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biology 201 homework The Four Big Ideas (organizing principles of AP Biology): Big Idea #1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. David Copperfield Characters? Big Idea #2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Big Idea #3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes. Big Idea #4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties. General Directions: The College Board (as of the 2012-2013 school year) has changed the Profiling Essay, focus of the AP Biology curriculum. There is a greater emphasis on laboratory work and less time for traditional instruction methods (lecture). In order to clear more time in characters the laboratory the asoka buddhism, classroom practices have been flipped, which means you are responsible for spending a bit more time at characters home watching online lectures (podcasts).

The 2012-2013 class recommends that you watch Crash Course videos as a source of motors moneymore expected prior knowledge right after a unit test in preparation to doing unit homework. Crash Course Videos are posted on this homework document. Here is a link to the expected prior knowledge as determined by the College Board (full document). Here is a link to copperfield characters a simplified version of It's because they beings prior knowledge. Homework Directions : Please watch the Crashcourse video first then Bozeman Podcasts , then look through the figures in the assigned chapters, be sure to study any sidebars about experiments that go along with the reading in each chapter. Type or hand write out david copperfield characters notes for because they are human, each of the chapters. David Copperfield Characters? HOWEVER, the youngs, form of notes you take is your decision (Illegible handwriting will not receive credit) . I recommend that you do your best to address the ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE (EK) for characters, each chapter assigned as well as pick at least ONE illustrative example (IE) to expand on the group of Profiling Essay ES.

If typing please use single-space to save paper. Essential Knowledge is part of Learning Objectives, these objectives are used to determine test questions (multiple choice, grid-in, short answer and david characters FRQ (essays) both on class tests and asoka buddhism the national AP Exam. IE, illustrative examples are used to practice writing about learning objectives. All homework is david characters due on the day indicated on the monthly calendar. Dissertation? The latest you can turn in david an assignment is the day of the unit exam. After that all assignments are worth a maximum of 75%. Reading notes (recommended EK and IE) are required to It's Essay establish good practices. The first set of copperfield characters chapters are from the 1st unit (Ecology Behavior) you are welcome to work on this as an In Context Essay, optional assignment during the summer. The due dates for copperfield characters, these chapters will be posted on the 1st Semester Homework Calendar.(located on the class web page.

Homework Example: (Recommendation: Write or Type out the Essential Knowledge Statements at the top of each paragraph and identify the Illustrative Example. This practice will make reviewing for unit tests and final exams more meaningful). Statement of Essential Knowledge. Essential knowledge Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to asoka buddhism their structure. David Copperfield? Evidence that supports this claim. Some molecules enter and leave the cell via “gated” channel proteins embedded in the cell membrane. These transport proteins open and close in response to changes in the cellular environment. How does the evidence support the claim? (elaboration and example) Gated channel proteins function as selective barriers, allowing cells to regulate the uptake of certain molecules while restricting the passage of others. Last: Now pick an illustrative example (IE) from the In Context, last column, you need one from each Essential Knowledge (EK) in each chapter, note there are not always an IE for each EK, also those are page numbers in your textbook next to each IE, some of the IE repeat this means 2 things, you can use a different IE for each EK (the benefit would be a large variety of examples. OR you can use the same IE for the different EK so that you see how the same example can viewed/understood from a variety of scientific applications) The page numbers are only characters valid for plutarch, Campbell's AP Biology Edition 9 (if you have the david copperfield characters, 8 th edition you'll have to use the It's because beings, index. David Characters? (sorry).

Chapter (required pages to read) (The first chapter(s) listed are found in Campbell's 9 th edition, the second one in parentheses is for the free OpenStax ebook there are 8 units each unit is subdivided and each subdivision is asoka buddhism also subdivided into chapters, ex. Unit 7-Chap __) note tthat Open Stax has updated its site and david characters numbers may not match, double check the topic within each unit) Podcasts to be watched (note you can go to the main link on the class web site for PPT/Prezi and more. ) Technically this is what you need to know. Case Studies to help you understand goes along with each chapter. (use this link to dissertation examples find any weird links that go to “javascript” that I missed fixing). Chapter Topics / Essential Knowledge (EK) Illustrative Examples (pick at least one) per EK (the same examples may appear more than once pick different ones for david, each chapter) (Note calculations and formulas are listed on asoka buddhism, Appendix A) The page numbers are only valid for Campbell's AP Biology Edition 9 as determined by the publisher (all errors are theirs) If you have the 8 th edition you'll have to use the david copperfield, index. (sorry). If you are using the free OpenStax Biology ebook you will have to use the index as well. 51 (pages 1123-1139) TED talk: Human Behavior.

2. Timing and Profiling Essay coordination of david copperfield behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and undergraduate examples are important in natural selection. 3.Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution. 4.Natural selection acts on david copperfield characters, phenotypic variations in populations. 5.Evolutionary change is dissertation also driven by random processes. 6-Biological evolution is supported by david copperfield characters, scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics. 1. The Spirit Essay? Fight or flight response 206, 207; Predator warning 1127, 1139; Protection of young; Plant-plant interactions due to herbivory 1198; Avoidance responses 1125, 1126; Herbivory responses 1198; Territorial marking in mammals 1184; Coloration in david characters flowers 761; Bee dances 1121; Birds songs 1134; Pack behavior in In Context Essay animals 1119; Herd, flock, and david copperfield schooling behavior in because Essay animals 1119; Predator warning 1127; Colony and swarming behavior in insects 1124; Coloration 1197; Parent and copperfield offspring interactions 1124, 1127; Migration patterns 1119; Courtship and mating behaviors 482, 483, 490-491, 1120, 1130, 1131, 1132, 1134; Foraging in bees and other animals 1121; Avoidance behavior to electric fences, poisons, or traps 1125, 1126. 2. Availability of resources leading to fruiting body formation in In Context Essay fungi and certain types of david characters bacteria 638, 639, 640, 649, 793, 794, 795; Niche and youngs resource partitioning 1195, 1196; Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in copperfield characters digestive tracts of animals 797, 1199; and pdf mycorrhizae) 571; Biology of pollination 572, 624, 625, 626, 627, 637, 645, 646, 647, 806, 807; Hibernation 872; Estivation 872; Migration 1119, 1136; Courtship 482, 483, 490-491, 1120, 1130, 1131, 1132.

3.Graphical analyses of allele frequencies in copperfield a population; 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Analysis of sequence data sets 541; Analysis of phylogenetic trees 538, 539, 540; Construction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547. 4-Flowering time in relation to global climate change 201, 839, 840; Sickle cell Anemia 84, 406, 484; DDT resistance in insects 470; Artificial selection 459; Loss of It's genetic diversity within a crop species 459 815; Overuse of antibiotics 462. 52 (pgs 1150-1152) Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and david copperfield nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. Population growth (logistic/exponential), life history, density dependent factors, human population growth. Asoka Buddhism? 2. David Copperfield Characters? 4.A.5 Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways. 3. All living systems require constant input of free energy. Required Calculation: Create and solve rate and growth problems (see chapter): Rate: dY/dt; Population growth: dN/dt=B-D. Exponential Growth: dN/dt =r (max) N. Logistic Growth: dN/dt= r(max)N(K-N/K) 1: Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. 54 (1194-1215) whole chapter. Community Interactions, diversity, trophic structure, disturbance influence on species diversity/composition, biogeographic factors, pathogens alter community structure.

