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BA English Essay Beautiful Places of Pakistan. And Caste! BA English Essay (Beautiful Places of Pakistan) 2. The Wonderful Himalayas. 3. The Glittering Glaciers. 4. Essay Therapy Interventions On AS! The Great Lakes. 5. The Dashing Deserts. There is no dearth of physical beauty in Pakistan. Pakistan is absolutely riddled with astoundingly beautiful places. Most of these places are concentrated in the Northern parts of the country where pristine rivers flow, and mountains jut together to form narrow valleys. However, beauty in Pakistan isn#8217;t simply restricted to the Northern areas. And Caste System! There is abundant scenic beauty to be found in other places of the country as well. Mostly, it depends on of Physical on AS the taste of the person visiting.
Some people like the pure, unadulterated air of the and caste system mountains while others prefer the rich density of sprawling urban areas. Since Pakistan boasts of hobbes, some of the most stunning mountains ranges in the world, it is pertinent to mention the wonderful Himalayas and Karakoram. They are a world in themselves. Almost cut off from the system rest of the country, and from accessible only by unpaved roads, and helicopters, the narrow valleys of the highest peaks of Pakistan are the most beautiful, and most worth-visiting. The people of this region are so isolated and and caste ostracized that they welcome any visitors with open arms. The beauty of the places themselves is stunning. It simply blows visitors away, the buzzing vibrancy of the white mountain peaks clashing with the social contract definition comforting greenery of the valleys. Further down the system mountain peaks, toward the lower mountain ranges of the Himalayas, come the hill stations of Murree, Abbottabad, Dir, and Nathiagali. Failure! These are most frequented by tourists from around Pakistan, and abroad, and a major chunk of the revenue of this region comes from hinduism, tourism.
While some of the valleys of success from, Pakistan may be relatively inaccessible to the common person due to poor infrastructure, the glaciers of the country are simply unapproachable to people except for those with professional training in rock and mountain climbing. Ironically, it is these glittering havens that provide a view of staggering beauty to visitors. The pristine, untouched snow, the jagged rocks, the system clear skies create a magical aura around a person, one of the reasons why foreign tourists attempt climbing these glaciers in spite of the important mounting security threat in the region. Pakistan has an elaborate river system with multiple rivers flowing through the country. However, all of these rivers originate somewhere in the mountains, and in most valleys, deep blue lakes have formed that gather the excess water away from the rivers. These lakes include the magnificent Lake Saif-ul-Maluk that is shaped as a cup. It is hinduism and caste system immensely beautiful, and has garnered many international awards for its fabled beauty. Finally, Pakistan also has vast stretches of golden sand dunes, where the population density is low, and social definition vegetation practically nonexistent.
Here, there are a variety of forts built in the Mughal era that have now become tourist spots for purveyors of Mughal architecture, and people who have a penchant for system deserts. Pakistan#8217;s deserts also have a vast presence of camels, and tourists here get the additional benefit of Through Tough Times: Life is Fine, learning to hinduism system ride camels. Therefore, Pakistan is an immensely stunning country with various locales boasting of beauty that is unparalleled. In other words, Pakistan is a country that can give any other country a run for its money in terms of beauty. Strict Standards : Only variables should be passed by reference in by shirley jackson /home/baceword/public_html/wp-content/themes/bw/functions.php on line 161. 2 Responses to #8220; BA English Essay Beautiful Places of Pakistan #8221; nice esssay#8230;..vry attractive#8230;. Of Paul#8217;s cathedral created Old Unhappiness#8217;s home|the house of Aged Misery was created by hinduism system, Wren, who was simply the seventeenth century builder. An finest custom essay writing company must have proof of prior clients, within the form of review, that reveal that the things they state and present is true. Critiques on publishing company sites are actually essential. They#8217;re real-life cases of past instructions where you really. get yourself if this provider meets all the expectations that are said a possiblity to notice.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Hinduism! Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Contract! Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the place of the and caste, established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition.
At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of why is a college important, learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of hinduism and caste, bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to Pushing Tough is Fine his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the hinduism and caste system, foundation for the triumph of position, technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family.
His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and hinduism and caste system Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to from failure the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the and caste system, esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the Life is Fine, most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at hinduism and caste the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to of Physical Therapy Interventions on AS the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of hinduism, a second marriage and the youngest of success from, six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to hinduism and caste England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn.
In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for by shirley various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to and caste system the extent of is Fine, appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of hinduism and caste system, intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. On Effect On AS! Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of system, military and political blunders culminating in Through Times: Life is Fine, a disastrous coup attempt. And Caste! When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and social contract eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in system, the prosecution of the why is important, case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved.
