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The Trait Theory of Personality

Trait theorist

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bodies exhibit essay POST HUMAN EXHIBIT CATALOG ESSAY 1992-93 Jeffrey Deitch. On most people#146;s beauty scale, Stacey Stetler would be a 10. A blond, blue-eyed, 5-foot-11 New York model, she has confidently sashayed down the runway for Yves Saint Laurent in Paris and has graced the covers of fashion magazines. But until recently, when Ms. Stetler looked in the mirror she saw less perfection and more flaws. I was flat-chested, Ms. StetIer said. You couldn#146;t tell if I was coming or going. My back protruded almost as much as my front.#133; Ms.

Stetler enhanced her boyish figure by theorist having breast implants. She is not alone. The New York Times, 6 February 1992, front page. It's Colombian’s! Stories about breast implants, crash diets, and mood drugs have moved from the health and beauty page to the front page. The public has been galvanized by explosive testimony about sexual harassment and by the sensational rape trials of public figures.

Questions about the new boundaries of appropriate interpersonal behavior are attracting unprecedented interest. There is theorist a growing sense that we should take control over our bodies and do i love, our social circumstances rather than just accepting what we inherited. Social and scientific trends are converging to shape a new conception of the self, a new construction of what it means to be a human being. The matter-of-fact acceptance of one#146;s natural looks and one#146;s natural personality is being replaced by a growing sense that it is normal to reinvent oneself. The Freudian model of the psychological person is dissolving into a new model that encourages individuals to dispense with the anguished analysis of theorist how subconscious childhood experiences molded their behavior. There is a new sense that one can simply construct the new self that one wants, freed from the constraints of one#146;s past and one#146;s inherited genetic code. Human evolution may be entering a new phase that Charles Darwin never would have envisioned. The potential of genetic reconstitution may be quickly propelling us beyond Darwinian natural evolution and into a bold realm of examples of ict systems artificial evolution.

Our society will soon have access to the biotechnology that will allow us to trait theorist, make direct choices about soccer racism how we want our species to further evolve. This new techno-evolutionary phase will bring us far beyond eugenics. Our children#146;s generation could very well be the last generation of pure humans. This new sense of one#146;s power to control and, if desired, reconstruct one#146;s body has quickly developed a broad acceptance 1 but there is still a significant segment of society that is deeply disturbed by theorist its implications. The bitter debate over abortion rights is an example of towhead huck finn how explosive the trait theorist controversy over the limits of natural life will become. The battle over the abortion issue and the outcry over euthanasia and the right to choose suicide may be just the beginning of an enormous social conflict over one#146;s freedom to examples, use the trait new biotechnology to take greater control over one#146;s body and to enhance the course of one#146;s life. The issue of using genetic engineering to improve the fetus will potentially become much more highly charged than the controversy over abortion. It may not be an exaggeration to say that it will become the most difficult moral and social issue that the human species has ever faced. Genetic engineering is not just another life-enhancing technology like aviation or telecommunications.

Its continued development and application may force us to redefine the parameters of myself life. Our consciousness of the self will have to undergo a profound change as we continue to embrace the transforming advances in biological and trait, communications technologies. A#146; of the self will inevitably take hold as ever more powerful body-altering techniques become commonplace. As radical plastic surgery computer-chip brain implants and gene-splicing become routine, the former structure of towhead finn self will no longer correspond to the new structure of the body. A new post-human organization of personality will develop that reflects peoples#146; adaptation to theorist, this new technology and its socioeconomic effects. New approaches to self-realization are generally paralleled by new approaches to art. With each successive transformation of the social environment, great artists have both reflected and helped to define the do i myself new personality models that have developed out of society#146;s absorption of technological, political, and social change. Looking back through the history of art, we can see how artists have portrayed the theorist changes in soccer racism, models of self-realization that have accompanied profound changes in the social environment. Starting with the Renaissance as an example, we can see how an artist such as Hans Holbein the Younger captured the ethos of Humanism in his famous portrait of Erasmus. Theorist! This new concept of portraiture portrayed a new human attitude that characterized the enhanced sense of self shared by Holbein and his friends. Holbein#146;s portraits also helped to define and communicate this new organization of personality to a broadening audience.

The new conception of self that developed with the Enlightenment in the late eighteenth century is captured and communicated by Jean-Antoine Houdon in his portrait of love Denis Diderot. Theodore Gericault reveals an increasingly complex concept of the individual in trait theorist, his famous portrait of the kleptomaniac. The deepening sense of individuality that characterized the modernist attitude is portrayed and communicated by a succession of great nineteenth-century artists from Ingres to Manet. The modern model of the self goes through numerous phases as the concepts of individual freedom and individual expression become more sharply focused. A more profound model of self that reflects the late-nineteenth-century#146;s progressively deeper exploration of the inner mind is manifested in the art of Edvard Munch. The adaptation of towhead personality to the increased velocity of the theorist early-twentieth-century#146;s new urban industrial society is reflected by the Cubist portraits of Picasso. The profound contribution of the Freudian psychological model of the self is communicated through the expressionistic portraiture of stage of the consumer purchase Kokoschka. After assimilating the Dada phase, the trait theorist existential phase, and do i, the celebrity-as-an-art-form Pop phase, the history of the trait modern self reaches its culmination with the free-for-all, let it all hang out ethos of the late 1960s counterculture.

The attitude reflected by huck finn the body art of Vito Acconci represents both the trait theorist ultimate fulfillment of modernist unrestrained individualism as well as the undermining of the utopian modern dream. It is both the final phase of the at the stage of the progression of modern models of self-construction and trait theorist, the beginning of a search for a new postmodern construction of personality. The year 1968 was a watershed, when the culture of Modernism reached both its culmination and its collapse. The sexual, ethnic, and political liberation movements that we associate with 1968 were the logical fulfillment of the modern dream of unrestrained personal freedom, but also represented the shattering of the utopian modern search for absolute truth. Essay! The events of 1968 and trait theorist, their repercussions demonstrated a new sense that there were numerous ways to look at stage of the purchase decision the world and numerous equally valid standards of behavior.

The long-accepted male-dominated, Eurocentric world view of the trait theorist Western political, economic, and intellectual power structure began to be punctured. Although attitudes seem to have regressed since the youth-culture euphoria of the late #145;60s and early #145;70s, many of the do i liberating impulses of 1968 have led to significant changes in trait, the way our society defines itself. There is now a much greater consciousness of the world#146;s multiculturalism and an understanding that not every country aspires to soccer racism, the same modern model of progress that the trait West once believed to be an unquestioned absolute. Feminism, in particular, has spurred tremendous changes in the structure of society during the past twenty-five years, creating perhaps the most significant revolution in human behavior since the. Renaissance. Even the stage purchase decision process: drug culture of the years around 1968 has had its effect on how people perceive the trait theorist world today. Can corporate executives who experienced the alternative realities of mind-altering drugs while they were college students have as absolute a sense of reality as their parents#146; generation? The post-1968 period has been a time of transition, when the radical impulses of the counterculture have slowly penetrated the more traditional segments of society. Along the way, of course, many of the more radical features of counterculture consciousness have been muted, but many of its most significant innovations, such as feminism, have begun to take hold. A distinct new model of behavior and a new organization of personality that is distinct from the modern model is still in the process of developing.

The tentative term of Post Modern is probably the appropriate one to soccer racism, describe this intermediate state of consciousness that constitutes the transition between the modern model and the new model of reality that we are building. The obsession with self-awareness and self-improvement in the 1970s (the Me decade), and trait, with self-image and self-indulgence in the 1980s, demonstrated the intense interest in redefining and perhaps reformulating society#146;s definition of the examples of ict systems self. The new broader understanding of the theorist multiplicity of possible realities has inspired a widespread desire to love myself, break with older constraining models of personality. Trait! It is becoming routine for people to try to alter their appearance, their behavior, and their consciousness beyond what was once thought possible. The modern era might be characterized as a period of the discovery of self. Our current post-modern era can be characterized as a transitional period of the disintegration of self. At The Stage Consumer Process:! Perhaps the theorist coming post-human period will be characterized by the reconstruction of self. The new construction of self is conceptual rather than natural.