2-The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem. 3-Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy. 4-. On Cleopatra? All biological systems from david copperfield, cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy. 1-Loss of keystone species; Kudzu; Dutch elm disease. 2-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of dissertation pdf nesting materials and david copperfield sites 1153-1156; Food chains and youngs motors food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology. 1. interactions among living systems and with their environment result in movement of energy and matter. 2. All living things require constant input of energy. Required calculation: Primary Productivity Carbon Fixation (you'll need to wait until we do the lab in Sept.) mg Oxygen/L * 0.698= mL Oxygen/L. mL Oxygen/L * 0.536 = mg carbon fixed/L.

1-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of david copperfield characters nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. 2-Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of undergraduate examples external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165, 166, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Life-history strategy (biennial plants, reproductive diapause) 1180, 1181; Change in the producer level can affect the number and size of characters other trophic levels 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1226; Change in energy resources levels such as sunlight can affect the number and It's they Essay size of the trophic levels 1228-1229, 1230. 56 (1239-1244, 1254-1260) Conservation Biology and Global Change. 3. Diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence stability of the david copperfield characters, ecosystem. 4. Biological systems are affected by undergraduate dissertation, disruptions to copperfield characters their dynamic homeostasis. 1-Thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868. 2-Dutch elm disease 650; Potato blight 588; Small pox [historic example for Native Americans] 944; Continental drift 520; Meteor impact on Essay, dinosaurs 521, 522. 4-Physiological responses to toxic substances 1255, 1256, 1257; Dehydration; 69; Immunological responses to pathogens, toxins, and allergen 947; Invasive and/or eruptive species 1242; Human impact 1239, 1240, 1243, 1244, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1259; Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, and copperfield characters fires 1152, 1208, 1209; Water limitation 966; Salination 134. AP Biology Chapter Assignments: check monthly calendars for Essay, due dates (worth 5%) 9th Edition Chapters (required reading pages) (please make sure you read about any experiments in david copperfield characters the chapters) Crash Course “Refresher” Podcasts: Example of prior knowledge (you should have covered this in your first biology course. Dissertation Examples Pdf? ) Podcasts to be watched (note you can go to david the main link on the class web site for PPT/Prezi and more. ) Chapter Topics / Essential Knowledge (ES) (also keep in mind the questions in column 2) Illustrative Examples (pick at least one) per moneymore, ES (the same examples may appear more than once pick different ones for each chapter) Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in. List the major themes of life and give an copperfield, example of each.

Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels, define form fits function.x. Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in. Explain why weak bonds are important to living organisms. How are molecules shaped (3-D) and asoka buddhism how is the copperfield, shape related to function? read whole chapter. Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in. The Spirit In Context Essay? What are the characters, 5 emergent properties that result from hydrogen bonding?

What is an Profiling Essay, aquaporin? Why are aquaporins important to life? Explain how buffers work. cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat capacity, universal solvent supports reactions, heat of vaporization fusion, water thermal conductivity, root hairs, cells of david copperfield characters alveoli, microvilli. Undergraduate Dissertation Pdf? 4.1 and copperfield 4.3 required. Draw a structural diagram of a molecule with every functional group. (This doesn’t exist in nature!) How did vitalism influence the development of organic chemistry? Explain why carbon contributes to diversity and complexity of organic molecules. Is ATP ubiquitous? Why? There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting evidence. Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the Profiling Essay, environments to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization. carbon forms diverse molecules. read whole chapter.

Draw and describe the structure, function/characteristics and david characters unique properties of the motors, four major macromolecules/ biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). For each type of molecule make sure you explain why the structure of the molecules helps predict the function (especially in proteins) and possible interactions with other molecules. David Characters? Structure Function of Large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. different types of plutarch on cleopatra phospholipids in cell membranes, different types of hemoglobin, MHC proteins, Chlorophylls, Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to antigens, antifreeze gene in fish, addition of a poly A tail and GTP cap, enzymatic reactions, transport of proteins, protein synthesis, degradation of molecules, Chapter 8 (142-160) read whole chapter. ( Additional readings and figures:) Ch 41.3 Enzymes and copperfield characters Digestion. Ch 41.4 Evolutionary Adaptations. Explain the relationship between entropy, enthalpy and life in terms of Gibbs Free Energy. Why is free energy a negative value. Motors? Use enzymes (catabolic and anabolic) as your examples.

What are all the different types of enzyme interactions? Use simple drawings to note the other molecules that interact with enzymes. What is the link between the david copperfield characters, different areas of where digestion occurs and the types of are human Essay enzymes involved in those activities? Metabolism, Free Energy, Thermodynamics Enzymes. All living systems require constant input of free energy. Required Calculations: create and solve a Gibbs Free Energy Equations.

Delta G= Delta H - T Delta S, determining if a reaction is spontaneous and a. Q10= (k2/k1)^ 10/T2-T2. Regulation of david copperfield characters enzyme reactions. Abiotic factors that change enzyme reaction rates or structure or function. Profiling Essay? Chapter 6 (98-112) What is the copperfield characters, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Relate animal and/ plant organelle structure to their function. ( compare and contrast plant and In Context Essay animal cells.) (don't forget SER, RER, Golgi, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton. ) What is the difference between prokaryotic and david copperfield characters eukaryotic cells' cilia/flagella? What structures help cells maintain close contact with adjacent cells, Tour of the cell, organelles. 1-Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the Profiling Essay, environments to grow, reproduce, and david maintain organization. 2-Eukayotic cells maintain internal membrames that partition the cell into specialized regions.

3-The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes. 4-Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter. Required Calculations: set up a problem and solve surface area vs. volume. In Context? 1- cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat capacity, universal solvent supports reactions, heat of vaporization fusion, water thermal conductivity, root hairs, cells of copperfield alveoli, microvilli. Chapter 7 (125-138) read whole chapter. ( Additional readings and examples figures:) Ch 36.1 - 36.3 Transport in Plants. Ch 42.1, 42.5, 42.7 Gas exchange. David Copperfield Characters? Excretion in Animals Ch 44.3, 44.4 (963-968)

Ch 48: Movement of Ions in Nerve conduction (48.2) ( OpenStax Unit 2 and pdf Unit 6- and 7 ) Know the general molecular structure and behavior of a plasma membrane and functions of membrane proteins (ECM). Relate diffusion and osmosis to the second law of thermodynamics. How do ion pumps maintain membrane potential? (In animals and david plants)? Why is there more than one mode of membrane transportation required? What is bound water and its effect on osmotic behavior? Why is excretion included in plutarch on cleopatra this unit? Explain why ion movement is important in nerve impulses/conduction. Membrane Structure Function.

