works Menger read, as well as his reactions and reflections. The range of works shows familiarity with classical authors, particularly Aristotle and flies kill the pig Plato, through to pte essays his own contemporaries.
He showed special interest in writers on law, political economy, and theories of knowledge, such as Grotius, Malthus, J. S. Mill, Ricardo, J. B. Say, Roscher, Descartes, Francis Bacon, Locke, Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and of the kill the pig Savigny. Many of the notebooks date from the late 1860s and thus, in the absence of pte essays more explicit information from Menger about philosopher, his development, serve the function of intellectual diaries. Early versions of the actual manuscript of the Grundsatze exist in fragmentary form, mostly heavily revised. A table of samples contents, dated 1870, provides a useful comparison for later revisions and schemas. The collection contains extensive materials on the subjects of money, the lord flies, gold standard, and capital theory. The work on money, which is some of the best ordered in the collection, Menger produced as an article for the second edition of the Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften in 1990, with substantial revisions for the third edition in 1909. Yet even after the latter edition, Menger continued to samples make changes and notations. His work on monetary reform grew out of an the hobbit appointment to an Austrian state commission on currency and the use of a single or double bullion standard.
Newsclippings of the reports have been maintained in the printed matter series. Although not direct concerns in the Grundsatze, capital and interest received much attention from Menger, particularly in his refutation of his colleague Eugen Bohm-Bawerk's work of 1885, Geschichte und Kritik der Kapitalzinstheorien. Holographic evidence suggests that after dealing with this subject extensively in the late 1880s, Menger did not return to it again until the second decade of the pte essays samples, twentieth century, when he was no longer teaching. At that point he resumed his considerations of capital and interest but looked additionally at credit and property. The series in the collection which seems most opaque and less easily classified by subject deals with Menger's speculations and Senior Project theories about the goals and methods of research, specifically for political economy, and pte essays the classification of knowledge.
The appearance of the Chomsky's, Untersuchungen uber die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere in 1883 provoked sharp criticism from Gustav Schmoller, representing the younger German Historical School. Their dispute came to be known as the samples, Methodenstreit. In the following year, Menger replied to Schmoller with his Irrtimer des Historismus in der Deutschen Nationalokonomie. After this, Menger published no further major works, although he continued to produce articles and why do book reviews for pte essays many years. His notes and The Libyan Uprising manuscripts indicate that his research came to an end only pte essays, with his death. Menger's professional contacts with respected colleagues such as Emil Sax, Eugen Philippovich, and Bohm-Bawerk demonstrate that although he refused to publish further, he did not work in isolation. The incoming correspondence shows a lively exchange of information about university teaching and politics, news of the profession, and current research. Letters also refer frequently to works of others in the profession.
Few drafts of Menger's own letters exist in the collection. A large proportion of these seem to be addressed to Bohm-Bawerk. A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 2 full business days in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More Collection is open for research. Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection. All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center.
The library may require up to 48 hours to retrieve these materials for research use. Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book Manuscript Library to use this collection. The copyright interests in the papers of Carl Menger are reserved to his heirs under the provisions of U.S. Philosopher. copyright law (Title 17, U.S.C.). [Identification of item], Carl Menger Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book Manuscript Library, Duke University. Contain excerpts from works on political economy, definitions of economic terms, philosophy, and the nature of science. Many entries are Menger's notes from samples readings, but approximately one-third are his own musings and reactions. Not all notebooks are dated, but they fall into two periods, one in Senior Essay the late 1860s, the second in the 1910s. Arranged chronologically. Copious revisions of the Grundsatze (unpublished during Menger's lifetime), arranged according to topic in roughly the same order as presented in the first edition of the Grundsatze; some notes from Karl Menger along with sections he chose to include in the posthumous second edition of the pte essays, Grundsatze.
Other topics covered extensively in this series are capital and interest, particularly in relation to Bohm-Bawerk's theories, and ownership and property. Contains revisions to Menger's article on money in the second and third editions of the Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. This section is arranged roughly in the order of the second edition article. Where possible folders have been labeled to indicate where the material would belong in Essay on Noam Chomsky's Impact on Language either or both editions. Some of these manuscripts were used by Menger's son Karl in the second edition of the Grundsatze. There are also several folders on monetary reform, especially from Mengers's service on an Austrian government commission to reform the currency and evaluate its relation to bullion standards. Includes lecture notes from several semesters and one folder of pte essays samples student papers on the term capital. Plants Photosynthesise. Arranged chronologically. Notes and revisions for the Untersuchungen, material on the ensuing Methodenstreit, G. Schmoller, and Menger's subsequent refutation, Irrtimer; notes for the article on pte essays samples, the Klassifikation der Wissenschaften and material refuting Wundt; many general notes and partial manuscripts, apparently for a book on methodology and the aims of research which would have included material on the inductive vs. On Language. deductive method and pte essays samples the importance of theory in research.
Arranged topically. Contains letters to Carl Menger, predominantly from economist colleagues, especially E. Bohm-Bawerk, J. Conrad, E. Philippovich, E. Sax, and F. Wieser, concerning professional matters. Menger's drafts are in the minority; most seem to why do plants be to E. Bohm-Bawerk. Several letters concern early professional matters, Menger's association with Rudolf, the crown prince of Austria, and pte essays samples his appointment at Project Essay the University of Vienna. The series also includes letters to Karl Menger from pte essays samples economists such as F. Hayek. L. Mises, O. Morgenstern, R. Schuller, J. Schumpeter, K. Wicksell, and R. Zuckerkandl.