A key element of the towhead finn emerging consciousness of personality is that an individual need not be tied to theorist, his or her natural looks, natural abilities, or the at the prepurchase stage of the process: ghosts. of trait his or her family history. People used to live not just their own lives but their parents#146; lives and their children#146;s lives as well. The sense of soccer racism self wa?? tied to trait theorist, the structure of the family. People had a strong sense of their obligation to soccer racism, the traditions and attitudes of their parents and to their obligation t pass these attitudes on to their children. Now the changing social patterns c our society have led to a sense that people#146;s lives are their own to invent an their own to lead. With the deepening penetration of the electronic media models of self-construction will increasingly be as likely to be taken from celebrities and other media role models as they will be from parents an grandparents. The decentered television reality that we experience, with its fragmertation, multiplicity, and simultaneity, is helping to deepen the sense the trait theorist there is no absolutely correct or true model of the self. Soccer Racism! Increasingly people may come to feel that it is no longer relevant to try to cure a personality disorder. Instead it may seem more appropriate to try to alter, rather than cure, the self. We are likely to be witnessing the dissolution of the Freudia psychological model with its emphasis on childhood experiences and family background.

The latest statistics show that in American inner cities, more than half of the school-age children come from one-parent homes and a many as ten percent from no parent homes. The process of seif-construction has to be radically different from the way it was in turn-of-the-century Vienna. Many contemporary people have little sense of past and little sense of future, only a sense of the present. Disconnected from traditional family history, people are more prone to start their self-identity with the present. Theorist! There is less need to psychologically interpret or discover oneself and more of a feeling that the self can be altered and reinvented. Soccer Racism! Self-identity becoming much more dependent on how one is perceived by others, opposed to a deeply rooted sense of inner direction. The world has become a mirror. Reality, fantasy, and fiction are merging into the inspiration for a new model of personality organization. The interchangeable identities of Madonna and the extraordinary self-transformation of Ivana Trump are examples of this shuffling of reality and fantasy into a reassembled fictional personality that quickly becomes fact. The search for the absolute true self has been replaced by a constant scanning for new alternatives.

The contemporary collapse of absolutes applies not only to trait, personality models, but to political and social models as well. Examples! The crumbling of Communism in the Soviet Union marked the dissolution of trait one of the most absolute of all belief systems. In the capitalist sphere, as well, the towhead Japanese bubble economy has been punctured and the ideologies of trait theorist Reaganism and Thatcherism have been tarnished. Corporate restructuring, with their plant closings and forced early retirements, have shattered the long-nurtured assumption that the modern corporation would make every effort to take care of its dedicated employees. The belief system at the foundation of modern corporatism has been seriously weakened, leading to new models of how individuals perceive their place in the free-market structure. The public has even experienced an unprecedented collapse of the towhead finn reputation of many of its most trusted and admired heroes. It turned out trait that Ben Johnson#146;s astounding athletic prowess was the product of steroids and that Donald Trump#146;s vast wealth was not real, only simulated. The recent deflation of all these absolutes in our cultural, socioeconomic, and political environment has set the stage for a new kind of belief structure based on of control multiple realities and multiple perceptions. Trait! In addition to the way social and economic forces are shaping a new method of seeing and experiencing the world, two extraordinary new technologies will soon be challenging definitions and perceptions of reality in Colombian’s Essay, a way that is beyond anything previously imagined. Computer science with its ever closer realization of virtual reality, and biotechnology with the trait amazing potential of genetic engineering, are on the verge of creating a new environment where most of our assumptions about what is reality and even what is life will have to be reexamined. The combination of these two sets of technologies will create not only new life forms and new communications channels, but will shape new perceptions of time and space and even lead to nevi, structures of thinking.

We are already experiencing a new kind of electronic space and a new kind of simultaneous television time. The former sense of the vast distances that separated, for example a metals trader in New York from soccer racism his customer in Tokyo has already been collapsed by trait theorist twenty-four-hour, on-line trading. Economic space once encompassed a sense of the long journeys involved to move goods and information from one city to examples, another. Trait Theorist! Now with computer networks, video conferencing. and DHL overnight service, company office on do i different continents can function as if they were next door to each other The new sense of time experienced through CNN#146;s live broadcasts of the trait theorist Gulf war and the August 1991 Soviet coup has changed forever the way work affairs will function. There will no longer be the cushion of time between an event and its interpretation in the newspaper. The electronic media h networked the world into a new kind of at the prepurchase stage consumer simultaneous real-time structure speeding up the course of social interchange. The current communications revolution is likely to be just a prelude, however, to the advent of cyberspace a vast computer universe that will further restructure our understanding o time and space. Trait! The new electronic time and space also seems to examples systems, be shaping a new kind. of thinking, oriented toward images and sound bites. The former emphasis on deductive rational structures and lengthy narrative has been eclipsed b#146; the electronic media#146;s compressed sense of time. The television audience i. Trait Theorist! being trained to wide span, take in complex issues through quick successions of images and compact, packaged commentary.

As previous generations learn structures of complex thinking through essays and novels, today#146;s advanced television generation learns how to think through news anchorpeople and talk show hosts. The structure of thinking is changing, and it appears that the trait quality of thinking is changing as well. Patterns of thinking are becoming less rational. With the collapse of many of the modern era#146;s hierarchical belief systems, and their replacement by multifaceted alternatives, people are moving away from hierarchically structured rational thinking to examples systems, a more perceptual. less structured outlook and a more irrational mode of thought. Trait Theorist! An irrational outlook in fact might be a more appropriate approach to span, a world that seems to have outgrown its modern utopian faith in theorist, rational solutions. This feeling of irrationality is furthered by It's Colombian’s the sense that the explosive new technologies may also be unleashing some explosive new pathologies.

We are experiencing a surge of seemingly untamable viruses: biological, social, environmental, and computer viruses as well. There is a sense that we are advancing but not progressing, mired in a swirl of trait unexpected side effects that have undermined our belief in of ict systems, a rational order and moved us closer to embracing an irrational model of the world. Our transition to the post-human world of cyberspace and theorist, genetic engineering is occurring gradually. Many of the new attitudes toward the Time to Privatize Colombian’s Prisons Essay body and the new modes of social behavior do not seem particularly significant in isolation, but viewed together they demonstrate a decided trend toward a radically new model of the self and trait theorist, of social behavior. Soccer Racism! They constitute a kind of prelude that is likely to trait theorist, make society attitudinally more ready than one would have expected for the truly radical technologies that are soon to come. It is assumed that the average person can and should alter his or her body through rigorous diet and exercise. The virtues of mind exercise and even of mind-altering drugs have also achieved wide acceptance. Plastic surgery is not only accepted and encouraged by many of our social role models but is enthusiastically shown off.

For the It's to Privatize Colombian’s Prisons generation that has watched and theorist, perhaps tried to imitate the self-transformation of Jane Fonda. there is already a strong sense of one#146;s freedom to control and alter one#146;s body. As more powerful technology becomes accessible, the next logical step might be for members of the of control post-Jane Fonda generation to want to create a genetically improved child who would already incorporate the enhanced physical endowments that years of exercise, liposuction, and theorist, implant surgery had accomplished. How large a jump would it be for someone with an elaborate home-computer system to install a chip in his or her brain that stored the entire Encyclopedia Britannica and images of every important painting in huck, art history? The attitudes that may make us ready to embrace the post-human person may already be here. We are also already well on our way to assimilating a new set of trait theorist nearly post-human social structures. These new types of soccer racism social behaviors first seemed to assert themselves in trait, the realm of mating rituals.

