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book report abstract Centre for ritual Academic Success. An abstract is a concise summary of Settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Empire, a body of ritual, information should as a report, dissertation, thesis or article. Caribbean Literature? Its purpose is to make it possible for potential readers to quickly find out if the work is relevant to their needs and worth reading. Writers of articles for journals will always be asked to provide an ritual abstract, and these are usually included on CD-ROM and online databases for worldwide reference. You may be asked to include an abstract at the beginning of a piece of academic work, although confusingly this may also sometimes be called a summary, executive summary or executive abstract. 1960? Check with your department which term you should use. There are in fact two different kinds of abstract: the descriptive abstract and the informative abstract. These provide a description of the report#8217;s main topic and of hinduism purpose, together with an overview of the and dimed on (not) getting america contents. They are usually very short just a sentence or two and may even appear on the title page (or at the beginning of a journal article). All this type of abstract does is give a very general idea of what the ritual writing is about; it like a slightly extended title, or a topic sentence in an introduction.

Consequently, it is not necessary to summarise any details or conclusions found in the text. A descriptive abstract will look something like this: The research analyzes the different approaches to reducing traffic congestion in the UK and nickel and dimed getting by in america provides conclusions and recommendations for future implementation. However, if you are asked to provide an abstract here at Birmingham City University, you will probably need to produce an informative type. As the name implies, informative abstracts should inform the reader: they should make clear what the research is about and give the key information from each section of the report; indicate how it was carried out; and ritual of hinduism summarise what the main findings and conclusions are. You should not, however, indicate the structure of the writing this would be included in presidential election your introduction. kcshuwil/cme/abstract.html), the essential parts of an informative abstract are: #8226; Aims : One or two sentences giving the purpose of the ritual work. #8226; Method(s) : One or two sentences explaining what was done. #8226; Results : One or two sentences indicating the main findings. #8226; Conclusions : One sentence giving the most important consequence of the work. They also give the following advice: #8226; Do not commence with this paper#8230;, this report#8230; or similar. It is better to write about the research than about the in the Empire Essay paper.

Similarly, do not explain the of hinduism sections or parts of the paper. #8226; Avoid sentences that end in #8230;is described, #8230;is reported, #8230;is analysed or similar. These are simply too vague to be informative. Presidential 1960? #8226; Do not begin sentences with it is of hinduism suggested that#8230;, it is believed that#8230;, it is felt that#8230; or similar. In every case, the four words can be omitted without damaging the essential message. #8226; Do not write in the first person in any form. Thus, not only should you avoid I, but also we, the author, the presidential election writer and so on. Again, this is because the abstract should be about the research, not about the act of writing. Ritual? Other useful advice: #8226; Check with your tutor what length of abstract is expected; normally they will be short and concise, with the result that the Empire sentences will be fairly dense and information-heavy. #8226; Don#8217;t include any secondary information, and ritual take out by in, any unnecessary words, obviously keeping everything grammatical. #8226; Don#8217;t include any references in the abstract, but do include relevant numerical data.

Here is a sample abstract. Computerized speech recognition takes advantage of the most. Ritual Of Hinduism? natural form of communication, the human voice. During. speech, sound is How Kmart Essays generated by the vocal cords and by air. rushing from the lungs. If the vocal cords vibrate, a voiced. Ritual? sound is produced; otherwise, the sound is unvoiced. The. The Divine Problem? main problem in speech recognition is that no two voices. Of Hinduism? produce their sounds alike and that an individual voice va- ries in different conditions.

Because voices do vary and. because words blend together in a continuous stream in. natural speech, most recognition systems require that each. speaker train the machine to his or her voice and that words. have at least one-tenth of a second pause between them. Such. a system is called an isolated word recognition system and. con sists of three major components that process human. speech: (1) the preprocessor which removes irregula rities. from the speech signal and then breaks it up into parts; (2) the feature extractor which extracts 32 key features from. the signal; and Rural Settlement in the Empire (3) the classification phase which. identifies the spoken word and includes the training mode. and reference pattern memory. Spoken words are identified on. the basis of ritual of hinduism, a certain decision algorithm, some of nickel on (not) by in america, which. involve dynamic programming, zero crossing rate, linear pre- dictive coding, and the use of state diagram. data entry, freedom for mobility, security uses, telephone. access, and helpful devices for the handicapped. However, these same systems also face problems such as poor. recognition accuracy, loss of privacy among those who use. them, and of hinduism limited vocabulary sizes.

The goal of the. industry is the development of speaker-independent systems. that can recognize continuous human speech regardless of. the speaker and that can continually improve their. vocabulary size and recognition accuracy. Links to further resources on writing abstracts. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email.

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King Arthur Chivalry Essays and Research Papers. King Arthur Throughout time people have faced challenges with their love lives. Some must choose between what is of hinduism right and caribbean literature, . what some may want. In the legends of King Arthur , many decisions must be made that may affect the future of Camelot, Arthur’s kingdom. Many versions of Arthur’s story can be ream or viewed on film. One specific movie called, “The First Knight,” is a portrayal of the famous love triangle between King Arthur , his wife Lady Guinevere and the mysterious Sir Lancelot. Similarities. Chretien de Troyes , Gawain , Guinevere 1032 Words | 3 Pages. King Arthur: The once and future king.

The Once and Future King King Arthur of the Arthurian legends is one of the ritual of hinduism, most unique characters in the . history of The Divine Problem literature. Since he has been depicted by a variety of writers, there is more than a single description of his personality. The Arthur we know is actually a conglomerate of many different interpretations of one character. Of Hinduism? For this reason, his character and very person haven't been too consistent through the legends. The earliest Arthurian Legends which are also some of the earliest. Gawain , Guinevere , King Arthur 2370 Words | 7 Pages. ? During his reign of Britain, King Arthur displayed many of the attributes that make a good leader. These qualities were shown . through his heroic contributions. He demonstrated a profound ability to invented, keep peace with others. As king , he treated the ritual, people of his country with great respect, ensuring that everything he did would keep them safe. King Arthur was the greatest leader of his era.

King Arthur was able to bring out the best of himself through his heroic contributions. From the beginning. Bors , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 1734 Words | 5 Pages. King Arthur By the ninth century people all over nickel and dimed on (not) getting, were telling the fabulous tales and ritual of hinduism, romances about Arthur and . his kingdom. When Was Bluetooth Invented? The common people heard them sung by bards, while in the court poets wrote different versions. In each retelling the speaker would select certain details for emphasis and introduce new elements, so that the story could be adapted to the particular time and audience. Although most historians believe that there actually did exist an Arthur , they differ on how major his role. Battle of Mons Badonicus , Gildas , Historia Brittonum 2300 Words | 7 Pages. Christian Elements in the King Arthur. is seen through Medieval literature. Ten centuries of history are noticed, involving individual products of heroic periods and their unique era of culture. . Acknowledging Medieval literature illustrates a society of heroic knights, led by a luxurious king , charging into battle, romantic connections between royalty and ritual, a common person, and new discoveries being found.

As well as times characterized by feudal activity, along with the Catholic Church holding an influencing control of society, and placing. Chretien de Troyes , Galahad , Gawain 1283 Words | 4 Pages. ? Chivalry ; To Be or Not To Be? The Knights of King Arthur’s court where known for Problem Essay their combat skills, their bravery, and their . chivalry . In the tale Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Sir Gawain offers his life in place of his king by accepting the challenge of the Green Knight. That act among many was a display of Sir Gawain’s overly chivalrous demeanor. Sir Gawain indisputably represents chivalry to the best of his ability. Ritual? While Gawain develops and presidential election, demonstrates chivalric qualities he has some. Castle , Chivalric order , Chivalry 944 Words | 4 Pages. men such as King Lot that waged wars for pure sport. Since they had enough money to do so, they would buy expensive armor and weaponry and ritual, . would kill for game.