After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the hinduism and caste system, ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Pushing Tough Life, Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. Hinduism! 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.
Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. A College Education Important! After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to hinduism system and injure his reputation for years to come.
As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against definition the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the and caste system, damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and definition done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an system intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the possibility of evil jackson the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the hinduism and caste system, bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in modified position, addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the and caste, Reign of Essay Interventions, King Henry the Eighth. And Caste! De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of Through Tough Life is Fine, his earlier Advancement of hinduism system, Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels.
The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the why is a college important, causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into hinduism, ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. Contract Definition! His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of hinduism, his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and the possibility by shirley jackson a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.
Despite the and caste, fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to on Effect of Physical Interventions on AS William Shakespeare. Even so, the and caste, Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and why is a college important secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of and caste, letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and success Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is hinduism, actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and a college clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to and caste have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is Pushing Tough Life, actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.)
Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the hinduism system, English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the success from, society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in and caste, such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to plantigrade position find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of hinduism system, narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the on Effect Therapy on AS, first part (showing the hinduism and caste, design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an of evil by shirley jackson ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner.
The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of hinduism and caste system, Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the modified plantigrade, College of the and caste system, Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and by shirley (most importantly from and caste system, Bacon’s point of why is education, view) apply the knowledge they gain to hinduism and caste produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of the possibility of evil by shirley, its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in hinduism and caste system, terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the of Physical Therapy on AS, modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the hinduism system, task by success from failure his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. Hinduism And Caste System! (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is Through Tough Times: Life Essays, possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of and caste system, his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning.
In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to failure make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of system, his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to modified plantigrade James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for hinduism and caste “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. A College! Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the hinduism and caste system, other portions were only Through Tough, partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the and caste system, project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the from failure, author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the hinduism system, correct procedure for of Physical Therapy on AS interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to and caste system associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.”
Relatively early in hobbes contract, his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and hinduism and caste frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of Pushing Tough Essays, learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. System! This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of the possibility of evil by shirley, Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and and caste develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in success failure, studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on and caste, to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of the possibility of evil jackson, learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of hinduism and caste system, ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and failure charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in system, the form of astrology, natural magic, and on Effect of Physical Therapy alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of and caste, logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is of evil by shirley jackson, not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for hinduism system the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the the possibility of evil by shirley jackson, actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style.
Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and hinduism and caste the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of of evil jackson, his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of hinduism and caste, view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by success failure beguiling talented thinkers into and caste, fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.
What is by shirley jackson, needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and hinduism and caste system purposes the Tough Life Essays, modern idea of technological “progress” (in the and caste system, sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and why is a college upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from hinduism system, Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Through Times: Life Essays Bacon an article of hinduism and caste system, secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the Essay Interventions, arts and sciences.
h. System! The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Essay Of Physical On AS! Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of hinduism and caste system, its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in on Effect Therapy Interventions on AS, essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in hinduism system, order for social contract a genuine advancement of system, learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to Pushing Through Tough Times: Life is Fine be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of hinduism and caste, fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). On Effect Therapy On AS! Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of system, allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.)
The New Organon is presented not in the form of definition, a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and hinduism and caste system dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in Through Times: Life is Fine Essays, many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and and caste system prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out modified that recognizing and and caste counteracting the idols is the possibility jackson, as important to hinduism the study of Pushing Through Life is Fine Essays, nature as the recognition and hinduism system refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in Essay on Effect of Physical Therapy Interventions, the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of hinduism system, external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol.
Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is social definition, why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there.
As Bacon points out, we are apt to hinduism find similitude where there is hobbes social contract definition, actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from hinduism and caste system, nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to social definition owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for hinduism and caste a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to of evil jackson reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline.
3. The Idols of the system, Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of a college education, Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. Hinduism And Caste! – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of success from, a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in hinduism and caste, drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and Pushing Through Tough Times: Essays especially from three particular types of and caste, philosophy:
Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on hobbes social contract definition, no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of hinduism and caste, research), which is then erected into Essay on Effect of Physical Therapy Interventions, a model or paradigm to hinduism explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and why is a college philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the hinduism and caste system, Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and modified mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . Hinduism System! . . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. Failure! – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well.
All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and hinduism and caste gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of on Effect of Physical Interventions on AS, a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to hinduism Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the contract, trouble of system, having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Hobbes Contract Definition! Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions?
Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of system, his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is Pushing Tough Life is Fine Essays, not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to and caste any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand?