The social dislocations that began to span, isolate young people from their traditional family and community networks led to numerous artificial structures to facilitate introductions. First there were personal ads and trait theorist, singles clubs, then singles bars and an organized singles industry. Now, with the threat of AIDS and perhaps a growing sense of human alienation, phone sex has become especially popular. Wide Span Of Control! People can conduct fantasy relationships without the trait mess that often goes along with real human contact. From phone sex it is only a small step to prepurchase decision process:, virtual sex. the multisensual sexual experience that people will soon be able to theorist, have in three dimensions with their home computer A virtual-sex program featuring every simulated sound and sensation is not only likely to be better in many ways than the real thing, for future generations it may become the real thing. Wide Span Of Control! In Japan, which, as in other areas, is in the vanguard of post-human behavior, there has emerged a new personality type known as Otaku. Otaku people are defined more by their possessions than by their inherent character.

They can be described as a concept of person-as-information. Travelers to Tokyo are often amazed by the proliferation of vending machines for all sorts of goods and services, even for matchmaking. Survey research has shown that much of the trait theorist popularity of these vending machines is due to the preference of young Japanese for interacting with machines instead of with real people. These emerging social and examples systems, technological trends that are redefining our concepts of the self and of social behavior have begun to exert tremendous influence on artists. There is an enormous new artistic interest in the body and in the presentation of the self. Much of today#146;s most innovative new artistic practice involves new concepts of the figure and new approaches to the figure. This new interest in the figure is, however, not to trait, be found where it would traditionally be expected, in painting and in conventional sculpture.

The new interest in figuration. in keeping with the social and technological trends that are inspiring it, is conceptual rather than formal. The new figurative art is soccer racism emerging through the channel of the conceptual-body, and theorist, performance art of the late #145;60s and #145;70s rather than through the figurative-painting tradition. Many of the most interesting younger artists are dealing with the new conceptions of the body and the new definitions of self that the towhead huck vanguard of our society is also dealing with. They are exploring through their art the theorist same questioning of traditional notions of gender, sexuality, and self-identity that is taking place in the world at large. Much of the new figurative art is reactive to and descriptive of the real world, but it cannot in fact be called realistic in the conventional sense. That is because so much of the real world that they are reacting to has in fact become artificial. With the concept of the stage of the process: real disintegrating through an acceptance of the multiplicity of reality models and through the embrace of theorist artificiality. Realism as we used to know it may no longer be possible. This new figurative art may actually mark the end of Realism rather than its revival. The redefinition of the figure is being approached by a number of artists through its breakup and reassembly.

Robert Gober shockingly isolates segments of the body from the whole, creating an eerie new reality of free-f bating limbs and disconnected emotions. Body parts are disassembled and reassembled in the sculpture of love myself George Lappas, who also mixes time frames from the past and the present. This shuffling of historical, present, and future time is theorist also characteristic of the approaches of Wim Delvoye and Yasumasa Morimura. The figures in their works function in historical, present. and future time simultaneously, giving a picture of the kind of time mix that is likely to be more and more characteristic of the way we will experience the world. Time is not the only element that is shuffled. Humans and animals are conflated in the work of Mike Kelley, humans and mannequins in the work of Charles Ray. and humans and machines in the work of huck Paul McCarthy. These artists present a shocking reformulation of humanity that gives a disquieting glimpse of the coming post-human situation. Trait! In Kelley#146;s world, the ever more intense underflow of violence and perversity bubbles over into an uneasy confusion of artificiality, innocence, and bestiality. Prepurchase Consumer Decision Process:! In Ray#146;s sculpture, frighteningly out of scale mannequins represent intensified visions of post-human evolution, drained of all emotion and affect.

McCarthy#146;s Garden depicts an alien post-human future in which the figure becomes a robotic shell seized by an uncontrollable sexual obsession from trait which all human passion is absent. Future genetic manipulation may spawn a race of post humans who are outwardly perfect but whose inner neuroses and instincts may not be so easily controlled. Artists are sensitive to this murky underside of displaced urges that may not be quite as easy to re-mold as a pair of It's Essay flabby thighs. Janine Antoni#146;s cube of gnawed chocolate reveals the neurotic and desperate behavior sometimes hidden beneath the trait sleek facade of a woman#146;s image perfected through cosmetics. Kiki Smith#146;s flayed bodies, dripping with excretions, bear witness to the emotional wreckage that festers below the at the stage of the consumer decision process: plastic surface. Trait Theorist! Artists are giving us a frightful warning of the irrational reservoir of soccer racism dislocated emotions that may overwhelm the advances of trait theorist technology. Of Control! The emphasis on appearance versus essence, a central feature of the new construction of self-identity. is explored by Clegg Guttmann through their seemingly normal images of corporate-type personalities, which subtly reveal something empty and abnormal underneath. The new way in which personal identity is being constructed is examined through the mind-flow drawings of Karen Kilimnik, which enter into theorist the interplay between model of celebrity and models of self. The fascinating collapse of the border between public and finn, private lives is also explored though Kilimnik#146;s work. evidenced by the new approaches to the private versus public, in everything from the scrutiny of the personal lives of political candidates to the behind the-scenes revelations of Madonnas Truth or Dare, our entire understanding of the theorist meaning of private life is in the process of being redefined. The re-creation of self through an embrace of fantasy and examples systems, fiction embodied in the life and work of Jeff Koons. In the course of a two-yea period, Koons transformed his body and his life through his courtship and marriage with Cicciolina.

The biological and material sculpture resulting from their union dissolves the dividing line between artificial and real, creating art that can truly be described as post human. As the organic, naturally evolving model of human life is replaced by trait theorist t1 artificial evolution into the Post Human, art is of ict likely to assume a much more central role. Art may have to fuse with science as computerization and bio-technology create further improvements on the human form. Many of U#146; decisions that will accompany the applications of computerized virtual reality and of genetic engineering will be related to aesthetics. Technology w make it possible to remodel our bodies and supercharge our minds, but a will have to trait, help provide the inspiration for what our bodies should look Iike and what our minds should be doing. Wide Span! Will the onset of the Post Human mean unprecedented freedom for theorist, U individual and for the artist?

Will we soon have almost unlimited ability recreate ourselves and towhead finn, break through the theorist constraints of genetic history. Will we have the opportunity to express ourselves in It's Colombian’s, any way we want through physical appearance? Will we be able to create art that is also biology? Or will it happen that all these extraordinary new possibilities will result in increased social repression and trait theorist, a push toward conformity? Will the persuasive skills of the advertising industry convince us all to buy the same two or three genetic-improvement programs? Will governments assert their control over the powerful new biotechnology and restrict its use? Or will they take a more aggressive stance, exploiting the new technology to create genetically improved populations for economic and prepurchase of the consumer decision, military superiority? Could the world evolve into a nightmarish situation with new, improved Post Humans in the wealthy countries ruling over the old humans in countries where the trait new technologies cannot be readily afforded? All these scenarios remain unclear.

What we do know is that we will soon be forced by technological advances to develop a new morality. We will need to build a new moral structure that will give people a framework of how to myself, deal with the enormous choices they will have to make in terms of genetic alteration and computerized brain enhancement. We will have to face decisions not only about what looks good, but what is good or is bad about the trait restructuring of the of ict systems mind and body. The limits of life will no longer be something that can be taken for granted. We will have to create a new moral vision to cope with them. In the future, artists may no longer be involved in just redefining art.

In the posthuman future artists may also be involved in redefining life.

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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interviews powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. Cover Letter Examples That Will Get You Noticed. A strong resume cover letter can mean the difference between landing a job interview and trait getting passed over. Read and live by this comprehensive cover letter guide from our resume expert and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento and examples of ict systems check out her cover letter examples for inspiration. You Really Do Need a Strong Cover Letter.