In his old age, just before succumbing to and dimed on (not), death, Arthur ponders deeply about the causes of war. It takes him his entire lifetime to figure out the ritual, answer to stop the madness. And just when he figures this out, it is way too late to take action upon his conclusion. Election 1960? Although war is waged for many reasons on the surface, Arthur at long last. Ambrosius Aurelianus , Igraine , King Arthur 871 Words | 3 Pages.

Idylls of the King - Arthur as a Christ Figure. the case in Idylls of the King , written by Lord Alfred Tennyson. The protagonist, Arthur , is portrayed as a Christ figure in . three ways: as a king who desires law and order, as a king with questioned paternity, and as a king who was betrayed. Throughout Arthur's life, he exemplified characteristics that are very similar to Christ, one of these being the desire for law and order. Arthur established order by defeating the barbarians in the country. Through this act, Arthur drew in the petty princedoms. Gawain , Guinevere , Jesus 1284 Words | 3 Pages. The Epic of Gilgamesh to the Legend of King Arthur. October 15th, 2010 The Epic of of hinduism Gilgamesh to The Legend of 1960 King Arthur History has recorded many legends of ritual archrivals, . legends like Robin Hood vs. Prince John, Joan of Arc vs.

Charles VII , Prince Hector vs. Achilles, and the list goes on. Some are factual recordings while others are fictional folklore. The Epic of Rural Settlement in the Essay Gilgamesh has many similarities to that of The Legend of King Arthur . Ritual Of Hinduism? Although Gilgamesh and King Arthur have comparisons, they also have differences. The main difference. Cedar Forest , Enkidu , Epic of How Kmart Went Bankrupt Essays Gilgamesh 1033 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Story of King Arthur Characters 1. King Utherpendragon – He was the king of Great Britain . during the Middle Ages. He calls on Merlin to do a prophecy. King Utherpendragon finds out that he will die of ritual a high fever and his son will be raised by someone else.

2.Sir Kay – Sir Kay was a young knight of presidential election great valor and the brother of Arthur . He bravely fought in ritual, a tournament and was victorious. Bankrupt? He told his father that he pulled the sword out of the stone even though it was not true. 3. Guinevere , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 934 Words | 3 Pages. battle.

Nine months later, Merlin takes Uther's son Arthur . Uther pursues but is mortally wounded by Gorlois's knights. Uther thrusts Excalibur . into a stone, and Merlin proclaims that he who draws the sword from the stone, he shall be king . Years later Sir Ector and his sons, Kay and of hinduism, Arthur , attend a jousting tournament. Sir Leondegrance wins the chance to try pulling Excalibur from the stone, but fails. Kay's sword is caribbean later stolen, and Arthur pulls Excalibur from the stone while trying to ritual of hinduism, stop. Gawain , Holy Grail , King Arthur 1145 Words | 3 Pages. worsened as the story matured, more pain was caused. Election? King Arthur , on the other hand was a wise and honorable man. Ritual Of Hinduism? In his quest . for freedom, equality and peace he assembled the presidential election 1960, Knights of the Round Table. He valued fairness and that is why even himself as a king was not above anybody at the round table. He was also a forgiving man; King Arthur forgave Lancelot and Guinevere for their illicit affair.

As the story progressed, we witness King Arthur being more determined to set things right. He was angry. Gawain , Guinevere , Holy Grail 980 Words | 3 Pages. ?For centuries, countless tales have been told of the legend of of hinduism King Arthur . But the only story you've never heard . is the . true story that inspired the legend. -- Trailer for King Arthur Uh, huh. And in the true story, Arthur traveled to Rome, became a Christian and a soldier, and was assigned to lead a group of yurt-dwelling warriors from Sarmatia on a 15-year tour of duty in on (not) getting by in, England, where Guinevere is a fierce woman warrior of the ritual of hinduism, Woads.

His knights team up with the Woads to battle the Saxons. Gawain , Guinevere , Keira Knightley 930 Words | 3 Pages. King Arthur Facts 1. King Arthurs nickname as a child was “Wart” which was derived from 'Art', . short for ' Arthur '. 2. Arthur never called himself a king . 3. Arthur loved his dog. 4. Election 1960? There is ritual of hinduism still a great debate as to whether Arthur existed or is on (not) america just a myth. 5. Some of the descendants of Arthur have put together a plausible family tree. Ritual? 6. The round table is an important element of the King Arthur legend. 7. Since Arthur didn't consider himself a king or supreme being, he did not want to.

Geoffrey of Essay Monmouth , Gildas , Historia Regum Britanniae 955 Words | 3 Pages. Knighthood and Courtly Love in of hinduism, the Time of King Arthur. Chivalry was considered to be the code of behavior expected of a knight. It was the conduct, ideas, and ideals of the knightly class of the . Middle Ages. It became standardized and referred to as chivalry , a term derived from the French word chevalier, meaning knight. The code urged the knight to be brave, courageous, honorable, true to his word, and loyal to his feudal overlord, and to presidential 1960, defend his Church. Ritual Of Hinduism? A knight was truthful, honest, capable, educated, physically fit, noble, sincere, and subservient. Chretien de Troyes , Courtly love , Holy Grail 1789 Words | 5 Pages. Research Paper 1 – The Legend of Arthur (question 10) The legend of Arthur and his knights has caught the minds of people for . the last 1500 years. The mythical monarch defended the British from Saxon invaders between the 5th and 6th centuries, and nickel and dimed on (not) america, he is important in a level that even our generation thinks of him as a legend all around the of hinduism, world. King Arthur , Guinevere, and Sir Lancelot make a gallant image of knights in shining armor in a world of honor and romance and, combines with the need.

England , Excalibur , King Arthur 976 Words | 3 Pages. The Code of Rural Chivalry The term chivalry has its origin in the medieval institution of knighthood. Chivalry and . Of Hinduism? knighthood have been popularly studied by nickel by in america scholars. The term chivalry originates from the ritual, old French word chevalerie. This word itself derives from the Latin term caballarius that means someone on the horseback. Chivalry is not a legal or technical term, rather the word has its root in the vernacular of twelfth century. The meaning of this word as used in the French literature of the High. Chivalry , Dark Ages , King Arthur 1628 Words | 5 Pages.

The Nature of Chivalry Developed in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. of Chivalry developed in “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” Throughout his adventures in the story, Gawain . discovers, develops, and How Kmart Bankrupt, demonstrates his own chivalric qualities. He makes a few mistakes along the way, but strives to settle for nothing less than perfection in loyalty, courage and courtesy. However, this is investigated in relation to an ideal, the notion of Chivalry , or how a medieval knight is supposed to act. Gawain showed his loyalty to Arthur from. Green Knight , Guinevere , Holy Grail 912 Words | 3 Pages.

King Arthur and ritual of hinduism, His Knights of the Round Table. King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table One often hears of King Arthur and his noble . knights, and The Divine Problem, the book by Roger Lancelyn Green portrays this story eloquently. Throughout this story, the reader experiences the adventures and trials of King Arthur and his knights. This book has many exciting endeavors of heroism and fortitude. The author really brings to life King Arthur and his many knights of the round table.

In book one, it tells of the beginnings of Arthur and his knights. Ritual? It starts. Gawain , Guinevere , Holy Grail 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Beowulf and nickel and dimed by in, Arthur: What makes a hero? Beowulf King Arthur : What makes a hero? In a time where warriors were sensationalized for prowess of their swordsmanship and . Ritual Of Hinduism? fearless attitude among the when was bluetooth, battlefield, King Arthur and Beowulf have similar traits assigned to their characters. Ritual Of Hinduism? Although there are many particulars that separate the story of Arthur to Problem Essay, Beowulf, the characteristics that stand out the most deal with the kind of hero they were to their time and the actions they made to become so heroic.

To start, Beowulf and Arthur are both. Beowulf , Epic poetry , Hero 911 Words | 3 Pages. Price Hail! King Arthur : Long Live Who? It is ritual of hinduism hard to adequately explain how long scholars, writers, and historians alike, . have extensively researched the topic of nickel and dimed on (not) getting america King Arthur . Who was he? Did he exist? Was there really a Camelot and Guinevere? When I first began this study myself, my opinion was pretty concrete: of of hinduism course there was a King Arthur and The Divine, the chivalrous stories must be true. To my surprise, my thoughts went in a completely different direction the deeper into the subject I got.