1-Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure. 2-Growth and dynamic homeostasis (equilibrium) are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes. Required Calculations: Y (psi) = -iCRT (see Diffusi0n Osmosis Lab) Explain how energy flows through the biosphere. (Fig 9.2) What is the structure of coenzymes and their function? Describe the four parts of cellular respiration. (Include NAD, FAD, CoA, ATP, ADP (amounts). How do organisms survive without oxygen available? Diagram or explain the purpose of chemiosmosis. 1- All living systems require constant input of david characters free energy. 2- Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological systems. 1- Kreb's cycle, glycolysis, endothermy/ectothermy, fermentation, ETC. Dissertation Examples Pdf? What is the importance of light wavelengths to photosynthesis? Describe the two main processes of photosynthesis including the role of chemiosmosis.

Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis. What causes photorespiration? Why are C4 and CAM plants considered more evolved or successful than C3 plants? (know architectural or temporal differences). 2- Organisms capture and david store free energy for It's they beings, use in biological systems. NADP+ in characters photosynthesis, photosystems and chlorophyll, Calvin cycle. read whole chapter. Ch 45.1 Endocrine and communication.

Ch 48 Figure 48.4 Chemical Synapse. Asoka Buddhism? (Biology Essentials #32) Discuss the 3 types of inter-cell communication. There are three main intracell signaling pathways, G-protein coupled receptors, Tyrosine-kinase receptors and second messengers (cAMP, Ca 2+ , and IP 3 ); discuss all in terms of the three stages of cell signaling-reception, transduction and response (don't forget to discuss the importance of protein phosphorylation). Discuss the importance of cell signaling in nerve impulse transmission. Discuss the importance of cell communication used by the endocrine system, is there any overlap with the nervous system? What role does cell signaling play in apoptosis? When and where is apoptosis appropriate? 1- Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history. 2- Cell communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from david copperfield, a distance via chemical signaling. 3- Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. 4- a variety of motors intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

5-Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response. 6-Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. read whole chapter. Mitosis Cell Cycle (meiosis is also included) (AP Essentials #28) Describe cell cycle and mitosis' role in the cycle. What is the relationship of the david copperfield characters, kinetochore to microtubules and centrosomes? Describe the youngs, cell cycle control systems. (esp. David Copperfield Characters? cdk. ) What is the motors, role of david p53? Contrast binary fission with mitosis. When and where is apoptosis appropriate? Cell Cycle Mitosis. 1-In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the asoka buddhism, cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) 240; Action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) 241; Cancer results from disruptions in cell cycle control 241, 242, 243. read whole chapter.

Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction among the kingdoms. Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis. Compare and copperfield contrast oogenesis with spermatogenesis in animals and plutarch on cleopatra plants. What is the copperfield characters, relationship between timing of meiosis and fertilization (Wolbachia)? Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle. 1-In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization. Undergraduate Dissertation Examples Pdf? 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. David Characters? Distinguish between asexual and youngs motors moneymore sexual reproduction among the kingdoms. Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis.

Compare and contrast oogenesis with spermatogenesis in animals and plants. What is the relationship between timing of meiosis and fertilization (Wolbachia)? read whole chapter. Using the addition and multiplication rules to solve genetics problems. NOTE: You are responsible for david copperfield, all Genetics Problems. They will not be collected but you may be called on dissertation examples, to do on class quizzes. Discuss Mendel’s laws.

What are the modes of inheritance? How can you recognize patterns of inheritance in pedigrees? Mendel and the Gene Idea. David Characters? 1-The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring. 2-Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism. 3-The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the asoka buddhism, ecosystem. 1-Sickle cell anemia 84; Tay-Sachs disease 280; Huntington’s disease 278; X-linked color blindness 291; Trisomy 21/Down syndrome 250; Klinefelter’s syndrome 298; Reproduction issues 250, 298. read whole chapter. NOTE: You are responsible for all Genetics Problems. They will not be collected but you may be called on to do on class quizzes. What is the importance of copperfield crossover? Why is knowing the It's beings, frequency of crossover useful?

Relate cross over events to genetic variation. Discuss genomic imprinting. Contrast epistasis with epigenetics. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. 1-The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot by david characters, explained by simple Medelian genetics.

2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 1-Sex-linked genes reside on plutarch, sex chromosomes (X in humans) 289, 290, 992; In mammals and flies, the Y chromosome is very small and carries few genes 289, 290; In mammals and flies, females are XX and males are XY 289, 290, 992; as such, X-linked recessive traits are always expressed in males 289, 290, 992; Some traits are sex limited, and expression depends on the sex of the individual, such as milk production in david female mammals and pattern baldness in males 291, 992. required 16.1 16.2. Why are Griffith, Hershey, Chase mentioned? (briefly describe the experiments and the implications of the results). What role did Franklin and dissertation pdf Chargaff play in alerting Watson and Crick to the structure of copperfield DNA? Know the basic structure of a DNA nucleotide. Be able to tell the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine. List the enzymes and their roles used during DNA replication. How many different ways can mutations be generated? List and describe. What is the The Spirit In Context Essay, role of david copperfield a telomer?

What is the role of telomerase? The Molecular Basis of Inheritance. 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 335, 336; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397, 413; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. List the highlights of central dogma. (details of transcription and translation).

Are there any significant differences between prokaryotic (bacteria vs. Youngs Motors? archaea) and eukaryotic gene expression? Why is david copperfield characters alternative RNA splicing (aka exon shuffling) so important? From Gene to Protein. 1-DNA, and in undergraduate examples pdf some cases RNA, is the primary source of david heritable information. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. Profiling Essay? 3-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. 1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of copperfield characters introns 335, 336; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397, 413; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. What are the basic viral components? What are 2 viral life cycles? How does viral transmission work? (What is the difference between transduction, conjugation, transposons.) Discuss the plutarch, evolution or devolution of virus? Compare and contrast viruses, viroids, and prions?

How do new viruses emerge? (HINI the newest). 1-Viral replication results in david genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts. 2-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the Profiling Essay, primary source of heritable information. 1-Transduction in david bacteria 384, 386, 562, 563; Transposons present in incoming DNA 385, 435, 436. also (Ch. 47 1022-1042) ( OpenStax Unit 3-for gene expression. They Are Human Essay? Unit 7for embryonic development.

Unit 6- for sensory systems and responses ) What is the david characters, role of satellite DNA? Distinguish between a repressible and inducible operon. Profiling Essay? How and where do eukaryotes regulate gene expression? What are the 4 mechanisms for transforming proto-oncogenes to oncogenes? (RAS) Discuss transposons and david copperfield characters retrotransposons, why are they important? Distinguish between the asoka buddhism, patterns of morphogenesis in plants and david characters animals. Explain the basic aspects of In Context pattern formation. How does apoptosis function in normal and abnormal development? Regulation of copperfield characters Gene Expression. 1- Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to Profiling Essay cell specialization.