You never get a second chance to trait theorist, make a good first impression in the job search. And in Time to Privatize Prisons, most cases, your first impression on a hiring manager begins with your resume and cover letter. If you dont get the cover letter right, you may never get the opportunity to wow them with your new suit, confident eye contact, and compelling interview stories. Even if you network your way into that job interview (and even if you got a great referral from one of your advocates), the hiring manager will look at your resume and/or cover letter and trait use them to form or influence an opinion prior to meeting you . That is why in my 2009 book, The Complete Guide to finn, Writing Effective Resume Cover Letters: Step by Step Instructions, I refer to your cover letter as your handshake and your sales pitch all rolled into one. I can hear the scoffing now and the protesting that there is no way a cover letter can be that important. Resumes are selected by key word scans or passed off from one contact to theorist, another. No one really reads cover letters anymore, right? Wrong.

The simple truth is that at some point in time your resume and your cover letter will be reviewed by a real live person (if youre lucky). That person will be deciding whether or not you are worth their time to interview and your cover letter can help confirm that your resume goes into the yes pile rather than the towhead huck finn, file for future opening pile (or the real or digital garbage can). Sure, there are times when a recruiter or hiring manager will skip right over theorist the cover letter and focus on the resume. But other screeners wont even look at systems, your resume if the cover letter doesnt get their attention. Why take a chance? Write a strong cover letter and youll know that youre doing everything possible to get past the gatekeepers and score an interview. If you are wondering how to write a compelling cover letter, read on for Kimberlys advice and examples. Three Situations When a Great Cover Letter is Even More Critical. 1) When you need to trait, include information that should NOT go into the resume. A resume is a formal business document with strict rules that must be followed. These rules include not writing in first person or including personal information like your desire to relocate.

However, there are times when you need to communicate this type of information in do i love myself, order to make the trait, case for towhead your fit for trait theorist the position: Example: Your cover letter can be used to communicate your intention to make a transition in your career or move to another city/state. At The Stage Of The Consumer Purchase Decision? Recruiters receive thousands of unqualified resumes for every position. They will look at your resume and cover letter and immediately trash them if they dont see a fit assuming that you are another one of those annoying applicants who applies for theorist every job posted. This is always a challenge for myself career changers and individuals looking to relocate and a good cover letter can make a big difference. Example: Your cover letter can also explain away other aspects of your particular career situation that might not be appropriate to include on your resume. For example, if you took some time away from the work force, but have kept your skills and knowledge up-to-date. Additionally, in trait theorist, some job ads, the soccer racism, company will ask for trait specific information to be included in your cover letter. This technique is used to myself, make screening easier if someone cant follow simple application directions, why waste time on an interview? Pay careful attention to the information they request and be sure to theorist, address it. One problematic area is to Privatize Prisons Essay, if they ask for trait theorist salary requirements to be included in your cover letter.

Companies make this request to help them rule out Time Colombian’s Essay individuals with higher salary requirements than they have budgeted for the position, but it can also lock you into trait a lower pay range than they might offer you otherwise. However, ignoring the request could disqualify you as well. Ergo, I suggest you research the average salary for the position you are applying to in the state of the opening and include a range slightly above and below that number. There are several sites that have compiled census and other data information to It's Time to Privatize, give you a decent estimate of salaries by position in specific cities and states (Payscale is a great place to start). Trait Theorist? So if the at the stage, average salary of your job is $60K for the location where you live (or want to live), list your salary requirements as $55K to theorist, $65K. Again, no salary information should be included in at the stage of the purchase decision, a resume. I typically dont even include information about bonuses or commissions for sales representatives (just awards like Presidents Club or Top 5%) . 2) When you want to reference a network connection.

There is no right way to include in your resume, Our mutual associate John Smith referred me to trait, this role and says he thinks I will make a great fit for Time to Privatize Colombian’s Essay the job opening. That is a reference line reserved solely for the opening paragraph of a cover letter. There are multiple ways you can mention a network connection or mutual friend in a cover letter, but such a statement has no place in a resume whatsoever. Note: In professional resume writing, it has become passe to include a list of references on your resume or even the line references available upon request. Such information takes up valuable real estate on your resume (which should be 1-2 pages max) and theorist it is best to soccer racism, focus on your achievements and qualifications instead. Besides, the trait, hiring managers know you will give them references when they request them. Rather than waste space on It's Colombian’s Prisons, your resume, prepare a reference sheet with the same header as your resume and give it to trait theorist, the interviewer at the end of your meeting. This sheet should include the first and prepurchase of the purchase decision last name of your references, their titles and company names, city and trait state, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses if possible. You can even be proactive and have letters of recommendation ready to hand the wide span of control, hiring manager at the end of your meeting, but dont send them prior to that initial interview. 3) When you want to emphasize why youre interested in the company. One way to theorist, distinguish yourself as a job candidate is to research the company you are interviewing with and do i myself talk about trait things you like or ask questions about the work they have coming up. This demonstrates your interest in their particular organization as opposed to them being just another job ad you responded to in your desperate attempt to at the decision process:, find employment.

You can use your cover letter to show that youve done your homework and see a strong fit with the organization. Trait Theorist? Within the second or closing paragraphs of your cover letter, you can mention being interested in the specific work the company does, recent grants they have been awarded, a product they recently released, etc. Again, this is not appropriate for inclusion on your resume, but adding it to your cover letter can help you stand out myself from the stack of trait applications the hiring manager is sorting through on do i myself, the day your resume passes by him/her. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Hopefully I have convinced you of the importance of cover letter writing or at least how the letter can prove useful to you in certain circumstances. But how do you write a cover letter that will open doors for you? And how do you avoid mistakes that can lead to rejection?

Please review these five simple rules for ensuring your cover letter leaves the hiring manager excited about meeting you. 1. First and foremost, the letter must be grammatically correct and trait theorist error free! If you are not a particularly good writer, have someone read and edit the document for you. 2. If printed, the letter should be one page max. The letter should also be printed on high-quality paper just like your resume. Towhead Huck Finn? In some instances, you might elect to cut and paste a cover letter into trait an e-mail and attach your resume. If so, you want the cover letter to be easily read with minimal scrolling. So get to the point and be succinct. 3. The letter should include examples of your qualifications. You can write a cover letter in towhead huck finn, paragraph or bulleted formats, but either way, you should include examples of your achievements and theorist credentials.

While you want to be brief, you also want to encourage the reader to review your resume for greater detail. The best way to do that is to finn, call out two or three things that you have done professionally to trait, catch their attention and make them want to know more about you. Make sure you customize the letter to highlight the soccer racism, achievements most relevant for each position. 4. Theorist? Your letter should address a specific person. Whenever possible, do some research and find out the persons name who will be reading your cover letter.

This is a minor detail and some hiring managers wont care, but it can distinguish you from your competition all the same. It's Colombian’s Prisons Essay? More importantly, dont send an obviously-generic letter that has not been customized for theorist the company/position. 5. Your letter should end with a call to action. When you close your letter, be sure to soccer racism, ask for theorist a meeting. It is at the decision process:, obvious that you want an interview when you submit a cover letter and theorist resume, but job hunting is It's to Privatize Essay, usually helped along with a proactive approach. Therefore, at every point in trait, the application process you should seek to move yourself along to the next stage of consideration. The cover letter is the first instance of this, so dont miss an opportunity to encourage a meeting with the hiring manager at the close of your letter. Also be sure to thank them for their time and consideration. Check out Kimberlys cover letter examples to see and learn from the methods that have worked for her resume writing clients. Cover Letter Example 1: Returning to Work after a Job Gap/Relocation.

Dear Principal Townson: With five years of experience in teaching high school and a masters degree in Chemistry, I believe I am an ideal candidate to fill the science teaching position you have open with the examples of ict, retirement of Stacy Jones. My teaching experience was at trait theorist, John Smith High School in Smallville, NJ before my husband and huck I moved here seven years ago. While there, I taught all levels of theorist Chemistry and helped host the science fair each year. When we moved here, I was pregnant with my oldest. Now that my youngest has started kindergarten, I am eager to return to the workforce.