I. Chretien de Troyes , Geoffrey of Monmouth , Gildas 1750 Words | 5 Pages. A Different View of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere. A Different View of of hinduism King Arthur and Queen Guinevere King Arthur and nickel and dimed on (not) america, his Knights of the Round . Table have been the of hinduism, subjects of countless works of literature for hundreds of years. In many of The Divine Problem these tales King Arthur is of hinduism accompanied by his lovely wife, Guinevere.

Not all of the Arthurian romances depict King Arthur and Queen Guinevere in the positive light that most people have become accustomed to. Thomas Chestre's Sir Launfal is one of these types of tales. This poem expresses different views. Chretien de Troyes , Gawain , Guinevere 1368 Words | 4 Pages. Arthur Pendragon: Man or Myth? Was Arthur Pendragon a King or did he exist at all? Avalon Keft “Most of caribbean what . Ritual? you think you know about Went Camelot, Guinevere and ritual of hinduism, Lancelot and the evil sorceress known as Morgan le Fay is nothing but lies.”1 For centuries, men and women across the globe have been enveloped in a tale, which, regrettably, is not true.

King Arthur , or rather, Arthur Pendragon, was for many years accepted to be the nickel and dimed on (not) getting, mythical ruler of 5th and 6th century Britain. The tale of a boy who, at. Battle of Mons Badonicus , Geoffrey of Monmouth , Gildas 2561 Words | 7 Pages. Compare and Contrast the ritual of hinduism, Epic of Gilgamesh and the Legend of King Arth. The Epic of Gilgamesh has many similarities to The Legend of King Arthur . Although Gilgamesh and King . Neo-Assyrian? Arthur have comparison they also have differences. The main difference is ritual of hinduism that one is an Epic and the other is a Legend. To compare and contrast The Epic of Gilgamesh and The Legend of King Arthor, one must first know what the words, Epic and Legend mean. Primarily, epic is a long narrative poem about the deeds of invented a semi-god, also known as a superhuman hero who's actions are depended on as. Cedar Forest , Enkidu , Epic of ritual Gilgamesh 980 Words | 3 Pages. Arthur Versus Beowulf: a Heroic Comparison. in lesson one is the fact that heroes over Went, time and overseas all heroes have something in common; which is true in the case of King . Arthur and Beowulf.

It is obvious that they are similar in the fact that they are both heroes, but what makes them an ritual of hinduism idol of their time and in their culture are poles apart. There are many things that are different about Beowulf and King Arthur , but the ones that stand out the most are what kind of hero they are and what actions they did to make them heroic. Both heroes. Beowulf , Difference , Grendel 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Connecticut Yankee In King Arthurs Cour. a deterministic philosophy in which he believed that humans lack free will and literature, are machines controlled by outside forces (Rasmussen). Aspects of this . Of Hinduism? deterministic philosophy are portrayed in literature, the style of Mark Twain’s novel, A Connecticut Yankee in ritual, King Arthur’s Court. Hank Morgan believed that human action was determined by causes external to the will and placed an emphasis on How Kmart Essays, training and education.

Hank began his story boasting about the responsibilities he had as a superintendent in a giant. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court , Human , Humans 818 Words | 4 Pages. Legend of King Arthur: Adaptation of Mordred's Story. the character analysis. In comparison, Springer’s usage of ritual of hinduism modern English is an advantage in effectively grasping Mordred’s mind and thoughts to clearly . understand how Mordred actually feels about King Arthur , who simultaneously is his father and uncle—and most importantly his prophesized fate to kill Arthur . Rural Settlement Neo-Assyrian Empire? Despite the ritual of hinduism, differences and similarities between the election 1960, hypotext and the hypertext, Springer builds up her adaptation by using Genette’s literary devices to of hinduism, completely revaluate Mordred with a psychological. King Arthur , Le Morte d'Arthur 1971 Words | 5 Pages.

Aruther V. Odysseus , choose a mythic/epic hero from another culture equal in stature to Arthur. Compare the two figures and invented, their portrayals. Odyssey, and the medieval English hero of King Arthur from Le Morte D' Arthur . Ritual? When you first look at these two . heroes you see that they are from two completely different times, with different cultures, different ethics, and different social structure. The Divine Problem Essay? But they still have many similarities which include the support they get from others on of hinduism, their journeys, the adventures they go on, and the portrayal and treatment of women in their stories. When Odysseus and Arthur go on their journeys they get a lot of. Bors , Hero , Holy Grail 889 Words | 3 Pages. In the Arthurian time period, the ideal man in society was to act in accordance with the code of chivalry , follow the practices of courtly . Caribbean Literature? love, and be the romantic hero. During the ritual, time period of King Arthur’s reign, the knights of Camelot were expected to live up to when, the role of of hinduism being the ideal man. However, not all knights lived up to this role properly. Although the men in the stories “Le Morte d’Arthur” by Sir Thomas Malory, “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” by Pearl Poet, and the movie, “First. Excalibur , Gawain , Guinevere 1041 Words | 3 Pages.

Courage, justice, loyalty, three words that are displayed in the movie, The First Knight. In medieval times, a knight was expected to live my the Problem, code of . chivalry which is usually associated with knightly virtues, honor and courtly love. Knights were expected to have strength, know how to fight, but also be kind to others. In the rules of of hinduism courtly love it talks about love, and love for another man’s wife. In the movie, The First Knight, Lancelot displays courage, loyalty, and justice, while interfering. Chretien de Troyes , Gawain , Guinevere 813 Words | 2 Pages. KING ARTHUR A legend is nickel and dimed america a nonhistorical or unverifiable story handed down by tradition. Over time, a legend becomes commonly . accepted as true. While legends usually elevate the main characters to heroic proportion, the best of ritual of hinduism them have a basis in fact.

Often times, a legend changes over time in order to keep it fresh to new generations. Legends are told to teach and to inspire. They are told to entertain and pass down tradition. Essay? Perhaps no legend has reached a wider audience than that of King Arthur. Gawain , Guinevere , Holy Grail 4434 Words | 12 Pages. The Once and Future King - Arthur's Failure. 634). The he in this passage refers to King Arthur , the main character in T.H. White's The Once and Future King . and Book of Merlyn, who failed in his attempt to unite England due to the mistakes made by him and of hinduism, those close to him.

Arthur , betrayed by those close to him, not properly educated on the greedy, selfish, and Rural Settlement in the Empire Essay, violent heart of ritual man, failed in his attempt to create a stable, progressive, and caribbean literature, peaceful society.brbrTo begin with, those close to Arthur made mistakes that would lead to his eventual. Failure , King Arthur , Le Morte d'Arthur 1108 Words | 3 Pages. ? King Arthur 1. Was there a real King Arthur ? Explain your answer. I think King . Arthur was real because he appears in writings of ritual a Welsh historian named Nennius and in the Bible. 2. Is King Arthur a hero? Why or why not? Use the was bluetooth invented, information from the unit to help you explain your response. Ritual? I think King Arthur was a hero because he won many victories and loved and protected his city. 3. Choose one of the stages of the hero's journey as described in the unit.

Describe how the legend of How Kmart Bankrupt King Arthur. Chretien de Troyes , Fisher King , Galahad 442 Words | 1 Pages. Idylls of the King: the Holy Grail. The quest for the grail would go against the idea of loosing ones self as when one wants to see the grail, it is already a selfish act because they want to of hinduism, . get the glory in finding the holy grail. Since they all have to leave Camelot and leave King Arthur there by himself, It shows that they are merely thinking about themselves and not about Settlement Empire Essay Camelot and it's people. The vision of the seat was what mainly encouraged them to go on their journeys as they did not see the ritual of hinduism, grail right then and there, but. Galahad , Gawain , Holy Grail 1695 Words | 4 Pages. Once and Future King: Analytical Paper. Once And Future King : Analytical Paper Sir Lancelot's intense desire to perform heroic deeds was brought on by his lack of confidence . and insecurity. His childhood was spent in seclusion, training for a job desired only to escape the hellish life that his hideous face would otherwise hold in store for him. Lancelot's adulthood was spent trying to presidential election 1960, overcompensate for this ugliness by performing Herculean feats and good deeds.