2-A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. 3-Timing and coordination of david specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. 1-Promoters 332, 333, 353, 354, 355; Terminators 332; Enhancers 360, 361. List the major uses of biotechnology and how they work. (cDNA libraries, SNP, recombinant DNA, PCR, cloning, electrophoresis) 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 1 2:-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. 21 (21. 6 will be covered next semester during evolution) Compare and contrast genomics with bioinformatics. They Are Human Essay? What is shotgun sequencing? Is there a linear relationship between genome size and david characters the number of genes?

Is there a relationship the amount of non-coding DNA and gene density? How many different types of non-coding DNA are known, what is their origin or function? (for example: how do transposable elements contribute to genomic evolution?) How are multigene families of identical genes advantageous? What is the evolutionary advantage of duplicated: genes, gene regions, exons, chromosomes and Profiling Essay exon shuffling? What can be extrapolated from genomic comparisons? (bioinformatics) How do we know that the HOX and FOX genes are very old and conserved in david characters the animal kingdom? Genomes and motors Their Evolution. 1- Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

2-Variations in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions. List the david copperfield, major contributors to evolutionary theory and one finding for each. Compare the following using examples: survival of the fittest, natural selection, adaptation, and descent with modification. Profiling Essay? Summarize the david copperfield characters, evidence supporting Dr. Endler's conclusions in Inquiry 22.13 (on guppies).

How does this evidence support Darwinian evolution? List all the difference types of evidence for Darwinian evolution. Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. 1-Natural selection is a major mechanism of because they are human Essay evolution. 1-Graphical analysis of david characters allele frequencies in a population 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation 475. read whole chapter. Explain the Hardy-Weinberg theorem. (know the significance of p, q, 2pq, p 2 , q 2. Distinguish between stabilizing, directional and disruptive (diversifying) selection. Profiling Essay? Relate to allele frequency and david characters relative fitness. What is the they, relationship between, genetic drift, bottleneck effect (event), founder's effect, and david characters gene flow. What is heterozygote advantage and why is it considered preserving genetic variation?

Discuss why a predominant allele may lead to a decline in fitness? (hint: monocultures). Why can't natural selection craft a perfect organism? The Evolution of examples pdf Populations. 1-Natural selection acts on copperfield characters, phenotypic variations in populations. Required Calculations: Hardy Weinberg problems (see Appendix A) read whole chapter. Pdf? (AP Essentials #9) (AP Essentials #21) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the biological species concept?

Distinguish between pre- and post-zygotic barriers.Why are many hybrids sterile? Contrast allo- and sympatric speciation. What is the copperfield characters, role of a hybrid zone? How is polyploidy advantageous to plants? What role does sexual selection play in promoting speciation? (see Inquiry 24.12) Compare punctuated equilibrium with gradualism. What is the difference between micro- and macroevolution? The Origin of Species. 1-Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated. 2-Circadian rhythms, or the physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in motors all eukaryotes and persists even in the absence of external cues 207, 208, 838, 839, 1071; Diurnal/nocturnal and sleep/awake cycles 209, 838, 840, 1070; Jet lag in humans 209, 839; Seasonal responses, such as hibernation, estivation, and david characters migration 835, 836, 837, 872, 1089, 1119, 1136; Release and Essay reaction to pheromones 639, 1089, 1122; Visual displays in characters the reproductive cycle, 594, 595; Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207. 26 (537-548; 551-553 AND. Ch 34.8 Origin of Primates and Man 728-733) required 26.1, 26.3, 26.5.

List the Profiling Essay, major taxonomic categories from david, most to least inclusive. Distinguish between analogous and homologous structures. Distinguish between mono-, para- and polyphyletic grouping. What is a natural taxon? Distinguish between a shared ancestral character (trait) and a shared derived character (trait) used in a cladogram or phylogenetic tree. Summary principle of maximum parsimony (see Fig 26.15). Asoka Buddhism? How does molecular biology support evolutionary theory?

What is a molecular clock? What is the current tree of life? Is it now a ring? Explain the copperfield characters, mechanism of horizontal gene transfer what other mechanism can support the undergraduate, ring structure for the tree of life? Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. 1-Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested. 1-Number of heart chambers in animals 678, 679, 682, 687, 688, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903; Opposable thumbs 742, 746; Absence of characters legs in some sea mammals 725. What are the contributions of Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey towards understanding abiotic synthesis? Provide plausible evidence to support the Profiling Essay, four stages of life’s origin. What needed to david copperfield characters be present in order for free oxygen to be available in In Context the atmosphere? Explain how eukaryotes may have evolved?

What evidence is available in the rock record to support macroevolution? The History of Life on Earth. 1-Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today. 1-Cytoskeleton (a network of structural proteins that facilitate cell movement, morphological integrity and organelle transport) 100, 101, 112, 113, 116; Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria and/or chloroplasts) 100, 101, 109, 110, 111; Linear chromosomes 229, 230, 232-233; Endomembrane systems, including the copperfield characters, nuclear envelope 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109. Distinguish Achaean bacteria from plutarch on cleopatra, true Bacteria.

What are the three basic shapes of bacteria? Why are gram-negative bacteria more pathogenic than gram-positive bacteria? Compare methods of genetic recombination in bacteria (transformation, transduction, conjugation, and plasmids). Discuss the different nutritional modes (Fig 27.1). What are the characters, major differences between the The Spirit In Context Essay, 3 domains. Copperfield? Summarize Table 27.2.

What is the because they beings, significance of proteobacteria and cyanobacteria? What are the characters, major roles of prokaryotes in they beings Essay the biosphere? Bacteria and Archaea. David Copperfield? 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of on cleopatra heritable information. 1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 331, 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. What are the models of david copperfield eukaryotic origin? (Fig 28.2) What characteristics distinguish plants from the other kingdoms?

What are the four major periods of plant evolution on land? What evidence is there to support green algae as the ancestor of land plants? What are the traits that are required for a plant to be entirely terrestrial? How are the seeds of asoka buddhism a pine different from an david characters, angiosperm seed, are there any advantages to being an angiosperm? What are some current theories on how flowering plants may have evolved? What characteristics distinguish fungi from other kingdoms? Describe the examples pdf, basic body plan of a fungus. What is a lichen? Why are mycorrhizae beneficial to both plant and fungus? (32)What characteristics distinguish animals from the other kingdoms?

Outline the major phylogenetic branches of the animal kingdom, identify the benchmark characteristics. Compare and contrast two hypothesis about animal origins from unicellular ancestors (syncytial hypothesis and colonial hypothesis). (33) Why are echinoderms on the same line as vertebrates? What are the unique characteristics of david chordates? What are the specialized characteristics of vertebrates? What evidence supports that amphibians evolved from crossopterygians? Why did mammals undergo adaptive radiation during the Cenozoic?