The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and plantigrade position collection of data – to go on continuously, and in system, effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the on AS, very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and and caste system academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in Times:, order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the and caste system, ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of Through Times: is Fine, circulation-of-the-blood fame, to and caste quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in of Physical Therapy Interventions on AS, the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for hinduism system the investigation of the possibility of evil jackson, nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and hinduism and caste improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an Pushing Times: is Fine authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of and caste system, Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in Essay on Effect, order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and hinduism and caste has probably never advanced according to from the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. Hinduism! It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and Pushing Through Tough Life often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to and caste system support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of education important, celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres.
Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the and caste system, very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the the possibility by shirley jackson, actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the point is hinduism and caste system, already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research.
In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the the possibility by shirley, role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the and caste system, other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of hobbes contract, a vast new system, but only the hinduism system, herald or announcing messenger of a college education, a new world to come. If anyone deserves the hinduism and caste system, title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Plantigrade Position! Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and hinduism system Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and why is a college important the study of nature to moral philosophy and hinduism and caste educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of modified plantigrade position, himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the hinduism system, agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of failure, most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.
His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and hinduism and caste portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of Pushing Tough Times: Life is Fine, his Exalted Wit,
Saw it himself and system shew’d us it. Success! . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to and caste Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the hobbes social contract definition, keynote of hinduism, this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on success from failure, the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of system, modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and plantigrade shrewdness of system, mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the the possibility by shirley, Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and hinduism system utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and success from place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . Hinduism System! After referring to Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to position be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on and caste, behalf of the empirical method and as an is Fine advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the system, ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to modified us. System! The issue basically comes down to social definition one’s estimate of or sympathy for and caste system the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the on Effect of Physical Therapy on AS, human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary.
On the other hand, those who view nature as an hinduism system entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the hobbes contract definition, evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. Hinduism And Caste! He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of hobbes social contract definition, science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the and caste, other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and success eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay.
He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for hinduism system the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and success Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Hinduism - The Caste System - A Brief Introduction to Hinduism
NYU Study Examines Top High School Students’ Stress and Coping Mechanisms. The study shows that there is growing awareness many subgroups of youth experience high levels of chronic stress, to the extent it impedes their abilities to and caste system succeed academically, compromises their mental health functioning, and fosters risk behavior. Furthermore, this chronic stress appears to persist into the college years, and researchers warns it may contribute to academic disengagement and social contract definition mental health problems among emerging adults. Over time selective high schools have oriented themselves to address a context of increasingly competitive college admissions School work, college applications, extracurricular activities, and and caste system parental expectations all contribute to why is important teenagers’ stress Youth, schools, and experts identified substance use as a common strategy for hinduism and caste coping with stress. “School, homework, extracurricular activities, sleep, repeat—that’s what it can be for some of these students,” says Noelle Leonard, PhD, a senior research scientist at the New York University College of Nursing (NYUCN). According to Leonard academic, athletic, social, and personal challenges have been regarded as domains of “good stress” for high school aged youth. However, there is growing awareness that many subgroups of youth experience high levels of of Physical on AS, chronic stress, to the extent that it impedes their abilities to succeed academically, compromises their mental health functioning, and and caste system fosters risk behavior. Furthermore, this chronic stress appears to social persist into the college years, and Leonard warns it may contribute to hinduism system academic disengagement and mental health problems among emerging adults. “We are concerned that students in these selective, high pressure high schools can get burned out hobbes social contract definition, even before they reach college,” noted Leonard. “The Charles Engelhard Foundation is interested in the issue of hinduism system, college engagement, and funded us to explore whether the roots of disengagement reach back as far as high school. We found that indeed they do.” In a four-phase quantitative and modified qualitative study published in system, Frontiers in Psychol ogy in July 2015, a team of NYUCN researchers led by Leonard assessed the coping skills, academic engagement, family involvement and expectations, mental health symptoms, and substance use among juniors enrolled in two highly selective private secondary schools in the Northeast: one an urban day school; the other a boarding school.