And the twilight years of of hinduism his life were spent in when was bluetooth, remorse for the. Evil , Gawain , Good and evil 1876 Words | 5 Pages. King Arthur Essay Legends usually have some basis truth. The truth can be hard to of hinduism, discover after years of oral history and . exaggeration. The legend of King Arthur focuses on caribbean literature, a medieval king in shining armor. While some of the legend is pure fantasy, written and archaeological evidence exists that the legend was based on a 5th century warlord who fought against the Anglo-Saxon invasion. The legend of ritual King Arthur started in the 12th century by a cleric named Geoffrey of when was bluetooth Monmouth. Ritual Of Hinduism? The story begins. Avalon , Battle of nickel by in Mons Badonicus , Geoffrey of Monmouth 601 Words | 2 Pages. Sir Gawain portrayed as a very courteous and noble knight, always trying to help King Arthur . The poem Sir Gawain and of hinduism, the Green . Knight tells the tale of one of King Arthur’s bravest and nickel and dimed by in america, noblest knights, Sir Gawain.

The author spins this magical tale of heroism and ritual, adventure over the course of one year. During this year, the hero Sir Gawain undergoes a serious alteration of character. When the Green Knight enters King Arthur’s court, he sets Sir Gawain’s destiny in presidential 1960, motion. Change, especially spiritual. Chivalry , Gawain , Guinevere 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Finding Truth in the Legends Surrounding the King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table There are many reasons to . Ritual? believe why the great King Arthur and his mighty knights of the round table were real men and not what fairy tales are made of. Throughout the centuries, men have longed to election 1960, be like the of hinduism, infamous King Arthur . The Divine Essay? History has told tales of of hinduism great feats on the battle ground; mothers put their children to sleep with tales of this enigmatic king . However, historians have had a battle. Battle of Mons Badonicus , Geoffrey of Monmouth , Gildas 813 Words | 2 Pages. The Medieval Period (middle English c. Nickel And Dimed On (not) Getting America? 350 – c. 1475) the English language. Ritual Of Hinduism? And to a new literature.

The Invasion put French-speaking people at the highest levels of society. Families that ruled England also . ruled and held land in France. William the Conquerer was also Duke of Normandy, and the English King continued to presidential election, hold that office and its lands until the of hinduism, thirteenth century. Only a handful of Anglo-Saxon families remained in when was bluetooth invented, any postions of power. In England, French was the ritual, language of education and literature. It was not an obvious choice for Chaucer.

England , English language , Holy Grail 1201 Words | 4 Pages. big role in idealizing Chivalry . It mostly focuses on The Divine Problem, the hero and his noble deeds. The story,'' Federigo’s Falcon,'' was written in the 1350’s . in Florence, Italy by Giovanni Boccaccio. ''Le Morte D'Arthur'' was written in the1450's in England by Sir Thomas Malory. Both Ferdrigo and Sir Lancelot have strong chivalric qualities and are seen as heroes in both but today chivalry is ritual of hinduism no longer existent due to the changes of our lifestyle. Medieval romance usually idealizes chivalry . An important element. Courtly love , Guinevere , King Arthur 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Unit one stories of heroes Lesson 6 the death or Arthur How does Mordred manage to have himself crowned the king of England? . Problem Essay? Answer) He lies and says Arthur is dead. (Sir Mordred tells the public that Arthur has died while fighting Sir Lancelot in France Why is the treaty between Arthur and sir Mordred broken so quickly? Answer) A snake bites a knight; and the knight draws his sword to kill the snake, which sparks the battle (such unfortunate twists of fate are common in medieval legends. . Avalon , Gawain , Guinevere 898 Words | 3 Pages. The legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table is the most powerful and enduring in the western world. Of Hinduism? . King Arthur , Guinevere, and Sir Lancelot did not really exist, both their names conjure up a romantic image of gallant knights in shining armor, elegant ladies in medieval castles, heroic quests of the Settlement Neo-Assyrian, Holy Grail in ritual, a world of honor and romance, and the court of Camelot at caribbean the center of ritual a royal and Settlement Neo-Assyrian Essay, mystical Britain. The Arthurian legend has existed for over a thousand years and is.

Battle of Camlann , Chretien de Troyes , Guinevere 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Dariush Bazyani Honors English 10 Mrs. Riley May 11, 2011 . Arthurian Legends The creation of the King Arthur was created to enlighten readers on the morals of life. Many of ritual incidents that occur in nickel and dimed on (not) getting, the Arthurian legends constantly entail life lessons that are meant to impact readers. The Arthurian tales is a series that tells the story of good verse evil.

With each story, tells the of hinduism, tale of Rural Neo-Assyrian a. Chretien de Troyes , Guinevere , Holy Grail 810 Words | 3 Pages. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Is Gawain and Epitome? group has its idols, those people who serve as the epitome of the ritual, group’s values. Cowboys look up to Lane Frost, basketball players look up to Michael . Jordan, and Arthurian knights look up to King Arthur . In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, one of the Rural Settlement Empire Essay, greatest Arthurian romances written in England, Gawain, King Arthur’s nephew, takes on a challenge to exchange “one strike for another” with the Green Knight (line 287). Of Hinduism? Despite all of the bad experiences and and dimed getting by in, temptations he fights along the of hinduism, way, after. Chivalry , Green Knight , King Arthur 1861 Words | 5 Pages. reference to a collection of literature literature referred to as Matter of Britain (Free Dictionary by Farlex ). The works were named for their close link to Great . Of Hinduism? Britain and Bankrupt, its mighty kings of the past. The king most publicized in these collections of literature was King Arthur . Ritual? There are many variations of the presidential election, story of Arthur , but the important details of the ritual, story remain consistent throughout the tales (Free Dictionary by Farlex ). The writings focus on Arthur’s life as a young boy and his rise to. Chretien de Troyes , Excalibur , Guinevere 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Arthurian Legend, group of tales in several languages that concern the legendary King Arthur of the Britons, his realm, and the . knights of 1960 his inner circle.

The legend is one of the most enduring tales in recorded history. It first appeared in the 5th or 6th century ad and took its basic form between the 12th and 15th centuries. It continues as a popular subject in modern times. The legend presents Arthur as a leader in ancient times who defeats the Saxons and other enemies. He thereby unites.

Gawain , Holy Grail , King Arthur 1388 Words | 5 Pages. Roberge Ms. White Honors English 2 27 September 2011 King Arthur’s Eulogy Welcome fellow royal subjects, family, and friends. We all are . Ritual? here for the same reason, to mourn over the loss of when was bluetooth invented our dearest king , King Arthur . The world the past few days has seem like a whole new experience without him around. I have noticed less smiles on people’s faces, the ritual, rainy days have seemed longer, and the sun seems to Rural Settlement Empire, shine less bright. Ritual? Our beloved king was a kind sir who cared about each and every one of you. Family , Joel Edgerton , King Arthur 602 Words | 2 Pages. High king of , son of america Uther Pen dragon and Igraine. Ritual? Arthur stands as one of the Rural in the Neo-Assyrian Empire Essay, greatest mythical heroes that the world has ever . known. So great was the influence of Arthur , that stories of the high king traveled far beyond the realm of Britain into France, the rest of Europe, the Middle East, and even into parts of ritual Asia.

The coming of Rural Settlement Empire Arthur was prophesied years before he was born. Ritual Of Hinduism? Arthur was born into a world of chaos and disorder where wars between different Celtic tribes were prevalent, different. Excalibur , Gawain , King Arthur 1941 Words | 5 Pages. Chivalric Code in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. based on “the terminology used for the practice of The Divine Problem hunting, descriptions of the layout of the typical fourteenth century English castle, and references to . the routines of the servants of ritual of hinduism a castle household” (Puchner, et.al., 2012, p. 725). Nickel And Dimed By In America? The use of King Arthur’s character and ritual, his Knights of the Round Table are additional indicators of the fourteenth century time frame. Literature? Very little is known about the author including his name. Ritual? A great deal of speculation has been made based on his style of writing.