They date primarily from the 1920s and 1930s, with a few dating from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. Philosopher. Matters covered include Karl Menger's publication of the second edition of his father's Grundsatze and his later work on the Austrian School. Contains a biographical sketch by pte essays samples F. Hayek which appeared in volume one of the Collected Works of Carl Menger (Series of Reprints of why do photosynthesise Scarce Tracts in Economic and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, 1934) and various lists for a curriculum vitae of Menger. A valuable but short (48 leaves) diary which Menger kept from l875 to 1893/4 lists major events since his birth in 1840, but deals primarily with Menger's health, his appointments as a journalist, employment in the press section of the Austrian prime minister's office, his association with Crown Prince Rudolf, university politics, and academic research. A folder contains notices of celebrations for Menger's seventieth and seventy-fifth birthdays, and pte essays obituaries. There is Impact one undated postcard/photograph of Menger and a friend fishing. Contains Railways and Financial Institutions, possibly associated with one of the Mengers; a tribute to Anton Menger by K. Granduberg; various articles by pte essays Anton Menger; a diary, 1861-70, and obituaries of Max Menger; an why do article by Karl Menger. Includes notes; bibliographical references on pte essays, topics other than economics or methodology; and partial catalog of Carl Menger's library arranged alphabetically. Includes books and articles by Menger, many with his annotations; some proofs of items in press; reviews of Menger's works; articles sent to him by other authors; clippings on the Austrian university students' uprisings; and news clippings concerning articles by Essay on Noam on Language Menger and pte essays others. Carl Menger was born in 1840 in Neu Sandec, Galicia, of well-to-do titled parents.
His life followed a path typical for someone in a family of similar social and on Language intellectual standing. His work as journalist, tutor to the crown prince, and professor marked his role as part of a flowering European intellectual elite. After attending Gymnasium, he matriculated at the universities of Vienna and pte essays samples Prague, leaving school in 1863 for philosopher a position on the staff of the Lemberger Zeitung. He continued to hold a number of other reporting and editorial posts over the course of the next dozen years, ending with the Wiener Zeitung. The list of Menger's contributions to pte essays the press in later years attests to the ties he retained in this area. In the meantime, Menger received his doctorate in jurisprudence from the University of Cracow and Of Expression In Libya After The Libyan Uprising began his work on political economy. By 1871 he had begun the pte essays samples, process of Freedom Of Expression And Action In Libya The Libyan Uprising publication and simultaneously applied for pte essays samples full instatement on the law faculty at the hobbit genre the University of samples Vienna. In his diary, Menger noted it was not without some difficulty that he achieved this goal in July of on Noam 1872. For the next several years he taught finance and political economy to an increasing number of students, both in seminars and lectures, while also contributing to the Wiener Zeitung. In the fall of pte essays 1876, Menger was approached with a request to become tutor in philosopher political economy and statistics to the Crown Prince of Austria.
The ensuing association lasted until the death of the pte essays, prince in 1889 and brought the talented young economist in contact with politically and socially influential people throughout Europe and England. He made two tours with Crown Prince Rudolf, one throughout Europe, and a second to the British Isles. Menger's contact with the the hobbit, prince lessened after their travels and after the prince had successfully completed his examinations, but from Menger's diary entries it is clear he continued to benefit from this royal association, particularly in the area of university appointments. With the exception of the short hiatus of a few semesters with the crown prince, Menger taught until 1903, when he retired early in order to devote himself entirely to research. He spent the majority of his professional academic career in pte essays Vienna, a city acknowledged as one of the premier cultural centers on the continent. His writings, like his background, are a window upon the mind and concerns of the late-nineteenth-century intellectual.
Far from having a focused and narrow concern with a particular aspect of economics, Menger sought to define the discipline and science of (non-mathematical) economics and to place it within the broader context of intellectual inquiry. Chomsky's Impact. Although the last several decades of Menger's life may be quickly described as involved in teaching and samples research, comprehending the quality and quantity of his life's work presents a great challenge to of the kill the pig contemporary researchers. Click to find related materials at Duke University Libraries. The papers of Carl Menger (1840-1921), economic theorist and pte essays professor, were donated to Duke University in 1987 by his granddaughter, Eve L. Menger. Encoded by Alvin Pollock. The original order of this collection is completely lost. Karl Menger had possession of the papers immediately after his father's death in 1921.
He used much of the material now in the series on economic principles and some of the material from the series on photosynthesise, money for the publication of a second edition of his father's best-known work, the Grundsatze der Volkswirthschaftslehre. Samples. A number of years later Friedrich v. Hayek ordered a number of the folders containing notes and manuscripts. His numbers are visible on the outside upper left corner of a number of the hard-cover folders. From time to time he also made notes about the content of a particular folder, but none of these notes is extensive. In the 1970s, Albert Zlabinger was permitted access to some of the papers, primarily the Essay Freedom Of Expression And Action In Libya After The Libyan, material on pte essays samples, money.
His careful work and notations allow for the reconstruction of the development of Menger's article on money for the Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, and philosopher immanuel its subsequent revisions. Carl Menger did not date all, or even most, of pte essays samples his work, and because he made frequent emendations to his own notes and text, dating is hazardous at best. For this reason, all loose manuscript material has been arranged topically. Almost all material belonging to a particular folder, however, has been kept together. Original folders have been retained. The only materials which lent themselves to something approximating original order are the bound notebooks which Menger himself numbered. Correspondence has been arranged chronologically. The majority of the paper in this collection has an extremely high acid content, although it is not overly brittle.
Many sheets are crumpled badly, especially at the edges, but little text has been lost. All newspaper clippings have been photocopied on acid-free paper.