List the characteristics of Profiling Essay angiosperms (monocots/ dicots). Copperfield Characters? Distinguish between parenchms, collenchyma and sclerenchyma. Distinquish between xylem and phloem tissues.Describe the function of dermal, vascular and ground tissue systems. Identify the differences between roots and shoot vascular tissue. How does wood form? 36 (see Chapter 7 assignment also for Transpiration Lab) List the three levels in which transport in plants occurs, describe the role of aquaporins. Trace the path of water and minerals from The Spirit In Context Essay, root to david copperfield shoot. The Spirit In Context Essay? How is the proton pump involved in mineral transport, how are solutes transferred between symplast and apoplast.Using the transpiration-cohesion-adhesion theory describe how xylem sap can be pulled upward. What are the disadvantages and advantages of transpiration? Explain how pholem sap flows from source to sink.

What are the nine micronutrients and seven micronutrients. David Copperfield Characters? required for plants, why are they important? Why do farmers need to Profiling Essay manage their soils and natural systems don't? Distinguish between nitrogen fixing and nitrifying bacteria. Discuss the two functions of leghemoglobin and why is its synthesis evidence for david, coevolution. What is the dissertation pdf, relationship between root nodule formation and mycorrhizae development. Distinquish between; complete/incomplete, perfect/imperfect flowers, and monoecious and dioecious plants. List the structure of a seed and david characters identify a function for Profiling Essay, each.

Distinguish between vegetative and sexual reproduction ,how are each adaptive strategies? How are organ identity genes involved in pattern formation in flowers? Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology. 1-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. 2-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by david copperfield characters, multiple mechanisms. 1-Morphogenesis of fingers and In Context Essay toes 367, 526, 527, 528; Immune function 930, 931, 932, 933, 934; C. elegans development 1036; Flower Development 755, 756. 39 (821-841; 845-847) associated with 45 Endrocrine) List the five classes of plant hormones, describe their major functions and where are they primarily produced.

Define the types of tropisms, how are they triggered, by whom? Define photoperiodism, describe the differences between; short, lond and day neutral plants. Explain the molecular basis of resistance to non-virulent and david virulent pathogens. Plant Responses to Internal and External. 1-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. 1- Fruiting body formation in It's because are human fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207. Availability of copperfield resources leading to fruiting body formation in fungi and certain types of bacteria 638, 639, 640, 649, 793, 794, 795; Niche and resource partitioning 1195, 1196; Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in digestive tracts of asoka buddhism animals 797, 1199; and mycorrhizae) 571; Biology of pollination 572, 624, 625, 626, 627, 637, 645, 646, 647, 806, 807. read whole chapter. List the types of david tissues, relate their structure to their function. How do large animals deal with low surface area to volume?

Define homeostasis. Give an example of positive and negative feedback. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function. 1-All living systems require constant input of Profiling Essay free energy. Characters? 1- Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to asoka buddhism maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165- 168, 863- 868. 2-Exchange of gases 854, 897, 898, 916, 917, 918, 919, 921, 923, 924, 925; Circulation of fluids 107, 108, 853, 854, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903, 908; Digestion of food 107, 854, 880, 882, 883, 885, 887, 890; Excretion of wastes 108, 854, 898; List the major feeding mechanisms and give an example organism. List the david characters, major digestive enzymes and where they are found, what they do. Explain the importance of folds, villi and microvilli. Youngs Moneymore? Distinquish between an open and copperfield characters closed circulatory system. List the components of a vertebrate cardiovascular system. Describe the components and functions of the dissertation examples pdf, lymphatic system.

What is a Hb-dissociation curve, why does it have this shape, relate it to oxygen affinity. read whole chapter. Discuss the differences between non-specific defense and specific immunity. List the participants in copperfield specific immunity and their function (cellular and youngs moneymore humoral, include any molecules) Explain how autoimmune disorders arise? 1-Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis. 1-Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses 845; Plant defenses against pathogens include molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; 847; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, thus localizing the effects 847; Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and nonheritable defense mechanisms against copperfield, pathogens 934. 44 (see chapter 7) What is the structure and function of the kidney.

Compare and contrast the different ways of excretion throughout the animal kingdom. 45 (975-984)(also includes parts of Chapter 39 on plant hormones) How Do Thyroxine and TSH Affect Metabolism? List the glands and their hormones. Discuss one complete feedback system of the endocrine system (except thyroid). Hormones and the Endocrine System. 1-A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. Undergraduate? 1-Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division 230, 233, 254-255; Expression of the SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals 290, 1010; 2- Plant immune response 845, 847, 975, 1047, 1055; Insulin 986; Human growth hormone 63; Thyroid hormones; Testosterone; Estrogen 63, 214, 1009. Describe the various means of reproduction. (which is best, when?) Describe the endocrine control of human reproduction. David Copperfield? 47 (1022-1042 see chapter 18) Describe the various stages of development. What are the The Spirit In Context Essay, major genes of development?

48 49 (1045-1060; 1067-1072) Required all of 48 and copperfield 49.2. Do an overview of the parts of nervous systems in humans. What are IPSP and motors EPSP? What is their importance? Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Nervous System. 1-Animals have nervous systems that detest external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and copperfield produce responses. 1-Acetylcholine 1058; Epinephrine 986, 991; Norepinephrine 991, 1058; Dopamine 1058; Serotonin 1059; GABA 1058; Vision Hearing 1069, 1070, 1074, 1095, 1096-1097, 1098, 1099, 1100, 1101; Muscle movement 1064, 1104, 1105, 1108, 1110, 1111; Abstract thought and Profiling Essay emotions 1071; Neuro-hormone production 975, 985; Forebrain (cerebrum), midbrain (brainstem), and hindbrain (cerebellum) 1068-1069; Right and copperfield left cerebral hemispheres in humans 1070, 1074.

Describe and compare/contrast the various types of receptor cells.

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New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Microsoft® Windows Server® 2008 and david copperfield characters Windows Vista™ include many changes and youngs motors enhancements to networking technologies. This article describes the changes to protocols and core networking components, wireless and 802.1X-authenticated wired technologies, and network infrastructure components and services in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Networking and communications are critical for organizations to david copperfield, meet the challenge of competing in the global marketplace. Employees need to connect to the network wherever they are and from any device. Partners, vendors, and others outside the network need to interact efficiently with key resources, and security is more important than ever. This article is a technical overview of It's they are human networking and communications enhancements in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista to address connectivity, ease of use, management, reliability, and characters security. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IT administrators have greater and more flexible options for Profiling Essay, managing networking infrastructure, protecting their networks by requiring computers to david copperfield characters, prove their system health, deploying settings for dissertation pdf, authenticated wireless and wired connections through Group Policy or scripts, and deploying protected traffic scenarios.

Protocols and Core Networking Components. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many changes and enhancements to david copperfield, the following protocols and core networking components: Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Domain Name System. Quality of Service.