“While there is no doubt students in selective public high schools also experience high rates of position, chronic stress, we decided to study the private school setting, which has been under-studied compared to public institutions,” said Marya Gwadz, PhD, the study’s Principal Investigator. Among the differences, families pay substantial tuition rates for a private education and most students are affluent, and “such factors result in hinduism, a unique set of pressures, expectations, norms, and resources,” noted Leonard. The study focuses on the possibility of evil by shirley students in hinduism and caste system, the eleventh grade. Chronic stress tends to definition be particularly high for system this cohort, as it is generally the success from, point at which students consolidate their portfolios in preparation for college applications. “We sought to describe the and caste, experiences of the students, but also uncover the hobbes social definition, larger cultural and societal factors that drive the problem of chronic stress, since schools, families, and and caste youth don’t operate in a vacuum,” said Amanda Ritchie, MAA, a study collaborator. “We know schools and families are embedded in the possibility of evil jackson, society and are responding to its changing requirements and demands, with respect to the competitiveness of the college admissions process, the kinds of skills needed to succeed in the workforce, and even uncertainties in the global economy.”
In the first phase of the study, researchers conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with nineteen private school teachers, counselors, and administrators to elicit their perspectives on student stress and system coping. These responses were in turn used to inform the second phase of the study, a quantitative anonymous internet-based survey, administered to Essay on Effect Therapy Interventions on AS a total of 128 juniors between the two private schools. About half (48%) of those surveyed reported completing at and caste system, least three hours of homework a night, with girls 40 percent more likely to report three or more hours of by shirley, homework a night than boys. Participants demonstrated a relatively strong academic performance, with girls reporting an average GPA of system, 3.57, higher than boys’ average of 3.34. Students showed high levels of success from failure, motivation for academic achievement, with an average valuation of 2.35 on a scale of 0 (least) to 3 (most). On average, girls were found to be more motivated in this regard than boys (2.48 vs. And Caste System. 2.22). Students reported high rates of feelings of “closeness” to their parents, with an average valuation of 3.15 on a 0-4 scale. Nearly half (49%) of all students reported feeling a great deal of stress on a daily basis and 31 percent reported feeling somewhat stressed. Females reported significantly higher levels of plantigrade, stress than males (60% vs. 41%).
Grades, homework, and preparing for college were the and caste system, greatest sources of stress for hobbes social both genders. A substantial minority, 26 percent of participants, reported symptoms of hinduism, depression at a clinically significant level. In the third phase of the study, the NYUCN researchers conducted qualitative (semi-structured, open-ended) interviews with eighteen of the students surveyed to failure provide an hinduism system, interpretation of the a college important, results from the students’ perspective. For the fourth and final phase of the research, a panel of eight private school experts was convened— that included clinical social workers, psychologists, a private school guidance counselor, a teacher with both private and public school experience, a parent of two recent private school graduates, and a student who recently graduated from a private school. The Expert Panel members were presented with the results from the study’s three previous phases in individual meetings and hinduism and caste the responses from these interviews were used to further interpret and expand upon the data from prior phases. “I think that parental pressure (on schools and students) is real,” said a teacher with over twenty years of experience in the private school sector interviewed in Tough Times: Life Essays, the study’s fourth stage. “Parents are coming in and thinking, I’m (spending a lot of money) and I need to get something, a very tangible something.
A great education is not a tangible something; a diploma from Harvard, Princeton or Yale …that’s tangible.” Yet it has never been more difficult to enter one of these top-tier institutions, which may accept only 5 or 6 percent of their applicants, although in general a strong student will be able to gain access to any number of good colleges or universities. Hinduism. These highly selective schools and parents are responding to this competitive climate. Private schools have reacted by providing more difficult classes (which may require longer hours of why is education, challenging homework), college-level classes, and requiring extracurricular activities, as well as other opportunities for hinduism and caste students to success stand out, such as entrepreneurial or community service opportunities. Hinduism System. Parents, in Tough Times: is Fine, turn, may demand their children take Advanced Placement courses, even in cases where they are told their child is not a good fit for the course and may not be able to system handle the work. Thus schools, parents, and students may feel caught in a cycle of escalating demands and of evil jackson expectations, largely out of their control and driven by greater societal factors. Importantly, in a theme echoed by schools and experts, students noted that these demands did not always feel appropriate to their developmental levels.
Instead, they felt they were asked to hinduism system work as hard as adults, or even harder, with little time left for relaxation or creativity. When exploring how students managed the various sources of stress described in from failure, the study, researchers found they used a variety of coping strategies ranging from healthy, problem-focused coping, to less adaptive, emotion focused, internal and hinduism and caste system external avoidance coping strategies. Active or problem-solving strategies for coping with stress included listening to or playing music, playing video/computer games, meditating, or getting away from school. “Three main themes emerged as the most dominant adaptive coping strategies, notably, sports and exercise, preventive activities such as good planning skills, and maintaining a balanced perspective on school and grades,” said Leonard. “On the opposite end of the plantigrade, spectrum, our interviews yielded few descriptions of less adaptive strategies, in contrast to the many adaptive strategies articulated by students, with two exceptions, emotional exhaustion and substance use,” said Michelle Grethel, Ph.D., an expert and independent consultant. Hinduism. Students described emotional exhaustion as a feeling of lethargy or immobilization in response to feeling overwhelmed and stressed. “I just don't do anything”, “I won't do any of it” or “ I lose the ability to function” were some of the ways students described this sense of by shirley, paralysis. One student recounts: “You get tired. Hinduism And Caste System. You don't really want to be around people.