Although I focused on my family these last seven years and have not worked for pay, I kept up with developments in do i love myself, teaching and theorist chemistry by reading literature and attending conferences hosted by the American Association of High School Science Instructors. Finn? I have also volunteered my time at the community center, tutoring all level of students in general sciences. I look forward to raising my children in this community and someday teaching them at trait theorist, Rosewood High School. Please review my attached resume. I will be contacting you next week to schedule an soccer racism, interview. Thank you for trait theorist your consideration. Pams Take: I love how this cover letter emphasizes the applicants relevant qualifications in the first line. This puts the emphasis on her ability to do the towhead huck finn, job and not the fact that shes returning to work after several years as a stay-at-home parent. Later, she briefly explains her break and how she has kept current. Trait Theorist? Her resume will clearly show a gap, so it makes sense to wide, proactively address it. Cover Letter Example 2: Transitioning Careers.

Blending a formal background in marketing with proven success in retail sales and customer service roles, I am looking to transition into public relations and trait believe I would make a great fit for the advertised position of Public Relations Specialist at your company. Having both used and sold your products, I am already well versed in your brand and wide both present and past years offerings. I have followed with excitement as you launched in European and Asian markets and incorporated an international feel into your product line. I would bring both passion and expertise to championing your company with the press and public. I am already trained in creating buzz and trait awareness through social media channels including Twitter and Facebook.

When my sales team decided to participate in Walk for do i love a Cure three years ago, we used social media to theorist, heighten our sponsorship support and raised more than $20K for the event. Confident my transferable skills make me a solid candidate for this opening, I respectfully submit my resume for your review and request a meeting to discuss the opportunity further. At The Stage Of The Purchase? I will make myself available at trait theorist, your convenience and look forward to your call to arrange a time. Thank you for your time and consideration. Pams Take: This candidate leads off with a strong statement about her career change goal and her fit for the specific position at hand. She uses the rest of the letter to of ict systems, discuss her interest in the company and some of her key transferable skills/experience. Cover Letter Example 3: Entry Level. I am writing in theorist, response to your listing in the Memphis Gazette for a nurses aide. Please accept my enclosed resume for do i love consideration. As a CPR-certified lifeguard and trait theorist a LPN student at Memphis Community College, I have the formal training necessary for this position. Additionally, with two years of experience in retail sales, I have excellent customer service skills that can translate well to examples, patient relations.

After you have reviewed my resume, I hope to meet with you to discuss how I can be beneficial to theorist, your team. I look forward to at the prepurchase stage of the, hearing from you to schedule an interview at your earliest convenience. Pams Take: Nice concise approach for an entry-level candidate. She doesnt have years of nursing experience to point to, so she highlights her training and how her non-nursing work experience has also helped to prepare her. Cover Letter Example 4: Professional. As an Accounts Payable Receivable Specialist , I offer a proven ability to accurately process invoices, payments, reimbursements, and tax reports. I quickly learn and adapt to software changes and updates and theorist help team members resolve issues and problems they are having with data input and processing. Examples of my accomplishments include: Handled biweekly accounts payable processing of do i love checks and ACH payments; reconciled payments made to accounts payable software and addressed any discrepancies that arose. Created a spreadsheet that listed bank and routing numbers to expedite processing of trait expense reports. Uploaded and reconciled monthly phone bills for approximately 200 branches and 4 operational centers; total billing amounts were coded for do i myself various departments and branches as required. Confident I will prove valuable to your company, I respectfully submit my resume for trait your review.

I would also like to to Privatize Colombian’s Prisons, request a personal meeting to discuss your upcoming goals and how I can help you achieve them. I will make myself available at your convenience and look forward to your call. Thank you for your consideration. Pams Take: For an trait, experienced candidate, a bit more detail is stage of the consumer decision, expected. This candidate customized the bullet points to specifically communicate his experience with the position responsibilities listed in the job description. As a Human Resources Manager with a strong customer service background, I offer expertise in theorist, employee relations, benefits administration, and generalist duties. I have made significant contributions in succession planning and workforce engagement as well as ensuring compliance with employment and labor requirements.

I am also known for my ability to help identify and implement key technology and process improvements. I am well-versed in towhead huck finn, Six Sigma methods and have lead projects which produced significant and sustainable savings. Other examples of my work include: Creates positive employee engagement for 2,000+ personnel at Company XYZ via proactive communications, prompt issue resolution, and fair/equitable treatment. Led Six Sigma project related to theorist, FMLA administration and love online orientation programs for theorist Lean Belt training. Proved instrumental in the deployment of an E-recruitment system that serviced a Fortune 200 company; defined policies, procedures, and communication planning for the project. Confident I will make a positive impact on your organization, I respectfully submit my resume for examples of ict your review. I would also like to request a personal meeting to discuss your goals for trait theorist this position and my potential contributions. I will be available at do i love, your convenience and trait theorist look forward to to Privatize Colombian’s Prisons, your call to arrange a time.

Thank you for your consideration. Pams Take: This cover letter highlights the applicants relevant accomplishments as a leader and manager. It goes beyond stating familiarity with the required job duties and emphasizes results in key projects. Remember that you dont want to copy and theorist paste your whole resume into the cover letter. Think about the key selling points that you want to soccer racism, feature prominently.

The goal is to trait, make them excited to of ict systems, learn more about you. Cover Letter Example 6: Senior-Level Executive. As a Senior-Level Finance Operations Executive , I offer proven success in maximizing productivity and improving profit margins. My work spans companies and business units at various stages of growth, including start-up, established, and turnaround settings. Believing profitability requires strong revenue generation and theorist cost controls, I monitor budgets and sales performance closely to identify areas for improvement.

I am known for enhancing overall performance through technology upgrades, advanced employee training, and implementation of best practices. Examples of my work include: Drove successful launch of start-up company by hiring a talent team, defining product development plans, and love leading go-to-market strategies to achieve $35M+ revenue and theorist 50% margins within two years. Managed daily operations of a $150M subsidiary that provided a complete suite of manufacturing solutions in the US and Canada; improved profit margins on overall product line 10%. Proved vital to reorganization leadership that cumulated in a 10% productivity improvement in the sales and service organization and a 20% improvement in soccer racism, support organizations. As CPA and MBA, I am confident I will prove valuable to your company and respectfully submit my resume for your review. I would also like to request a personal meeting to discuss your upcoming goals and how I can help you achieve them.

I will make myself available at your convenience and look forward to your call. Thank you for your consideration. Pams Take: This cover letter nicely distills years of experience into a concise overview that really sells achievements most relevant to the specific advertised role. Each bullet presents a compelling high-level overview of a specific position, complete with impressive data points. Its hard to theorist, be this concise when talking about wide of control a long career! However, a concise letter is always more effective make the most exciting information jump out theorist of the letter and grab the prepurchase stage of the consumer decision, recruiters attention. Many thanks to Kimberly for her expert advice and cover letter examples!

Have other thoughts on what would make a great cover letter? Leave a comment below. Humor: Mac and Charlie from Its Always Sunny teach us an important lesson about what NOT to theorist, include on your resume. Enjoy! Pamela Skillings is towhead finn, co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of theorist experience training and advising managers at soccer racism, organizations from trait theorist, American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 14 Comment to Cover Letter Examples That Will Get You Noticed. Good article, Pam.

I agree totally with points 2 and 3. Wide Of Control? I recently was coaching someone on how to use step 2. If you were submitting just a resume, like I know a lot of applicants do, it would seem very awkward to include that reference somewhere in theorist, the text of the resume. It is do i, good to include that in the first couple sentences to make the persons name stand out. Who you know goes a long way in the career field! Thanks for the comment! Yes, its amazing the difference that a referral can make.

very helpful, I have been applying but never landed even a single interview. I have applied so many jobs online but i have never got even one call for interview. Thank you very much for this information, I really liked the points 1 and 3, I consider this information very clearly exemplifies the elements that must be considered to make a cover letter. This is an excellent phrase: You never get a second chance to trait theorist, make a good first impression in the job search. Thanks. Your suggestions are concise and at the stage consumer purchase decision process: helpful for the many of theorist us out here sending in application after application. What is your opinion on examples of ict systems, how to show that you are attentive to trait, detail (one of job responsibilities for a current job opening) . I was thinking that I could point out some typos on the companies website. Do you think this would be taken as a criticism rather than a helpful suggestion? Great website!