Server Message Block 2.0. Computer Browser Service. Windows Sockets enhancements. Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0 and 6.1. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking enhancements. Windows Firewall enhancements. Internet Protocol security (IPsec) improvements.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a new implementation of the plutarch on cleopatra, TCP/IP protocol stack known as the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. Characters! The Next Generation TCP/IP stack is a complete redesign of plutarch TCP/IP functionality for both Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) that meets the characters, connectivity and performance needs of today's varied networking environments and undergraduate dissertation examples technologies. The TCP receive window size is the amount of data that a TCP receiver allows a TCP sender to send before having to wait for an acknowledgement. Copperfield! To correctly determine the value of the maximum receive window size for Profiling Essay, a connection based on the current conditions of the network, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports Receive Window Auto-Tuning. Receive Window Auto-Tuning continually determines the david copperfield, optimal receive window size on a per-connection basis by measuring the bandwidth-delay product (the bandwidth multiplied by the latency of the connection) and the application retrieve rate, and asoka buddhism automatically adjusts the maximum receive window size on an ongoing basis. With better throughput between TCP peers, the utilization of network bandwidth increases during data transfer. If all the applications are optimized to receive TCP data, then the overall utilization of the network can increase substantially, making the use of Quality of Service (QoS) more important for networks that are operating at or near capacity.

For more information, see Quality of copperfield characters Service in this article. For TCP connections with a large receive window size and asoka buddhism a large bandwidth-delay product, Compound TCP (CTCP) in the Next Generation TCP/IP stack aggressively increases the amount of david characters data sent at a time by monitoring the bandwidth-delay product, delay variations, and Profiling Essay packet losses. David Copperfield Characters! CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. In testing performed internally at Profiling Essay Microsoft, large file backup times were reduced by almost half for a 1 Gigabit per second connection with a 50 millisecond round-trip time. Connections with a larger bandwidth-delay product can have even better performance. Receive Window Auto Tuning optimizes receiver-side throughput and CTCP optimizes sender-side throughput. By working together, they can increase link utilization and produce substantial performance gains for large bandwidth-delay product connections. CTCP is enabled by default for computers running Windows Server 2008 and david characters disabled by default for computers running Windows Vista.

You can enable CTCP with the plutarch, netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=ctcp command and disable CTCP with the david copperfield characters, netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=none command. When a TCP segment is dissertation examples pdf lost, TCP assumes that the segment was lost due to congestion at a router and copperfield performs congestion control, which dramatically lowers the TCP sender’s transmission rate. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support (RFC 3168) on both TCP peers and the routers in youngs the routing infrastructure, routers experiencing congestion mark the packets as they forward them. TCP peers receiving marked packets lower their transmission rate to characters, ease congestion and prevent segment losses. Essay! Detecting congestion before packet losses are incurred increases the overall throughput between TCP peers.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support ECN, but it is disabled by default. You can enable ECN support with the copperfield characters, netsh interface tcp set global ecncapability=enabled command. Enhancements for The Spirit In Context, High-loss Environments. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports the following RFCs to david copperfield characters, optimize throughput in high-loss environments: RFC 2582: The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm. The NewReno algorithm provides faster throughput by changing the way that a sender can increase their sending rate when multiple segments in a window of data are lost and dissertation pdf the sender receives a partial acknowledgement (an acknowledgement for only part of the data that has been successfully received). RFC 2883: An Extension to the Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Option for TCP.

SACK, defined in copperfield RFC 2018, allows a receiver to The Spirit Essay, indicate up to david characters, four noncontiguous blocks of asoka buddhism received data. RFC 2883 defines an additional use of the fields in the SACK TCP option to acknowledge duplicate packets. This allows the receiver of the TCP segment containing the characters, SACK option to determine when it has retransmitted a segment unnecessarily and Profiling Essay adjust its behavior to prevent future retransmissions. The fewer retransmissions that are sent, the better the overall throughput. RFC 3517: A Conservative Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)-based Loss Recovery Algorithm for TCP.

The implementation of david copperfield characters TCP/IP in Windows Server 2003 and youngs Windows® XP uses SACK information only to determine which TCP segments have not arrived at the destination. RFC 3517 defines a method of using SACK information to copperfield characters, perform loss recovery when duplicate acknowledgements have been received, replacing the fast recovery algorithm when SACK is enabled on a connection. Youngs Moneymore! The Next Generation TCP/IP stack keeps track of SACK information on a per-connection basis and characters monitors incoming acknowledgements and duplicate acknowledgements to more quickly recover when multiple segments are not received at It's because the destination. RFC 4138: Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP and the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Spurious retransmissions of TCP segments can occur when there is copperfield characters a sudden and temporary increase in the round trip time (RTT). The F-RTO algorithm prevents spurious retransmission of TCP segments. Asoka Buddhism! The result of the F-RTO algorithm is that for environments that have sudden and temporary increases in the RTT, such as when a wireless client roams from one wireless access point (AP) to another, F-RTO prevents unnecessary retransmission of segments and more quickly returns to its normal sending rate.

RFC 3042: Enhancing TCP's Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit. With Limited Transmit, when TCP has additional data to send on a connection and two consecutive duplicate ACKs have been received, TCP can send additional segments on the connection when the receiver's advertised window allows the transmission of the additional segments and when the additional segments contain data that is within two segments beyond the current congestion window. David Copperfield! The ability of TCP to send additional segments helps ensure that fast retransmit can be used to detect segment losses, rather than waiting for an RTO timer expiration. For more information about TCP connections, data flow, and undergraduate pdf retransmission and timeout behavior, see the Windows Server 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services book from Microsoft Press. Neighbor Unreachability Detection for david characters, IPv4. Neighbor Unreachability Detection is asoka buddhism a feature of IPv6 in which a node tracks whether a neighboring node is copperfield characters reachable, providing better error detection and recovery when a neighboring node suddenly becomes unavailable. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack also supports Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4 traffic by motors moneymore tracking the copperfield, reachable state of IPv4 neighbors in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache.

IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection determines reachability through an exchange of unicast ARP Request and ARP Reply messages or by relying on In Context upper layer protocols such as TCP. With IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection, IPv4-based communications benefit by determining when neighboring nodes such as routers are no longer reachable. For more information about Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4, see Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Fail-back Support for Default Gateway Changes. Dead gateway detection in david TCP/IP for Windows Server 2003 and Profiling Essay Windows XP provides a fail-over function, but not a fail-back function in which a dead gateway is copperfield tried again to determine whether it has become available.

The Next Generation TCP/IP stack provides fail-back for default gateway changes by dissertation pdf periodically attempting to send TCP traffic through the previously detected unavailable gateway. If the TCP traffic sent through the previous gateway is successful, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack switches the default gateway back to the previous default gateway. Support for david copperfield, fail-back to primary default gateways can provide faster throughput by sending traffic through the primary default gateway on the subnet. Changes in It's because beings PMTU Black Hole Router Detection. Path maximum transmission unit (PMTU) discovery, defined in RFC 1191, relies on david copperfield the receipt of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment (DF) Set messages from routers containing the MTU of the next link. However, in some cases, intermediate routers silently discard packets that cannot be fragmented.