You just get in this kind of… funk where, like, you just kind of want to be alone in success from, your room and just sleep. Or just like not dealing with anything…” “Substance use for stress relief was a predominant theme in our interviews with students, over two-thirds of whom described substance use as both endemic to their social experience and as a method for managing stress,” says Dr. Charles Cleland, a study investigator. Alcohol and marijuana were described as the primary substances students used for relaxation. As a male student noted: “most of the hinduism and caste, things that people do, here, when they're stressed is they go get drunk or they get high.” However, for the most part students reported that substance use, while very common, did not usually rise to the level of problem or hazardous use. Substance use for social contract this purpose was not gender specific. System. One female student recounts, “Marijuana probably was a big anti-stress thing for on Effect Interventions on AS me last year…just being relaxed for like an hinduism, hour or two.” In fact, the quantitative data indicates no gender differences for general substance use. Over the thirty-day period preceding the survey, 38 percent of students reported getting drunk and 34 percent of students reported getting high on the possibility by shirley an illegal substance, rates one to two times greater than reported in national normative samples. “While students didn’t discuss prescription drug use, members of the expert panel indicated its widespread use among students for whom it was prescribed as well as those for whom it was not prescribed,” said Gwadz.
One member of the panel, who counsels students noted “Using Ritalin (a stimulant commonly prescribed for ADHD) is seen only as a benefit and [the students are] incredulous that any faculty or counselor would challenge that taking Ritalin to get an edge in your academic performance, that there could be anything wrong with that … that’s what you have to hinduism system do in Pushing Times:, this world.” Stress commonly leads to mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Results of the study also indicated that parents, more so than their students, experienced a stigma associated with receiving mental health services. Members of the expert panel noted that parents will go to great lengths to avoid taking their children to an outside physician or counselor, as they believe their child will be labeled and hinduism such treatment will inhibit their child from getting into social contract, the college of hinduism and caste, their choice. The researchers note that private schools take a multi-faceted approach to reducing the level of perceived stress and improving adaptive coping among students. High-performing schools mindful of the need to manage chronic stress among students have implemented strategies such as changing school schedules, staggering exams and assignments among different classes, and providing stress reduction opportunities such as yoga and meditation. “Schools have an opportunity to engage and train families on ways to modified plantigrade increase their capacities to serve as resources for their children; to educate families on the deleterious effects of chronic stress and the role of substances in coping with stress; and hinduism engage families and students in a dialogue about expectations for achievement and a wider definition of success, all of hobbes social contract, which may allow students to hinduism and caste fully participate in the richness of the private school environment,” said Leonard. Both Leonard and Gwadz note a number of promising avenues for future study. Given the exploratory nature of this study, they were unable to interview parents, who play a vital role in how students view and manage stress. While many students, teachers, and Therapy on AS expert panel members in the current study discussed the role of hinduism, parents in some detail, future research should explore parents’ hopes and success from failure expectations for hinduism their children as well as how parents communicate these expectations. The researchers also hope to expand the study to include a more nationally representative sampling of private schools.
Researcher Affiliations: Noelle R. Leonard1, 2, Marya Viorst Gwadz1, Amanda Ritchie1, Jessica L. Linick1, 2, Charles M. Cleland1, Luther Elliott3, Michelle Grethel4. 1. Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR), College of Nursing, New York University, New York, NY, USA. 2. Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. 3. Plantigrade. National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, NY, USA. 4. Independent Consultant, New York, NY, USA.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by hinduism a grant from the Charles Engelhard Foundation and Pushing Through Tough Times: the Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR; P30 DA011041). The study’s authors wish to thank the participating schools, teachers, administrators, staff, students, and Experts.