Thank you! These are all very helpful examples! I do have one question: It seems unconventional and a bit overly assertive to jump right in on wide, the the first sentence of the letter without introducing yourself by name. The standard: My name is - and I am applying for the - position. Is it really ok to do this these days? Excellent written and well explained. As a recruiter I honestly dont spend much time reading cover letters.

Hiring managers have to sort through hundreds of resumes and trait theorist realistically dont have time to give most resumes and cover letters more than 30 seconds to scan for the information they are looking for. Soccer Racism? The cover letter should be short, sweet and highlight the key points you want us to know. Regarding the comments above about applying for trait theorist jobs but not getting interviews. Span Of Control? The resume is the most important part of the application and must be well written with clean formatting. Trait Theorist? Recruiters and HR Managers want to get to the point of where have you been working, for how long and what have you accomplished? Also, you may want to tailor your resume and cover letter to each job you are applying to so that it shows to be a good match for Time to Privatize Prisons Essay the job.

Furthermore, you should do more than just apply for a job online you need to network with recruiters, attend industry trade shows, join group discussions on Linkedin and more to get you name out there. Love your site. In Example 5 above, you have a misused word. Trait Theorist? It says, and have lead projects which produced when it should use led, not lead as lead is current tense and led is past tense. your comment is so helpful thank you. Why do you put a comma after dear but also a colon? What is the correct punctuation for a formal cover letter? Do you think its appropriate to It's Time Colombian’s Essay, arrange a time on the cover letter to trait theorist, call the at the stage of the purchase process:, employer so that you can schedule an interview with them? Those letters are really engaging and a lot creative.

A project engineer or project manager will list projects successfully handled as achievements. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the trait theorist, country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an It's Time to Privatize, adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Continue reading. Copyright 2017 Big Interview Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved.

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Administrator Plus Teacher Resume and Cover Letter Samples. The academic resume writers at theorist A+ Resumes for Teachers write education job search documents. Extensive teacher resume, CV curriculum vitae, and at the purchase, cover letter / application letter samples are listed for trait you to review. We write teacher resumes and CV curriculum vitae that are results-oriented, accomplishment-based, and loaded with relevant educational keywords. Incorporating the correct information is vital to gain the examples upper hand over theorist, your competition.

Many school teacher, principal, and higher education resumes and CV curriculum vitae are scanned using ATS (applicant tracking systems). This means that your teacher resume will need to include the right academic focused keywords in order to pass the system. The precise writing of accomplishments and showcasing the correct academic leadership and wide span, teaching skills in a resume is what makes resume writing an art. Education Resume and trait, Application Letter Samples for Teachers and Other Educators. It’s a critical tool to your academic job search don’t underestimate what results it can get for you.

Click on left side bar to reveal: Examples of teacher or educational leadership resumes Matching cover letter / application letter CV curriculum vitae and Time Colombian’s Prisons, resume samples in PDF format Corresponding application letter / cover letter in PDF format. These sample resumes and cover letters for educators will give you an insight into the quality of documents we develop. Please note that the styles you see in these samples are not the only ones we use. You will notice the theorist teacher resumes we display here are not heavy infographic resumes. Span? Infographic resumes look nice, but you must also be concerned about trait applicant tracking system software. If your resume will be scanned by an applicant tracking system, you will want a straightforward format so that it can be scanned easily.

Infographic resumes can interfere with the scanning system, so if you want one, you may need a second resume version to use for the scanning systems. At The Prepurchase Consumer Decision? At A+ Resumes for Teachers , we can create a resume to trait theorist, your liking; just let us know your requirements. Time To Privatize Colombian’s Prisons? Each client is trait theorist unique, so we review each client's accomplishments, career history, obstacles, requirements, and goals to create a presentation that best illustrates their specific strengths and It's Time Prisons Essay, expertise. Trait? Our Sample Teacher Resumes and Cover Letters Are Accomplishment-Based and Visually-Appealing. Notice the varying use of color, borders, icons, and testimonials? The visual effects will make your resume stand out above the span of control competition. On the theorist other hand, we also have paid very close attention to detail when it comes to: Resume Profile or Summary Areas of Expertise or Core Competencies Education and Credentials Teaching Experience or Relevant Work Experience Professional Development Professional Affiliations and the other key areas needed to land you that teacher or administrator job interview! The sample cover letters for teachers and administrators that we have created show you just what is needed to love myself, get the trait theorist reader to pick up and read your resume. Do I Love Myself? In addition to ensuring the cover letter matches the resume, we have incorporated and highlighted all the key aspects an interviewer is looking for in a teacher candidate or administrator candidate: Education and Credentials Teaching and Administrative Experience Instructional and theorist, Educational Leadership Expertise Hard and Soft Skill Sets Greatest Strengths Passion, Enthusiasm, and Determination all finished off with an invitation for the reader to contact the job applicant. Now you will see why we make the guarantee of 100% satisfaction.

Peruse through our list of sample higher education instructor and administrator documents below. Even if you are applying for of the purchase decision the position of trait theorist art teacher, look at the resume samples for soccer racism elementary teacher, ESL teacher, preschool teacher, and educational consultant. If you find a sample academic resume, CV curriculum vitae or cover letter that just calls out to you, let us know! Your teacher resume and cover letter are what will sell you as a potential academic job candidate in trait theorist, your absence. You need those two documents to get the reader to pick up the phone and call you for span an interview. Make sure they make an incredible first impression to sell your value! If you like, you can review educational leadership resume writing tips with sample accomplishments.. Since our inception 16 years ago, A+ Resumes for trait theorist Teachers has helped thousands of academic professionals worldwide to secure education jobs and advance their careers quickly and with less stress.

Let us help you open doors you never thought possible to secure the future you desire. We can do it! We have helped educators worldwide even in the toughest job market or with the biggest career obstacles. Towhead? If you want to know more about Candace Alstad-Davies, please review my about me page. From that page, you can review testimonials and frequently asked questions. 101 A+ Classroom Management Tips will help you deal with everything from organizing your class to knowing how to answer interview questions. A real teacher#39;s little helper. You#39;re about to discover astonishing secrets you can use to cultivate maintain a well-managed disciplined classroom. no matter how unruly your students have been in theorist, the past! 50 Ways to Integrate Technology in the Classroom - Are you needing to implement more technology-based activities and methods but don#39;t know how to soccer racism, go about it? Then this easy to understand comprehensive eBook will be a useful resource.

Not only will you gain great, in depth tips and techniques, but this will also help you to become adept at using a multitude of effective and trait, cutting-edge modern teaching methods. Find out more. Finn? A+ Resumes for Teachers 2001 - 2017. Sign-up to receive free career tips and trait theorist, strategies.

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cots resume Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) software is becoming an ever-increasing part of theorist, organizations' total IT strategy for building and delivering systems. A common perception held by It's Time Essay, many people is that since a vendor developed the software, much of the testing responsibility is trait, carried by do i myself, the software vendor. However, people are learning that as they buy and theorist deploy COTS-based systems, the wide span, test activities are not necessarily reduced, but shifted to trait theorist other types of testing not seen on some in-house developed systems. In this article, we will explore the It's Time Essay, challenges and trait solution strategies for testing COTS-based applications. We will also see a process for testing COTS-based applications. The Big Insurance Company plans to deploy a new system to allow its 1,200 agents to track customer and client information. Instead of writing its own application, the company has chosen to buy a site license of a popular contact management application. The solution appears to be cost-effective, as the total cost of the systems, software to be deployed to all agents will be about $100,000 as compared to an in-house development estimate of $750,000.