These types of routers are known as black hole PMTU routers. Additionally, intermediate routers might drop ICMP messages because of configured packet filtering rules. The result is that TCP connections can time out and terminate because intermediate routers silently discard large TCP segments, their retransmissions, and the ICMP error messages for PMTU discovery. PMTU black hole router detection senses when large TCP segments are being retransmitted and motors automatically adjusts the PMTU for the connection, rather than relying on the receipt of the ICMP Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and DF Set messages. With TCP/IP in david copperfield Windows Server 2003 and Profiling Essay Windows XP, PMTU black hole router detection is david characters disabled by default because enabling it often yielded false positive results, lowering the MTU unnecessarily and decreasing performance. With increasing use of packet filtering rules on routers to drop ICMP traffic, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack enables PMTU black hole router detection by default to youngs motors moneymore, prevent TCP connections from terminating and uses an david, improved method of youngs moneymore detecting PMTU black home routers. PMTU black hole router detection is copperfield characters triggered on a TCP connection when it begins retransmitting full-sized segments with the DF flag set. TCP resets the PMTU for The Spirit Essay, the connection to 536 bytes and retransmits its segments with the DF flag cleared.

This maintains the TCP connection, although at a possibly lower PMTU size than actually exists for the connection. This behavior also applies to IPv6 traffic. David Copperfield! For IPv6, the Profiling Essay, PMTU is set to copperfield, 1220 bytes if a PMTU black hole router is It's they beings detected. Network Diagnostics Framework Support. The Network Diagnostics Framework is an david copperfield, extensible architecture that helps users recover from and In Context troubleshoot problems with network connections. David Copperfield! For TCP/IP-based communication, the Network Diagnostics Framework prompts the user through a series of options to eliminate possible causes until the youngs motors, root cause of the problem is copperfield characters identified or all possibilities are eliminated. Specific TCP/IP-related issues that the Network Diagnostics Framework can diagnose are the following: Incorrect IP address. Default gateway (router) is It's because are human beings Essay not available.

Incorrect default gateway. Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) over TCP/IP (NetBT) name resolution failure. Incorrect Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Local port is already being used. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client service is not running. There is no remote listener. The media is disconnected. The local port is characters blocked. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the Profiling Essay, TCP Extended Statistics MIB Internet draft (draft-ietf-tsvwg-tcp-mib-extension-15.txt), which defines extended performance statistics for TCP. Copperfield! By analyzing ESTATS on a connection, it is possible to determine whether the performance bottleneck for a connection is the sending application, the receiving application, or the network.

ESTATS is disabled by undergraduate dissertation examples default and can be enabled per connection. Copperfield! With ESTATS, third-party independent software vendors (ISVs) can create powerful diagnostics and In Context network throughput analysis applications. Tcpanalyzer.exe, available in characters the Windows Vista SDK, is on cleopatra a diagnostic tool based on ESTATS. New Packet Filtering Model with Windows Filtering Platform. The Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) is a new architecture in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack that provides APIs so that third-party ISVs can participate in the filtering decisions that take place at several layers in the TCP/IP protocol stack and throughout the david, operating system. Dissertation Examples! WFP also integrates and provides support for next-generation firewall features such as authenticated communication and david dynamic firewall configuration based on applications’ use of the Windows Sockets API (application-based policy). ISVs can create firewalls, anti-virus software, diagnostic software, and other types of Essay applications and david characters services. Windows Firewall and IPsec in on cleopatra Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista use the WFP API. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the following enhancements to IPv6: Dual IP layer stack.

The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports a dual IP layer architecture in which the IPv4 and IPv6 implementations share common transport (that includes TCP and UDP) and framing layers. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack has both IPv4 and IPv6 enabled by default. Characters! There is undergraduate examples no need to install a separate component to obtain IPv6 support. Enabled by default. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IPv6 is installed and enabled by default. You configure IPv6 settings through the properties of the Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IPv6) component in the Network Connections folder and david characters through commands in the netsh interface ipv6 context. IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista cannot be uninstalled, but it can disabled. For more information, see Configuring IPv6 with Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista now allows you to undergraduate dissertation pdf, manually configure IPv6 settings through a set of dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder, similar to how you can manually configure IPv4 settings. The Teredo client in Windows Vista is copperfield characters enabled but might be active or inactive, depending on the computer’s configuration.

The Teredo client in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista uses the plutarch, 2001::/32 prefix as assigned by IANA and uses unused bits in the Flags field of the Teredo address to help prevent address scans of Teredo addresses. For more information, see Teredo Overview. Teredo can now be manually enabled for domain member computers and can work if there is one Teredo client behind one or more symmetric network address translators (NATs). David Copperfield Characters! A symmetric NAT maps the same internal (private) address and port number to moneymore, different external (public) addresses and ports, depending on the external destination address (for outbound traffic). This new behavior allows Teredo to work between a larger set of Internet-connected hosts. For more information about IPv6 and copperfield Teredo, see Using IPv6 and Teredo. Integrated IPsec support. In Windows Server 2008 and In Context Windows Vista, IPsec support for IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and david copperfield data encryption.

The Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IP Security Policies snap-ins now support the on cleopatra, configuration of IPsec policies for IPv6 traffic in the same way as IPv4 traffic. For example, when you configure an IP filter as part of an IP filter list in david characters the IP Security Policies snap-in, you can now specify IPv6 addresses and address prefixes when specifying a specific source or destination IP address. Multicast Listener Discovery version 2 (MLDv2), specified in RFC 3810, provides support for source-specific multicast traffic. MLDv2 is equivalent to motors, Internet Group Management Protocol version 3 (IGMPv3) for IPv4. Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) allows IPv6 and IPv4 hosts on a single subnet without a DNS server to resolve each other’s names. This capability is david characters useful for single-subnet home networks and ad hoc wireless networks. For more information, see Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution.

Support for ipv6-literal.net Names. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 support the use of IPv6Address .ipv6-literal.net names. It's Are Human Beings Essay! An ipv6-literal.net name can be used in characters services or applications that do not recognize the syntax of normal IPv6 addresses. To specify an IPv6 address within the plutarch on cleopatra, ipv6-literal.net name, convert the colons (:) in the address to david characters, dashes (-). For example, for the IPv6 address 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, the corresponding ipv6-literal.net name is 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.net. To specify a zone ID (also known as a scope ID), replace the “%” used to separate the asoka buddhism, IPv6 address from the zone ID with an “s”. For example to specify the copperfield, destination fe80::218:8bff:fe17:a226%4, the name is fe80--218-8bff-fe17-a226s4.ipv6-literal.net. You can use an ipv6-literal.net name in the computer name part of a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path. The Spirit! For example, to specify the Docs share of the computer with the IPv6 address of copperfield 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, use the Profiling Essay, UNC path 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.netdocs. The built-in remote access client and the Routing and Remote Access service now support the IPv6 Control Protocol (IPV6CP), as defined in RFC 2472, to configure IPv6 nodes on david characters a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) link. Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over PPP-based connections.

For example, IPV6CP support allows you to connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections that might be used for broadband Internet access. Random Interface IDs for IPv6 Addresses. To prevent address scans of IPv6 addresses based on the known company IDs of network adapter manufacturers, Windows Server 2008 and It's because they Essay Windows Vista by default generate random interface IDs for non-temporary autoconfigured IPv6 addresses, including public and copperfield characters link-local addresses. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 use Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64-based interface IDs for autoconfigured IPv6 addresses. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a DHCPv6-capable DHCP client that will perform stateful address autoconfiguration with a DHCPv6 server.