Chivalry , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 2073 Words | 5 Pages. Tales Of King Arthur Since the Rural in the, romanticizing of the ritual, Arthurian legends by Geoffery of Monmouth, the historian, during the . twelfth century, the legendary ' king of England' has been the source of inspiration for kings , poets, artists and dreamers alike. The most famous work is literature probably Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, completed around 1470, and of hinduism, published in many abridged and complete versions. Malory's work contains in one the Settlement in the Empire Essay, legend that had been continually added to over. Guinevere , Holy Grail , King Arthur 1676 Words | 9 Pages.

Sir Gawain and the Green Night Discussion: Study Question. ? Sir Gawain The Green Night Discussion/Study Question 12 1. For what purpose would Gawain poet place . King Arthur in line with the founders of the ancient civilizations? The purpose is to show how well respected king Arthur was, how he was known as the greatest king in ritual, medieval times, to show how he was an important leader of medieval times and Britain. 3. While describing the knights and The Divine, ladies of Arthur’s court, the Gawain poet alludes to some of. Gawain , Guinevere , King Arthur 1120 Words | 3 Pages. through romances, which develops – side by side with religions literature. This literature is inspired by French romantic poems and centers around . Chivalry . There is an absence of originality but the fever of nationalism is ritual of hinduism present in the literature of this period. Heroes and subjects connected with Britain are given reference in the romantic cycles of chivalry . Neo-Assyrian? British stories are valued most and of hinduism, the native poets get material for their original works. Thus a series of nickel and dimed on (not) getting america romances appear with the Old English. Alliterative verse , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 1005 Words | 3 Pages. points throughout the twelfth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries often involve King Arthur . The works are called Arthurian . Ritual Of Hinduism? accounts and Arthurian romance; they place emphasis on presidential 1960, the Arthurian Court or Chivalry . Two Poems, Marie de Franc’s “Lanval” and The Perl Poet’s “Sir Gawain and of hinduism, The Green Knight”, written between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries tell different accounts concerning two cavilers who are part of King Arthur’s Round Table. Problem? “Sir Gawain and The Green Knight” tells about good Sir.

Gawain , Guinevere , King Arthur 1295 Words | 4 Pages. Knowledge and Technology in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Knowledge and Technology in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court is a . complicated novel that fundamentally deals with the concept of the ritual of hinduism, human experience. Hank Morgan is a nineteenth century mechanic who is transported back thirteen centuries to The Divine Problem, medieval Britain, during the ritual of hinduism, time of King Arthur . After his initial shock, he becomes determined to quot;civilizequot; Camelot by when introducing modern industrial technology. At an initial look Twain. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court , Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Connecticut 1346 Words | 4 Pages. when neither of the two people groups agree to speak one another’s language. King Richard is in prison, while is brother, Prince John, . is reigning and abusing his power by oppressing the Saxons. The Saxons furious with the Normans are being made as serfs and having their land repossessed.

The father of our main character, Cedric, was so furious that he disowned his son Ivanhoe for following King Richard to war. This story is mainly about two things, the Norman rule and the. England , King Arthur , Knights 584 Words | 3 Pages. the whole movie itself is a parody. Of Hinduism? The movie focuses mainly on King Arthur and his knights’ ridiculous quest to find the Holy . Grail and election 1960, any aspect of society during that time in history is subject to parody as well. The film follows King Arthur and ritual, his Knights of the literature, Round Table in a chef’s salad of adventures, mainly the quest for ritual the Holy Grail.

Three medieval concepts that reoccur continuously in Rural Settlement Empire, the movie are knighthood, chivalry , courtly love and the wheel of ritual fortune. Literature? These motifs are more seriously. Holy Grail , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Create Your Own Museum. What Is It? How Is It Going to Make a Profit? legend and Glastonbury has many links to king Arthur (it is said that Glastonbury is Avalon, the resting place of . king Arthur and apparently king Arthur’s tomb was found at Glastonbury Abbey). inside the ritual of hinduism, museum I would have rooms with famous paintings of the Arthurian legend; king Arthur , his knights, king Arthur’s death, the election, lady of the of hinduism, lake, the knights at the round table etc… I would also have rooms with mannequins on display with what people (knights, the nickel on (not), kings and queens, servants, villagers, druids. Avalon , Fisher King , Holy Grail 938 Words | 3 Pages.

The King Arthur Legend as a Romance Is The King Arthur Legend a romance? The answer to this . question is a simple ‘yes’. ‘Why?’ some may ask. That answer is simple as well. The King Arthur Legend is a romance because it is of hinduism full of noble heroes, daring deeds, gallant quests, extraordinary happenings, and far off lands. Nickel On (not) By In America? So, is ritual this legend a romance? Sir Gawain, according to caribbean literature, legend, was Arthur’s most loyal knight, though he is not always the central hero of his stories. He strove to do what was right. Gawain , Guinevere , Holy Grail 708 Words | 2 Pages.

Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court Sir Gawain and the Green Knight The physician Contrast and Comparison . Introduction A Connecticut Yankee in ritual of hinduism, king Arthur’s Court is a novel published in 1889 by Mark Twain, a humorist and The Divine Essay, a writer. It is about the tale of Hank Morgan a resident of Hartford in ritual, Connecticut in the 19th century. Hank, after a blow to his head travels back in time to medieval England during the reign of King Arthur . The novel kind. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court , King Arthur , Knights of the Round Table 2217 Words | 7 Pages. The name King Arthur appears throughout a countless amount of literature, stories, cinema, and legend.

King . Arthur has always been a long-standing icon of heroism, and heroism is a theme mankind takes pleasure in romanticizing. Arthurian Romance is the classic example of election 1960 good versus evil, knights in ritual, shining armor, forbidden love, and sorcery; the basic elements of a romanticized tale. And in a dark time where religion clashed, empires fought in epic battles, and the people of Britain suffered from. Galahad , Gawain , Guinevere 3535 Words | 9 Pages.

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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and of hinduism New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is presidential, a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over ritual, 15 years of How Kmart Bankrupt Essays, career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of résumés and cover letters. Of Hinduism? Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates. Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Essays? Would it make you feel better to know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé?

Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at ritual of hinduism such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the election, issue. How do you write a good résumé for ritual of hinduism, typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to nickel america help you out. 1. Sample Resume for ritual, an Internship.

Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. The Divine Essay? Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is of hinduism, usually the first experience students have in their field. As for literature, the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is ritual, consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of when was bluetooth invented, are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé. First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Ritual Of Hinduism? Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. You’d be amazed at Settlement Empire the amount of ritual, employers across most fields place a great deal of value on and dimed on (not), volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at ritual a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of duties from Went Essays handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and interacting with those in needs by ritual providing directions on where to go to was bluetooth invented obtain food. Such experience translates into customer service and ritual office operations experience.

Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of nickel on (not) getting by in america, filing work and call monitoring, the volunteer experience is huge. In addition to professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of of hinduism, qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in The Divine Problem, the workplace (aka not be lazy). Many of us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. Ritual? In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting.

For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for a full example. 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position. College students need to pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to make ends meet. This is when, often where a part-time job comes into play.

Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. Of Hinduism? In most of these instances, training on the job is key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. Rural Settlement In The Essay? For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. Ritual? First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on your résumé to the last ten years. Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long.

Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. Again, including a ‘Summary of when was bluetooth invented, Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. Of Hinduism? For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to Essay be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. Of Hinduism? See the example for an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in nickel and dimed on (not) getting america, college. 3. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to expect applicants to ritual have extensive experience.

For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and repair. As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of Rural Empire Essay, technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of ritual, experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and only include last ten years of when, experience. 4. Basic Sample Resume for of hinduism, No Experience.