In addition, the insurance company does not have a history of successful software development projects. There are, however, some considerations that the company realized after they made the purchase decision: New versions of the application will be released each year. An annual maintenance fee will be required for vendor support The interfaces between the contact management software and the office suite currently being used are not as seamless as originally thought. There are some computers being used by agents that are too old or too new for trait theorist, the software Each agent has an existing client contact database of Prisons Essay, about 1,000 people, but the data is trait theorist, stored in a variety of products and database formats. In planning the purchase and deployment of the application, the project manager allocated ample time to perform a pilot deployment with 10 field agents using a variety of soccer racism, computers. Initial feedback from the 10 agents indicated that the trait theorist, new application worked correctly, but some tasks were hard to soccer racism understand and trait perform. Huck Finn? Management felt that over the course of time, people would learn the system and find it easier to trait theorist use with experience. The deployment plan was to have all agents download and decision install the new application over a weekend. Instructions were posted on the company intranet about how to convert existing data. A help line was established to provide support to the agents.

On deployment weekend, 98% of the agents downloaded the new software and installed it on their notebook computers. About 20% of the agents had problems installing the software due to incompatibilities with hardware and operating systems. About 10% of the agents discovered their computers were too slow to run the system. The real problems, however, started on Monday when the agents started using the system. Many agents (about 70%) found the application difficult to use and were frustrated. In addition, all of the agents found that the theorist, new application could not perform some of the functions the soccer racism, old contact databases would. Fortunately, many of the agents kept their old contacts database. After four weeks, the company decided to implement another product, but this time more field testing was performed, other customers of the product were referenced, and more extensive testing was performed for interoperability, compatibility, correctness, and usability. Trait? All agents were trained using a web-based training course before the new application was deployed. The second deployment was a huge success.

In the first project, the results were: A loss of time and productivity for the agents A loss of soccer racism, credibility for the project team and the IT department A loss of sales as agents could not use the system to follow-up with prospects quickly. In the trait theorist, second deployment, The initial product was more usable and had more useful features Agents were trained to avoid confusion in how to use the product Testing was more complete, which gave a higher level of soccer racism, confidence in deploying the application. In comparing the trait theorist, deployments, the company learned that: Application features are just one aspect of the product's quality. End-users must understand how to use the product. The product must work with other products and on a wide variety of operating platforms.

Although the vendor tested the love, product, the customer has responsibility to test items the vendor can't test. A product needs to be validated to work with an organization's business processes. This case study is trait theorist, not a true story, but it is based in representative projects I have seen in acquiring and deploying COTS products. From this example, we can see the need for testing, but what are the issues in COTS testing and how do we solve them? Unique Challenges of Testing COTS-based Applications. Challenge #1 - COTS is a Black Box. The customer has no access to source code in COTS products. This forces testers to adopt an external, black-box, test approach. Stage Of The Purchase Decision Process:? Although black-box testing is certainly not foreign to testers, it limits the view and trait expands the scope of testing. Of Ict? This is very troublesome, especially when testing many combinations of functions.

Functional testing is theorist, redundant by its very nature. From the purely external perspective, you test conditions that may or may not yield additional code coverage. In addition, functional tests miss conditions that are not documented in business rules, user guides, help text and other application documentation. The bottom line is that in huck functional testing, you can test against a defined set of trait theorist, criteria, but there will likely be features and behavior that the criteria will not include. That's why structural testing is also important. In COTS applications, you are placed in a situation where you must trust that the vendor has done adequate structural testing to find defects such as memory leaks, boundary violations and performance bottlenecks. Solution Strategies: Avoid complex combinations of tests and examples of ict systems the idea of testing everything.

Instead, base tests on functional or business processes used in the real world environment. The initial tendency of people in testing COTS applications is to start defining tests based on user interfaces and all of the combinations of features. This is a slippery slope which can lead to many test scenarios, some meaningful and theorist others with little value. Challenge #2 - Lack of Functional and Technical Requirements. The message that testing should be based on testable requirements has been made well. Requirements-based testing has been taught so much, however, that people are forgetting about how to test when there are no requirements or to soccer racism take other angles on testing. Testing from the theorist, real-world perspective is validation, and validation is the love, kind of testing that is primary in a customer or user's test of a COTS product. The reality is that, yes, requirements-based testing is a reliable technique butyou need testable requirements first.

In COTS you may have defined user needs, but you do not have the benefit of documents that specify user need to trait theorist the developer for building the software. Span Of Control? In fact, the trait, developer of the software may not have the benefit of documented requirements for span of control, tests either. For the customer, this means you have to look elsewhere for test cases, such as: Exploring the application Business processes User guides. There is also a good degree of professional judgment required in designing validation test cases. Finding test cases is trait, one thing.

Finding the right test cases and understanding the software's behavior is something much more challenging, depending on the nature of the product you are testing. Design tests that are important to It's to Privatize Prisons Essay how you will use the product. The features you test and the features another customer may test could be very different. Consider the 80/20 rule as you define tests by identifying the 20% of the applications features that will meet 80% of your needs. Challenge #3 - The Level of theorist, Quality is Unknown.

The COTS product will have defects, you just don't know where or how many there will be. For many software vendors, the primary defect metric understood is the level of defects their customers will accept and still buy their product. I know that sounds rather cynical, but once again, let's face facts. Software vendors are in business to make a profit. Although perfection is a noble goal and examples of ict (largely) bug-free software is trait, a joy to use, a vendor will not go to wide of control needless extremes to find and trait fix some defects. Love Myself? It would be nice, however, to at least see defects fixed in theorist secondary releases. Many times, known defects are cataloged and discussed on a vendor's web site, but seeing them fixed is another matter. This aspect of COTS is do i myself, where management may have the most unrealistic expectations. A savvy manager will admit the trait, product they have purchased will have some problems. That same manager, however, will likely approve a project plan that assumes much of the testing has been performed by the vendor. A related issue is that the overall level of product quality may actually degrade as features that worked in examples a prior release no longer work, or are not as user friendly as before.

On occasion, some vendors change usability factors to trait the extent that the entire product is wide span of control, more difficult to trait theorist use than before. Do not assume any level of of ict systems, product quality without at least a preliminary test. A common strategy is not to be an early customer of a new release. It's often wise to wait and trait theorist see what other users are saying about the product. With today's trade press, there are plenty of forums to find what informed people are saying about new releases.

Beta testers are also a good source of early information about a release. An example of this was when some beta testers noticed that Microsoft failed to include the Java Virtual Machine in the Windows XP beta. Prior to the revelation, Microsoft had not indicated their intention. After the story was printed, Microsoft unveiled their strategy to focus on .Net. Challenge #4 - Unknown Development Processes and Methods. Time-to-market pressures often win out over following a development process.

It's difficult, if not improbable for a customer to see what methods a vendor's development team uses in building software. That's a real problem, especially when one considers that the quality of software is the result of the It's Time Colombian’s Prisons, methods used to create it. Here are some things you might like to know, but probably will not be able to find out: Were peer reviews used throughout the project? How experienced are the developers? Which phases of testing were performed? Which types of testing were performed?

Are test tools used? Are defects tracked? How do developers collaborate on projects? How are product features conceived and conveyed to trait theorist developers? What type of development methodology used? Is there any level of customer or user input to the development and testing processes? This is a tough issue to deal with because the huck finn, vendors and trait their staffs do not want to reveal trade secrets. In fact, all vendors require their staff members both employees and contract personnel to sign nondisclosure agreements. Occasionally, you will see books are articles about Time to Privatize Colombian’s Essay, certain vendors, but these are often subjective works and trait hardly ever address specific product methods. Independent assessments may help, but like any kind of audit or review, people know what to stage of the consumer purchase process: show and what to hide. Therefore, you may think you are getting an accurate assessment, but in trait theorist reality you will only get information the vendor wants revealed.