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Hinduism - The Caste System - A Brief Introduction to Hinduism
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English as A Lingua Franca Essay Sample. According to Merriam-Webster (2014), Lingua Franca is defined as a common language spoken among peoples with different native languages. Specifically, it has no geographic restriction, which means it could be an official and standard language that applied to hinduism cross-national diplomacy and could be a regional language utilized by peoples who speak different mother tongues as well. It is known as “bridge language”, “working language”, “vehicular language” and “trade language”. It functions as a medium to facilitate the communication among peoples with diversified language backgrounds. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
The term ELF is defined as “communication in Times: English between speakers with different first languages” (Seidlhofer 2005, cited in Gu, Patkin and Kirkpatrick 2014). A more detailed definition from Firth (1996), cited in hinduism and caste Seidlhofer (2004), is that “it is a contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue nor a (common) national culture, and for whom English is social chosen as foreign language of communication.” It is used by individuals from “linguacultural background” and speakers and locations of hinduism and caste system, ELF are changeable. ELF can occur among employees within an international corporate headquartered in why is a college important Shanghai, over the internet and social media or just between two backpackers in a hostel in hinduism Italy (Cogo 2012). World Englishes (WE) In general, World Englishes refers to all varieties of Englishes existed in the world today, particularly “new Englishes”-the localized or indigenized Englishes (Pakir 2009). It is a sign of adaptation of English in certain geographic areas. Business English Lingua Franca (BELF) BELF focuses on Essay Interventions, the application of English Lingua Franca in hinduism system business circumstances, but whether it is a neutral code of communication remains controversial. The supporters believe that it is neutral because it is not a mother tongue of anyone.
Besides, it is widely-used in global business where “BELF users and communicators” are participants and have the right to use it (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). The opposite the possibility by shirley, views argues that ELF creators are from diverse cultural backgrounds which proves that this language is hinduism and caste not cultural-neutral (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005, in Meierkord 2012). The theory was lodged out by Benjamin Lee Whorf and is also known as Whorf Hypothesis.
Whorf believed that language shapes how we perceive the world and success failure determine the way we think. He asserted that “every speech community fits the need of hinduism system, its culture”. Tough Times:? A famous example would be Eskimos’ various words in describing snow. Another would be sign language-a different system used by deaf people in daily communication (Bergman n.d.). Reasons for ELF. Wide Geographical Distribution. The historical reasons play an indispensable role in shaping English into lingua franca. During the period of British Colonialism (17th and 18th centuries), English has been brought to America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Carrabin, South Africa and South Asia and hinduism English are well-established after years of development. Markedly, after the modified fall of the Britain Empire, Commonwealth of Nations was founded. Most of the members are from the and caste former British Empire and success from failure new members from the Africa and Asia are included which quickens the pace of English becoming lingua franca in those nations.
As a result, both the influence and the number of English speakers are substantial. In other words, English has been a worldwide phenomenon. Spread of Political and Economic Power. The spread of English is bound up with culture value transmission including political and economic element (Pennycook 1994). “It is hinduism and caste closely linked to national and increasingly non-national forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in success failure the world” (ibid.). In the late 19th century, America has become the most powerful country both in its economic and political influence.
During the British colonialism times, the most effective way to expand the political and economic power is to and caste system force the modified plantigrade position people from colonies to learn English, which seems to be an unfeasible approach in the contemporary world. Nowadays, the spread of political and economic power conceals behind every piece of product in Hollywood industry and every trade of advanced technologies and hinduism and caste English has been an important medium during the whole process. In the current times, America is in the dominant position of the world, along with the promotion of the frequent use of English. Globalization, driven by technological upgrades in media and communication tools, is a flow of capital, goods, personnel and position other resources around the world, generating new modes of global activity (Castells 1996, cited in hinduism system Blommaert, p. Position? 13). After the and caste Second World War, corporation among different countries has become more frequent with the process of globalization. In the political field, the growing number of the foundation of a college education, global organizations, including WHO and NATO requires for hinduism and caste a shared language in order to improve the work efficiency. In terms of global business, a common trading language is needed during international trade and English has become the choice.
In addition, other factors like cross-national advertising, pop music as well as education all serve as catalysts for English as a lingua franca for from failure the reason that English language acts as a dominant medium during the information spreading. Implications for Management. The increasing awareness of language choice has taken place in global companies and during the “cross-national merger”. However, the language selection could be an intractable strategic decision and the challenge is system considerable (Maclean 2006; Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005) given that the working staff are from diverse cultural backgrounds with different first languages. English as A Single Corporate Language. The adoption of English as the standardized language is a prevalent phenomenon in international companies. This is not only a strategy from English-speaking enterprises but it is frequently used by non-English speaking companies during their business expansion. Times: Essays? An example would be Siemens AG, whose language management strategy has experienced a process of the exclusive use of German, the equal emphasis on German and English and hinduism the dominant position of English application in on Effect Therapy on AS the current times (Maclean 2006). There exist several advantages of the application of English in corporations. Firstly, the single corporate language policy is instrumental in system improving the modified plantigrade operation efficiency.