For those without any experience, building a résumé is caribbean, not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective. Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in of hinduism, need of filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in activities at presidential 1960 high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary. For those with no experience, staying at your first job for ritual, a few years is important to build a foundation for Settlement in the Empire, future success. Getting a new job every year looks bad on ritual, a résumé and will hurt your chances of being hired in the future. Literature? Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on what to ritual highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets.

Asking a professor for an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to when start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at what a solid résumé would look like.

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Daniel Bivona, “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876? The mathematician W. K. Clifford was the ritual, youngest and possibly most controversial member of the Metaphysical Society, a group originally formed by Alfred Lord Tennyson and some close friends. Lasting from 1869 to 1880, the Society ultimately brought together a great variety of The Divine Problem Essay, intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the era for vigorous debates on metaphysical topics. A pioneering promoter and translator of the of hinduism, non-Euclidian geometer Riemann, Clifford anticipated Einstein’s discovery that gravity was not a mysterious force of bodies but an effect of curved space, but it was his withering criticism of metaphysical claims before the Metaphysical Society – in particular, his attack on the morality of believing on caribbean, insufficient evidence, an argument which was delivered two years after he first joined the group and later published as the essay “The Ethics of ritual of hinduism, Belief” – that marked him as the most controversial proponent of the agnostic position in the late Victorian period. When he died at the young age of election, 33 in 1879, Clifford left a legacy of important unpublished scientific work and a number of impressive published essays in which he offered both a very compelling critique of the ethics of metaphysical commitments and a powerful argument, inspired by ritual of hinduism Darwin’s Descent of Man , in favor of the Settlement in the, claim that ethics derive from evolutionary history rather than descending from an of hinduism immaterial God. The Metaphysical Society was formed in 1869 by a group led initially by the architect Sir James Knowles, the poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson, and the astronomer Charles Pritchard. Knowles had a lively interest in metaphysical exploration and he helped to encourage that taste in his friend Tennyson.

Tennyson by 1869 had also been nursing for some time a fear that the Victorian age had become an age of materialism, and consequently inattentive to important spiritual matters. Pritchard, who would soon become the Savilian Professor of caribbean literature, Astronomy at Oxford, was convinced, in the aftermath of the controversy over Essays and Reviews (in 1860), of the need to reconcile scientific knowledge and the Bible and he likewise helped encourage the poet’s interest in metaphysical speculation (Metcalf 212). Although initially the group wanted to of hinduism exclude opponents of Christianity from discussions, they soon became convinced that inviting opponents of Rural Settlement Essay, Christianity into the Society would guarantee lively discussions of the evidences for Christian belief (Metcalf 214). The Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the era for vigorous debates. The distinguished roster of members included, besides the three most important founding members, Dean Stanley and Archbishop Manning, the Broad Church theologian F. D. Maurice, intellectuals such as John Ruskin, Leslie Stephen, Mark Pattison, Walter Bagehot, and J. A. Froude, future and current prime ministers Arthur Balfour and William Ewart Gladstone, as well as scientists and philosophers such as T. H. Huxley, William Tyndall, Sir John Lubbock, and the young mathematician William Kingdon Clifford. The group met for nine monthly meetings per year from its founding in 1869 until its demise in 1880. At these meetings, papers were read and discussed by the membership and of hinduism, often reprinted in journals such as The Contemporary Review and The Nineteenth Century . The volume Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society contains a complete roster of the well-known participants ( Papers xiii-xiv). Figure 1: William Kingdon Clifford, 1901. By deriving ethics from The Divine evolution and attempting to shift the focus of ritual of hinduism, scientific interest from the “individual” to the “group,” Clifford eventually became an effective polemical voice on the “godless” side of the caribbean literature, acerbic debates over design and natural selection that characterized British intellectual life more broadly in the period.

Moreover, the work he did in his short lifetime (and the work published after his death by the defenders of his reputation such as Karl Pearson and of hinduism, his wife, the novelist Lucy Clifford) ensured a central role for his ideas in literature, the increasingly heated debates about the ritual, nature of the “social” in what would eventually be called “Social Darwinism.” In fact, his categorical dismissal of “self-regarding virtues” (“there are no self-regarding virtues”) made him an effective critic of Utilitarianism as well—indeed, of all ethical systems which take the individual as a starting point (“Scientific Basis” 121). Although he was the youngest member of the Metaphysical Society and was not invited to join the group until it had been in existence for five years, he seems to have quickly become one of the most controversial, if not influential, members of that distinguished, and The Divine Problem, varied, group. His importance clearly stemmed in part, not only from his challenging philosophical claims about the origins of ritual of hinduism, human ethical reasoning, but also from the clarity with which he presented these ideas in his lectures and essays. Indeed, “The Ethics of presidential, Belief,” which was presented to the Society in 1876 and published in a different form in the Contemporary Review in of hinduism, 1877, stirred up a significant controversy, drawing sharp criticism from Matthew Arnold among others and ultimately helping to Essays spawn William James’s thoughtfully critical response twenty years later in “Will to Believe.” Clifford’s very accessible prose style contributed mightily to stoking the controversy over of hinduism, “The Ethics of Belief,” for in that essay Clifford not only avoided the obscure jargon that is sometimes a distinguishing feature of metaphysical debates, but illustrated his claims with familiar examples that his audience found variously compelling or infuriating. If not the most complex argument, “The Ethics of Belief” is, nonetheless, the most important and The Divine Problem, provocative polemical work produced by any of the group of “Metaphysicals” that Bernard Lightman calls “the agnostics” (Huxley, Tyndall, Stephen, and Clifford [Lightman 2]). Ritual. Indeed, one might say that Clifford takes the fear that many believers harbored—the fear that to challenge Christian metaphysics is to undermine Christian ethics—and turns it against How Kmart Bankrupt, the prejudices of the devout by accusing them of immorality precisely for ritual promoting belief in metaphysical entities for which there is no compelling evidence. “The Ethics of Belief” begins with the claim that it is immoral to believe anything on insufficient evidence. One example Clifford gives involves a shipowner who decides to allow a vessel to leave port despite his knowing that the and dimed, evidence points to its being unseaworthy. Whether he believes the ship to be seaworthy (and believes this sincerely) or whether the ritual of hinduism, ship actually does sail successfully to its next port of call (and thus avoids disastrous consequences), is irrelevant.

The shipowner is still acting in presidential, an “immoral” way in allowing the ship to set sail whether it reaches its next port or not, because he is acting against what the preponderance of the evidence tells him about the ship’s condition (“Ethics” 70). Ethically, it matters not whether the belief in its seaworthiness is sincerely held or even factually true. What matters is of hinduism, that the shipowner in this case ignores what the Bankrupt Essays, evidence points to, his belief is held on insufficient evidence, and ritual, thus, he acts in an immoral way. How Kmart Went Bankrupt Essays. Moreover, in Clifford’s view, “no man’s belief is…a private matter which concerns himself alone” (“Ethics” 73). All beliefs have serious ethical consequences for others. To behave in a credulous way is not simply to make an ritual of hinduism error of reasoning relevant only to invented one’s own individual state of mind; rather, to ritual fall into credulity is to perform an The Divine Problem immoral act with serious consequences for other people. As Clifford says, The danger to society is not merely that it should believe wrong things, though that is great enough; but that it should become credulous, and lose the habit of testing things and inquiring into them; for then it must sink back into savagery. (“Ethics” 76) If one takes a different example, for instance, a seemingly harmless belief in spirit mediums, one can see why Clifford refuses to concede that even such ostensibly harmless beliefs are actually harmless to ritual society. Because these beliefs can only be sustained by was bluetooth ingrained habits of refusing the conclusions entailed by ritual of hinduism evidence, to believe in spirit mediums is to foster credulity more generally and getting, thus to encourage habits of refusing to ritual of hinduism inquire into the evidence for belief.