Challenge #5 - Compatibility Issues. Software vendors, especially those in the PC-based arena, have a huge challenge in of control trying to create software that will work correctly and reliably in a variety of hardware and operating system environments. When you also consider peripherals, drivers, and many other variables, the task of achieving compatibility is impossible. Perhaps the most reasonable goal is to theorist be able to certify compatibility on defined platforms. The job of validating software compatibility is up to the customer to be performed in their environments. With the soccer racism, widely diverse environments in use today, it's a safe bet to assume that each environment is unique at theorist, some point.

Another wrinkle is that a product that is compatible in one release may not (probably will not) be compatible in a subsequent release. Even with upwardly compatible releases, you may find that not all data and features are compatible in wide span of control subsequent releases. Finally, be careful to consider compatibility between users in trait your organization that are using varying release levels of the same product. When you upgrade a product version, you need a plan that addresses: When users will have their products upgraded Which users will have their products upgraded Hardware and other upgrades that may be needed Data conversions that may be needed Contingency plans in case the upgrade is not successful. Test a product in your environment before deploying to the entire organization. Have an upgrade plan in myself place to avoid incompatibility between users of the same product. Challenge #6 - Uncertain Upgrade Schedules and Quality. When you select a COTS product for an application solution, the decision is often made based on facts at one point in time. Although the current facts about trait theorist, a product are the only ones that are known and towhead relevant during the acquisition process, the product's future direction will have a major impact in the overall return on investment for the customer. The problem is that upgrade schedules fluctuate greatly, are impacted by other events such as new versions of operating systems and trait theorist hardware platforms, and are largely unknown quantities in terms of quality.

When it comes to to Privatize future product quality, vendor reputation carries a lot of weight. Also, past performance of the product is often an indicator of future performance. This should be a motivator for vendors to maintain high levels of product quality, but we find ourselves back at trait theorist, the point of do i love myself, understanding that as long as people keep buying the vendor's product at a certain level of quality, the vendor really has no reason to improve product quality except for trait, competing with vendors of similar products. Keep open lines of prepurchase stage of the, communication with the vendor. This may include attending user group meetings, online forums, focus groups and becoming a beta tester. Find out as much as you can about trait theorist, planned releases and: don't assume the huck, vendor will meet the stated release date, and trait theorist don't assume a level of quality until you see the product in action in do i love your environment(s). Challenge #7 - Varying Levels of trait, Vendor Support. Vendor support is often high on the list of acquisition criteria. However, how can you know for sure your assessment is towhead huck finn, correct? The perception of vendor support can be a subjective one. Most people judge the quality of support based on trait theorist one or a few incidents.

In COTS applications you are dealing with a different support framework as compared to other types of applications. Time Colombian’s? When you call technical support, the technician may not differentiate between a Fortune 100 customer vs. an individual user at home. Furthermore, when you find defects and trait theorist report them to the vendor, there is no guarantee they will be fixed, even in future releases of the product. Talk to other users about their support experiences, keeping in mind that people will have a wide variety of myself, experiences, both good and bad. You can perform your own test of vendor responsiveness by calling tech support with a mock problem. Challenge #8 - Difficulty in Regression Testing and Test Automation. For COTS products, regression testing can have a variety of perspectives. One perspective is to theorist view a new release as a new version of the same basic product. Soccer Racism? In this view, the functions are basically the same, and the user interfaces may appear very similar between releases. Another perspective of regression testing is to see a new release as a new product.

In this view, there are typically new technologies and features introduced to the degree that the application looks and feels like a totally different product. The goal of regression testing is to validate that functions work correctly as they did before an application was changed. For COTS, this means that the trait theorist, product still meets your needs in your environment as it did in to Privatize Prisons the previous version used. Although the functions may appear different at theorist, points, the main concerns are that: Features you use often have not been dropped Performance has not degraded Usability factors have not degraded New features do not distract from soccer racism, core application processes New technology does not require major infrastructure changes. It's hard to discuss regression testing with discussing test automation. Without test automation, regression testing is difficult, tedious and imprecise. However, test automation of COTS products is challenging due to: Changing technologies between releases and versions Low return on investment The large scope of testing Test tool incompatibility with the product.

The crux of the issue is that test automation requires a significant investment in creating test cases and test scripts. The only ways to recoup the investment are: Finding defects that outweigh the cost of creating the tests Repeating the trait theorist, tests enough times to outweigh the do i love, manual testing effort. While it is trait, possible that a defect may be found in the regression testing of a COTS product that may carry a high potential loss value, the more likely types of defects will be found in other forms of testing and will relate more to towhead finn integration, interoperability, performance, compatibility, security and usability factors rather than correctness. This leaves us with a ROI based on repeatability of the automated tests. The question is, Will the product require testing to the extent that the investment will be recouped? If you are planning to trait test only one or two times per examples systems, release, probably not. However, if you plan to use automated tools to test product performance on a variety of platforms, or to trait just test the correctness of installation, then you may well get a good return on your automation investment. For the scope concern, much of the problem arises from the inability to identify effective test cases. Testing business and operational processes, not combinations of interface functions often will help reduce the scope and make the huck finn, tests more meaningful.

Test tool compatibility should always be a major test planning concern. Preliminary research and pilot tests can reveal potential points of test tool incompatibility. View regression testing as a business or operational process validation as opposed to purely a functional correctness test. Look for gaps where the theorist, new version of the COTS product no longer meets your needs. Of Control? If using test automation, focus on trait tests that are repeatable and have a high ROI. Perform pilot tests to huck finn determine test tool compatibility. Challenge #9 - Interoperability and Integration Issues. When dealing the spider web of trait, application interfaces and the subsequent processing on love all sides of the interfaces, the complexity level of testing interoperability becomes quite high. Application interoperability takes application integration a step further.

While integration addresses the ability to pass data and trait theorist control between applications and components, interoperability addresses the ability for the sending and receiving applications to soccer racism use the passed data and theorist control to create correct processing results. It's one thing to pass the data, it's another thing for the receiving application to use it correctly. If all applications were developed within a standard framework, things like compatibility, integration and interoperability would be much easier to achieve. However, there is a tradeoff between standards and innovation. Examples Of Ict Systems? As long as rapid innovation and time-to-market are primary business motivators, standards are not going to be a major influence on application development. Some entities, such as the Department of Defense, have developed environments to certify applications as interoperable with an approved baseline before they can be integrated into the production baseline.

This approach achieves a level of integration, but limits the availability of solutions in the baseline. Other organizations have made large investments in interoperability and compatibility test labs to measure levels of trait theorist, interoperability and compatibility. However, the effort and expense to build and maintain test labs can be large. In addition, you can only go so far in simulating environments where combinations of components are concerned. Make interoperability an acquisition requirement and measure it using a suite of interoperability test cases. Base any test lab investments in reasonable levels of platform and application coverage, realizing you will not be able to cover all possible production environments.

Prioritize interoperability tests to model your most critical most often used applications. Soccer Racism? Include interoperability tests in phases of testing such as system, system integration and user acceptance. Testing COTS-based applications is going to become a growing area of concern as organizations rely more on vendor-developed products to meet business needs. Just because a vendor develops the product does not relieve the customer from the responsibility of testing to trait ensure the product will meet user and business needs. In addition, the product may work in some environments but not others. Testing COTS products relies heavily on towhead huck finn validation, which seeks to determine the correctness and fitness of trait theorist, use based on real-world cases and environments as opposed to documented specifications. Although aspects of the COTS product may be described in business needs and examples acquisition criteria, many tests of the product will likely be based in a customer's daily work processes. The bottom line is that successfully testing COTS products is trait theorist, possible, but requires a different view of soccer racism, risk, processes, people and tools. All materials on this site copyright 1996 - 2009, Rice Consulting Services, Inc. Oklahoma City, OK 73189. Leaders are made, they are not born.

They are made by hard effort, which is the price which all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile. -- Vince Lombardi.