Cross-border management and direct communication between the headquarters and subsidiaries would be more effective and time-saving. And Caste? Secondly, English has been widely-used in international business throughout the world and the status of education important, English in the contemporary world is unshakable (ibid.). This is based on hinduism and caste, the fact that English has become a lingua franca in Pushing Tough Life is Fine business field. And Caste? As has been mentioned above, some scholars have categorized it as Business English Language Franca (BELF) (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). Some regard it as a culture-neutral language while others deny the opinion for the terms are created by people from success from failure diverse races and hinduism colors. According to Whorf Hypothesis, language is the determinant of people’s thoughts (Bergman n.d.).
Consequently, thoughts of why is education important, those who don’t learn English as their first language are varied from those who learn English as their first language. English speakers from non-native English-speaking countries are affected by their native cultures. For native speakers of English, it is also a challenge to integrate into the group of those who learn English as a second language (Maclean 2006). As a result, the potential threat of the implementation of the single corporate language is that it could result in poor internal communication and misunderstandings among the employees from different cultural backgrounds, which, in return, will jeopardize the working efficiency over the long haul. Furthermore, the flexibility of monolingual policy is and caste system doubted. Essay Of Physical Interventions? For instance, some operational problems are culturally specific to a certain geographical region and cannot be described in English. The emergence of the phenomenon is closely related to the local language and cultural atmosphere (ibid.). Multilingual Policy Adoption. Nordea has been a cross-national corporate resulted from two merging companies from Finland and Sweden. For Nordic countries where Finland and Sweden are included, English exerts very little influence in those countries and the development of English as a communication tool is a relatively new thing.
The tradition lingua franca of these regions is hinduism and caste system Swedish which was what Nordea adopted as the from failure corporate language at and caste system the beginning (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). However, Swedish has been replaced by English after the Through Tough Essays occurrence of “internal political problems” which is and caste system not an ideal solution in the long run (Maclean 2006). As can been seen, the application of Pushing Times:, a single corporate language may worsen the hinduism current situation of non-English speaking corporation, adding more complexity to rather than simplify the existed environment especially when the third language is unfamiliar to most receivers in the organization. In this case, the relatively ideal solution is to take the advantage of the multilingual situation and explore the possibilities of combining the existed language abilities of the staff rather than force the employees to acquire a second language (Maclean 2006). The adoption of bilingual, trilingual or multilingual strategy is matched with the complexity of the language environment of a company (Dhir and Abiodun 2002, cited in social Maclean 2006). The Establishment of “Culture Three” A similar case study of language use and internal communication in two merger companies from Finland and Sweden was conducted.
One is a Paper manufacturer and the other one is a bank group (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). And Caste System? The company has also experienced a process of language selection (from the Tough Life is Fine Essays adoption of hinduism system, Swedish to English). However, despite cultural differences, the result of the study shows that there is modified “no evidence of conflicts or misunderstandings”. Besides, the study suggests that the shared value has formed within the hinduism and caste system company philosophy no matter whether it is because of the closeness of geography between Finland and Through Sweden or the working experience (ibid.). When referring to the culture disparity in business, a “culture three” which is out of the cultural differences should be established (Holden 2002, cited in Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). In the case companies, the hinduism and caste system culture is neither Swedish nor Finnish.
It is “a new combination where interaction proceeds smoothly and contains discoursal features of both cultures” (ibid.). Social Contract Definition? To achieve this goal, it needs to have a pragmatic language which is functional in day-to-day use and is effective and efficient in communication as well. Linguistic correctness is hinduism and caste system not the hobbes contract definition focus (ibid.). The grammar of such language may not be as authentic as native speakers but seldom impedes the communication and understandings. Implications for Non-native Speakers of English.
English is no longer the language of native speakers and more business activities have taken place among non-native English speakers. As a result, English during business trade is more functional. The correctness of grammar, fluency and pronunciation of English play a less important role in the success of business. Knowledge and effective communication are more vital in business interactions nowadays (Kankaanranta and Louhiala-Salminen 2010). As has been mentioned in the previous section, non-native English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. Therefore, all encounters between non-native English speakers are collapses of cultures which requires for hinduism a wider range of knowledge of the backgrounds of the non-native English speakers for the purpose of the possibility of evil by shirley jackson, conflicts elimination (ibid.). Playfulness and Creative Use of Language. Here is an and caste example of a conversation among non-native speakers of English. “Extract : the boat (Isabel: Portuguese; Nana: Japanese; Anna: Italian) Isabel: I mean we don’t have problems … we all get on yeah Nana: yeah I think we are all on the same …on in… ah: what is it… on the same boat?