It is no surprise, then, to presidential election 1960 learn that Clifford was at odds with such Metaphysicals as Henry Sidgwick and Arthur Balfour on this issue, or to learn that he once successfully exposed the “famous Williams” as a fraud at of hinduism, one of Essays, his seances (Madigan 34). Clifford’s claims in “The Ethics of Belief” excited vituperative criticism from a variety of of hinduism, Metaphysicals and The Divine, others. The first response to appear in print came from Henry Wace in of hinduism, The Contemporary Review in June 1877. On (not) America. Another of Clifford’s critics, William George Ward, the Roman Catholic editor of the Dublin Review , followed with perhaps the harshest polemical attack on Clifford in an article entitled “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude,” which appeared in Nineteenth Century in of hinduism, 1878. A deft practitioner of election, hyperbolic argument himself, Ward zeroed in on the hyperbolic element of Clifford’s argument: his claim that one has an ethical obligation to examine the evidence for all beliefs. The counter example Ward gives—of a man in a village who bases his conviction of the superiority of his village’s cricket eleven to the cricket eleven of a neighboring village on no evidence whatsoever–is an amusing reductio ad absurdum of Clifford’s claim about the immorality involved in believing anything on insufficient evidence (Madigan 87-8).

Clifford’s claims could be caricatured in such a way by anyone who notices that, in fact, all of us do operate on many beliefs day-to-day that we have neither the ritual of hinduism, patience nor the nickel on (not) by in america, time to examine the evidence for. Of Hinduism. However, Ward’s attack on Clifford ends with Ward elaborating a sophistical argument in defense of the Catholic Church’s refusal to allow its faithful to read the works of skeptical authors like Clifford (Qtd in Madigan 89). This is precisely the attitude to belief that Clifford is criticizing in his essay and Essays, his most vituperative critic among the ritual, Metaphysicals cannot avoid exposing, in his own essay attacking Clifford’s position, exactly the anti-rational stance Clifford so deftly skewers in his own. The Metaphysical Society was organized not simply to provide a forum for debating metaphysical and epistemological claims. All its members—whether agnostic or not—appear to have shared the fear that serious ethical issues were at stake in these metaphysical debates. In short, the Society implicitly sought to address what might be called Dostoyevsky’s question: if God is dead, is everything permitted? Clifford, thus, was, if anything, as interested in Settlement Empire Essay, addressing the of hinduism, question of the origins of morality as in raising doubts about the existence and wisdom of God, and part of what made “The Ethics of Belief” so controversial was Clifford’s aiming a direct attack in it on the morality of metaphysical commitments.

To believe in nickel and dimed on (not) getting america, angels is not simply wrong-headed to Clifford; it is morally wrong. Clifford’s earlier essay “On the Scientific Basis of Morals” is perhaps his most complex and novel treatment of the evolutionary foundation for morality (it was first published in The Contemporary Review in 1875). Not quite as provokingly polemical, perhaps, as the later “Ethics of Belief,” this essay is, nonetheless, the ritual, most complete statement of Clifford’s views on what he called “the tribal self”—an ethical agency produced by evolution but one that is not identifiable with any organized religion. He begins by arguing that all humans have been blessed by evolution with a “moral sense,” which he argues inspires feelings of “pleasure or unpleasure” in the doing of actions and which is “felt by the human mind in contemplating certain courses of conduct” (287). This does not at all suggest to Clifford, however, that moral judgments are as individual as humans are.

The “maxims of caribbean literature, absolute or universal right” are not necessarily “universal” but they are felt to be independent of the individual: their power to compel human behavior comes partly from the fact that they embody the moral authority of the group rather than just the individual (288). The source of moral agency is ultimately this “tribal self,” a component of the ritual, human mind that shapes human moral behavior in ways that have worked to the benefit of the tribe over the course of evolutionary time. Our “savage” ancestors followed the dictates of this agency, and this accounts for why “the savage is not only hurt when anybody treads on his foot but when anybody treads on his tribe” (291). Emphasizing Darwin’s insight (in The Descent of and dimed, Man ) that the ability of humans to ritual of hinduism cooperate through language means that, in human evolutionary history, natural selection might well have operated as much to Settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Empire Essay the benefit of the social group as to the benefit of the individual, Clifford argues, “natural selection will in the long run preserve those tribes which have approved the right things; namely those things which at that time gave the of hinduism, tribe an advantage in the struggle for existence” (292-3). Hence, what we call “conscience” is no more than “self-judgment in the name of the tribe” (293). To trace the foundations of ethical judgment, we need not travel to Sinai. We need only examine the evolutionary function of morality: “Those tribes have on the whole survived in which conscience approved such actions as tended to the improvement of men’s characters as citizens and therefore to getting america the survival of the tribe” (297).

The evolutionary model of morality that Clifford develops here necessarily commits him to something he delighted in—redefining religious language for polemical purposes, in this case, to ground ethics in the material foundation of evolutionary history, to take it out of hinduism, of the possessive hands of the religious who insist on grounding morality in the orders of a deity. Thus, “piety” no longer is to be seen as a behavioral response to the demands of one’s immaterial God, its proper form shaped by caribbean the dictates of religious authority, but rather as a behavioral response to what is demanded by “the tribe,” a response conditioned by evolutionary advantage: It is necessary to the tribe that the ritual, pious character should be encouraged and preserved, the impious character discouraged and removed….[T]he actions whose open approval is liked by the tribal self are called right actions, and those whose open disapproval is disliked are called wrong actions. (294) Clifford was ahead of his time in helping to define the emerging late Victorian evolutionary concept of “social efficiency” although he deploys the concept in nickel on (not) getting by in america, a more sophisticated way than would later be done by Benjamin Kidd in ritual of hinduism, his Social Evolution of 1894, a work which popularized the term and which made a name for its heretofore unknown author partly because in it he assigned to organized religion the Settlement Neo-Assyrian Empire Essay, evolutionary function of promoting social cohesion. Since the “tribal self” is responsible for promoting “pious” behavior, and ritual, since Clifford’s notion of “pious” behavior redefines virtue as what serves the goal of evolutionary efficiency for the group, we can then dispense with the unnecessary hypothesis of God, not to mention the need for assigning a grandiose social role to Rural Essay organized forms of ritual of hinduism, religion. Moreover, there can be no “self-regarding virtues,” according to Clifford, no ethical requirements favoring the practice of virtues such as prudence and temperance which have no clear bearing on the welfare of others. All virtues can only “be rightly encouraged in and dimed on (not) by in america, so far as they are shown to conduce to the efficiency of a citizen; that is, in so far as they cease to be self-regarding” (298). Moreover, virtue cannot be grounded in the practice of altruism, which Darwin ruled out as an impossible result of the operation of natural selection. Cooperation, yes, because cooperative behavior offers evolutionary payoffs for species that cooperate with one another.

Altruism, no, because, as Clifford says, “Piety is not Altruism. It is not the doing good to others as others, but the service of the community by a member of ritual, it, who loses in that service the consciousness that he is anything different from the Rural in the Essay, community” (299). In this respect, Clifford anticipates the more complex view of the social nature of human identity that was outlined in 1895 by J. A. Hobson in his trenchant critique of Kidd’s Social Evolution (Hobson 302-3). In another of ritual, his essays, “The Ethics of Rural Settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Essay, Religion,” Clifford offers a direct challenge to the claim that organized religion serves social efficiency (it first appeared in print in the Fortnightly Review , July 1877). Ritual. Clifford’s case against religion is based partly in a critique of metaphysics and on (not) by in america, partly in a view that religions persistently confound “purely ceremonial” proscriptions with necessary moral laws (“Religion” 365). Insofar as they produce and reproduce this confusion, they work against social efficiency. Thus, he cites two famous comments attributed by the New Testament to Jesus: “He that believeth not shall be damned” ( King James Bible : Mark 16:16) and “Blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed” ( King James Bible : John 20:29). Clifford’s response to these claims is, “For a man who clearly felt and recognised the duty of intellectual honesty, of of hinduism, carefully testing every belief before he received it, and especially before he recommended it to others, it would be impossible to ascribe the profoundly immoral teaching of and dimed getting, these texts to a true prophet or worthy leader of humanity” (“Religion” 102). If believing on insufficient evidence is “immoral,” it necessarily follows that the ritual, founder of Christianity, at least in this aspect of his teaching, is a profoundly immoral person. Clifford’s influence among the in the Neo-Assyrian Empire, devout would ultimately be limited by this tendency to defiant polemics, and ritual of hinduism, there is little evidence in any case that the more conventionally religious members of the Metaphysical Society had the slightest interest in The Divine, being persuaded to share his views. While his ideas stirred up passionate support among the “agnostic” group in the Metaphysical Society, even the agnostics hesitated, after his death, to promote his ideas too publicly out of the fear that they would endanger their own, hard won, professional respectability.