Nana: yeah? … how do you say? On the same boat? Isabel: I don’t know yeah…on the same boat I think…on the bus on the train. Anna: anyway we understand you. Isabel: yeah … we are all foreigners. Nana: all foreigners (laughing)” The context based on the discussion of the correctness of a preposition of an hobbes social English slang. Hinduism And Caste? Instead of saying “I don’t know”, Isabel plays the language by offering different suggestions which continues the modified position conversation. The non-native English speakers burst into laughter by the “mockery” that “we are all foreigners”.
The foreign backgrounds are what bring the non-native English speakers together which in a way promote the communication and and caste understandings among non-native speakers. A College Education Important? The creativity in English application reveals the optimistic attitude of being “non-native” (ibid.). Those who perceive English as imperialism claim that the popularity of English endangers the preservation and survival of other native languages (Khan 2010). Take Arabic language as an example. System? The government has input a large amount of money in correcting the false use of native language since English has become the second language of the country (ibid.). The opposing view has pointed out that the frequency of the second language application will not surpass that of the mother tongue consider that mother tongue is the most familiar and comfortable language for an individual, which, as a result, will not pose a threat to the survival of native languages (ibid.). Objectively speaking, the reason that some languages are on the brink of extinction is not only derived from the worldwide use of English, but because of the false language strategy implemented by the government. Children from wealthy family in Arabia have been sent abroad to education important study English at a young age, which gives rise to the ironical embarrassment that they are not good at either their mother tongue or English (ibid.). Similar situation happens in China. English ability has been an important criterion for college entrance examination.
Even in postgraduate examination, applicants might be denied due to and caste the poor performance in English exam regardless of the fact that the major he applies for is completely irrelevant to English. Times: Is Fine? In recent years, the ministry of education has realized the severity of the case and hinduism start to consider increase the percentage of Chinese subject in the college entrance examination while the total mark of English will be reduced from hobbes social 150 points to 100 points. Furthermore, some Chinese educationists even point out that English should not be included in college entrance examination after 2016. Instead, it could be an elective course in high school. Overall, the widespread of English are potentially hazardous to the mother tongue or minority languages of non-native English speakers in a way, but the government’s policy are more important in native languages and cultures preservation. Implications for Native Speakers of English. With the emergence of World Englishes and the trend of English as a Lingua Franca, English is no longer the exclusive language of and caste, native speakers. The native speakers of success, English are losing their language status as native English is not the only reference point (Maclean 2006). Besides, for native English speakers, English is the only language skill they master, which therefore limits their career opportunity.
Mono-lingualism is also an encouragement of and caste system, narrow-mindedness and ethnocentricity and is not advantageous to business development in the long run (ibid.). The English of Through Times: Life is Fine Essays, native speakers are only culturally specific to certain cultures. They could not explain Singapore English, Indian English and other World Englishes. “They are no longer effective communicators” (ibid.). Bergman, J. (n.d). Benjamin Lee Whorf: An Early Supporter of Creationism [online] Available at: http://www.icr.org/article/6391/ [Accessed07 December2014] Blommaert, J. (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hinduism And Caste System? Corgo, A. Success? (2012).English as a Lingua Franca: concepts,use, and implications, ELT Journal 66(1): 97-105 Gu, M., Patkin, J. and Kirkpatrick, J. (2014). The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective.
System 46: 131-142. Khan, R. (2010). Linguistic Imperialism? [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3TJe4jnqFo#t=22 [Accessed07December2014] Lingua Franca, Merriam-Webster (2014) [online] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lingua%20franca [Accessed08December2014] Louhiala-Salminen, L., Charles, M. and Kankaanranta, A. (2005). English as a lingua franca in Nordic corporate mergers: Two case companies , English for Specific Purposes 24(2005): 401-421. And Caste System? Maclean, D. (2006). Essay On Effect Of Physical Interventions? Beyond English. Transnational corporations and the strategic management of language in a complex multilingual business environment, Management Decision 44 (10): 1377-1390. Pakir, A. (2009).
English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF, World Englishes 28(2): 224-235. Pennycook, A. System? (1994). The Cultural Politics of social, English as International Language. Longman, pp, 12-13. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order English as A Lingua Franca.
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