The publication of Clifford’s “Ethics of Belief” in the Contemporary Review in 1877 not only of hinduism, seems to have led to the sacking of its editor, James Knowles, by Settlement in the Essay the new owners of the periodical, but it ensured that Clifford himself “became an object of persistent vilification in the new more doctrinally conservative Contemporary that began to appear subsequently” (Dawson 168). Even before he had been asked to join the Metaphysical Society, Clifford’s views on sexuality and divorce and of hinduism, his celebration of Swinburne and Whitman as the election, exponents of “cosmic emotion” in a May 1873 Sunday Lecture Series address had raised eyebrows among his “agnostic” friends (Dawson 169; “Cosmic Emotion” 411-29). According to Dawson, after Clifford’s death in 1879, T. H. Huxley set out of hinduism, deliberately to do what he could to protect Clifford’s reputation from being sullied by association with “political radicalism, extremist atheism, and Swinburne’s controversial aesthetic poetry”–all of which were nonetheless important to Clifford in his lifetime (Dawson 165). When Invented. Clifford’s ideas about divorce were quite radical for their time, and his critique of of hinduism, metaphysics positioned him as the most strident of the “agnostics.” Moreover, his celebration of Proudhon and Swinburne tied him closely both to utopian socialism and when, aestheticist poetry in the minds of his critics (165). Clifford’s close friends and colleagues, Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen, who posthumously edited and published his Lectures and Essays , were apparently so worried about ritual, protecting his reputation after his death in 1879 that they bowdlerized a number of the essays in order to invented leave a better “impression” with readers (173). While the young Karl Pearson, who edited Clifford’s posthumously published The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885), happily used material from Clifford’s provocative essay “Mistress or Wife” in his essay “Socialism and Sex,” Clifford’s wife Lucy “subtly refashioned aspects of Clifford’s actual personality that might now play into the hands of his numerous adversaries” [after his death] (187). For this reason, George Levine refers to Clifford as “the Oscar Wilde of the naturalists” (255). However controversial Clifford’s views on sexuality, aesthetic poetry, and divorce ultimately made him, his polemical essays on of hinduism, ethics for the Metaphysical Society ought to be considered a major contribution to the study of the evolutionary origins of ethics. Moreover, he was certainly more responsible than any of the “Metaphysicals” for placing ethics squarely in Settlement in the, the domain of science. His writings and lectures on this topic are characterized by directness, a carefully logical form of of hinduism, argumentation, and a resort to Scriptural examples that infuriated his opponents and left his supporters cheering him. The tone of his essays, however, is perhaps not quite as clear as one would think.

Clifford’s characterization of Jesus cited above provides a prime example. Does he truly believe that the Jesus who commends blind faith is an immoral person or is he deliberately employing a hyperbolic rhetorical strategy here designed to Bankrupt produce maximum shock? While there is no particular reason to doubt the sincerity of his claims, the question of tone–and thus, sincerity–has to be raised simply because it could not have escaped his attention that he was firing a Big Bertha at the defenders of Christianity. Bernard Lightman has argued that Victorian agnosticism was anything but atheistical. That is, the agnostic group shared with many traditional theists in the Victorian Age the belief that metaphysical debates, in ritual of hinduism, the final analysis, boil down to discussions about the limitations faced by the human mind in trying to in the Neo-Assyrian Empire comprehend an ultimately unknowable God. Thus, the agnostics were not attempting to destroy religion. Instead, they sought to purify it (Lightman 125). Moreover, Lightman argues that Clifford retained “a high regard for the original spirit of Christianity” despite being the ritual of hinduism, most “savage” of the agnostics in his attacks on it (122). If Lightman’s claim is accurate, Clifford perhaps must be seen less as a consistent intellectual radical and more as a figure of multiple contradictions: a scientific materialist imbued with “cosmic emotion”; an empiricist unable to election forsake things in themselves; the most “savage” critic of organized Christianity and Christian metaphysics in the period who nevertheless retains a great fondness for ritual of hinduism the moral example of Jesus Christ; an in the Neo-Assyrian Empire ethicist who derives ethics from evolution but who cannot finally surrender higher–if not high-minded—aspirations for human society. Daniel Bivona, currently associate professor of English at Arizona State University, is author or co-author of of hinduism, three books: Desire and Contradiction (Manchester UP, 1990), British Imperial Literature, 1870 to 1940 (Cambridge UP, 1998), and (with Roger B. Henkle) The Imagination of Class (Ohio State UP, 2006).

He is currently at work on two collections and a monograph tentatively entitled The Natural and Social History of Pluck: Character and when invented, Competition in the Victorian Age . His essays have appeared in a variety of journals including Nineteenth Century Literature, Novel, Nineteenth Century Contexts, and Nineteenth Century Studies . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Bivona, Daniel. “On W. Of Hinduism. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of How Kmart Went Bankrupt, Belief,’ 11 April 1876.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Ritual. Extension of nickel and dimed getting by in, Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. Berman, David. A History of Atheism in ritual of hinduism, Britain: From Hobbes to Russell . London, New York and Settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Empire Essay, Sydney: Croom Helm, 1988.

Print. Clifford, William Kingdon. The Common Sense of the ritual, Exact Sciences . Ed. Karl Pearson. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner and Co., 1907 [1885]. Web. Neo-Assyrian Empire Essay. 16 October 2012. —. “Cosmic Emotion.” The Nineteenth Century 2 (1877): 411-29. Print.

—. “The Ethics of of hinduism, Belief.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 70-96. Print. —. Caribbean. “The Ethics of Religion.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 97-121. Of Hinduism. Print.

—. “On the Scientific Basis of caribbean, Morals.” Lectures and Essays by ritual the Late William Kingdon Clifford . Eds. Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1886. 287-99.

Web. 1 March 2012. Darwin, Charles. The Descent of presidential 1960, Man and Selection in Relation to Sex . London: John Murray, 1875. Print. Dawson, Gowan. Darwin, Literature, and Victorian Respectability . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. Hobson, J. Of Hinduism. A. “Mr. Went Bankrupt. Kidd’s Social Evolution .” American Journal of Sociology 1.3 (Nov.

1895): 299-312. Ritual. JSTOR. 14 March 2012. James, William. The Will to The Divine Problem Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy . New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras: Longmans Green and Co., 1896. Web. Of Hinduism. 30 June 2012. The Holy Bible . Authorized King James Version.

New York and Scarborough, Ontario: Meridian Books, n.d. When. Print. Kidd, Benjamin. Social Evolution . New York: Macmillan, 1894. Print. Levine, George. “Scientific Discourse as an Alternative to Faith.” Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on of hinduism, Continuity and Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief . Eds. Rural In The. Richard J. Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman. London: Macmillan, 1990. 225-61. Print. Lightman, Bernard.

The Origins of ritual, Agnosticism . Baltimore and election, London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. Print. Madigan, Timothy J. Of Hinduism. W. K. Clifford and “The Ethics of Belief.” Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. Print. Metcalf, Priscilla. James Knowles: Victorian Editor and and dimed by in america, Architect . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society (1869 to ritual 1880) . London: Metaphysical Society, n.d. Web. 1 June 2012. Wace, Henry. “‘The Ethics of Belief’: A Reply to Professor Clifford.” Contemporary Review 30 (June 1877): 42-54. Print.

Ward, William George. “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude.” The Twentieth Century.