Windows Server 2008 includes a DHCPv6-capable DHCP server. For more information about DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. For more information about asoka buddhism IPv6 changes in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see Changes to characters, IPv6 in dissertation pdf Windows Vista and characters Windows Server 2008. For more information about IPv6 in It's they are human beings Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see the Understanding IPv6, Second Edition book from Microsoft Press. Managing TCP connections can involve a significant amount of processing, which includes: Parsing the fields of the TCP header (validating the TCP checksum and processing sequence and acknowledgement numbers, TCP flags, and david copperfield source and destination ports).

Creating and sending acknowledgements for data received. Segmentation for data sent. Copying of data between memory locations for examples, the receive window, the send window, and applications. Managing timers for TCP retransmission behavior. By offloading this processing to dedicated hardware, a server computer's CPU can be used for other tasks.

TCP Chimney Offload in david Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista provides automated, stateful offload of all TCP traffic processing to specialized network adapters that implement a TCP Offload Engine (TOE). Rather than offloading individual tasks, the plutarch on cleopatra, TOE-capable network adapter maintains state for the significant attributes of a connection, such as IP address, the TCP ports, and david segment sequence numbers. This allows the network adapter to perform all of the processing of the TCP traffic without impacting the It's are human beings Essay, server's CPU. The benefit of offloading all TCP processing is most pronounced when TCP Chimney Offload is david copperfield characters used for long-lived connections with large packet payloads, such as TCP connections for file backup and undergraduate examples pdf multimedia streaming. By moving these TCP processing tasks to david copperfield characters, a TOE-enabled network adapter, the server's CPU is freed for other application tasks, such as supporting more user sessions or processing incoming requests faster. Windows Server 2008 includes the following changes and moneymore enhancements to david characters, the Domain Name System (DNS) Server service: Background zone loading DNS servers that host large DNS zones that are stored in Active Directory Domain Services are able to respond to client queries more quickly when they restart because zone data is now loaded in the background.

IPv6 support The DNS Server service now fully supports forward and reverse lookups for IPv6 and DNS traffic over plutarch on cleopatra, IPv6. Support for read-only domain controllers (RODCs) The DNS Server role in Windows Server 2008 provides primary read-only zones on david RODCs. Global single names The DNS Server service in Windows Server 2008 provides a new zone type, the GlobalNames zone, which you can use to store single-label names that can be unique across an entire forest. Youngs! The GlobalNames zone provides single-label name resolution for large enterprise networks that do not deploy WINS and where using DNS name suffixes to provide single-label name resolution is not practical. For more information, see DNS Server GlobalNames Zone Deployment.

For more information about DNS support in characters Windows Server 2008, see DNS Server in the Windows Server 2008 Technical Library and DNS Enhancements in undergraduate examples pdf Windows Server 2008. For more information about DNS support in Windows, see the Microsoft DNS Web page. In Windows Server 2003 and david characters Windows XP, quality of service (QoS) functionality is made available to applications through the Profiling Essay, QoS APIs. Applications that used the QoS APIs could access prioritized delivery functions. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there are new facilities to david copperfield characters, manage network traffic for both enterprise and undergraduate examples home networks.

Policy-based QoS for Enterprise Networks. QoS policies in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow IT staff to copperfield characters, either prioritize or manage the sending rate for outgoing network traffic and The Spirit In Context can be confined to applications (by executable name or by application folder path), source and destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, source and destination TCP or UDP ports, and a range of ports. QoS policy settings are part of User Configuration or Computer Configuration Group Policy and david copperfield are configured with the Group Policy Object Editor and linked to Profiling Essay, Active Directory containers (domains, sites, and organizational units) with the Group Policy Management Console. QoS policies can be applied to users or computers that are members of a domain, a site, an david, organizational unit, or filtered within an Active Directory container for a security group. To manage the use of bandwidth, you can configure a QoS policy with a throttle rate for outbound traffic. Essay! Through throttling, a QoS policy will limit the aggregate outgoing network traffic to a specified rate. To specify prioritized delivery, traffic is marked with a configured Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value. The routers in the network infrastructure can place DSCP-marked packets in different queues for differentiated delivery. For Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)-enabled wireless networks, DSCP values are mapped to WMM Access Categories. Both DSCP marking and copperfield characters throttling can be used together to manage traffic effectively.

Because the throttling and Profiling Essay priority marking is taking place at the Network layer, applications do not need to david characters, be modified. Advanced policy-based QoS settings allow you to indirectly control incoming TCP data by specifying the maximum size of the TCP receive window (default size of 16 MB) and to specify whether applications can set DSCP values (allowed by default). Advanced QoS settings are only available for Computer Configuration Group Policy. For more information about Profiling Essay QoS support in Windows Vista and other versions of Windows, see the Quality of david copperfield characters Service Web page. qWave and QoS2 APIs for Home Networks. Because home networks are increasingly being shared by both data and undergraduate dissertation examples audio/video (A/V) applications, a QoS solution is david needed so that time-dependent A/V traffic can be given preferential treatment over data traffic. Additionally, home networks are increasingly becoming wireless, which introduces additional complications for latency and bandwidth-sensitive applications.

Windows Vista supports Quality Windows Audio/Video Experience (qWave), a collection of QoS-related software components that address the network challenges introduced by plutarch A/V applications and david wireless networks. Because Are Human Essay! qWave is david copperfield integrated into the networking stack as part of the QoS subsystem and works with multiple network and Profiling Essay data link layer packet priority technologies to support multiple A/V streams (real-time flows requiring QoS) and data streams (best-effort flows, such as e-mail or file transfers) simultaneously over a home network, while providing a high-quality user experience. The collection of qWave technologies detect and monitor LAN bandwidth, discover the QoS capability of the home network, and david copperfield characters provide distributed admission control for fair and consistent usage of network bandwidth. Because They Are Human Beings Essay! These technologies enable advanced A/V streaming techniques so that applications can dynamically adapt to variable network conditions. Server Message Block (SMB), also known as the david, Common Internet File System (CIFS), is the file sharing protocol used by default on Windows-based computers. Windows includes an SMB client (the Client for Microsoft Windows component installed through the properties of a network connection) and an SMB server (the File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows component installed through the properties of a network connection). It's! SMB in versions of Windows prior to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, known as SMB 1.0, was originally designed 15 years ago for early Windows-based network operating systems such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for david characters, Workgroups and carries with it the It's they are human beings, limitations of its initial design. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also supports SMB 2.0; a new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s networking environments and the needs of the characters, next generation of file servers. SMB 2.0 has the following enhancements:

Supports sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server, a common complaint against SMB 1.0. Supports much larger buffer sizes compared to SMB 1.0. Increases the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on are human beings Essay the server and the number of file shares that a server can have. Supports durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. Supports symbolic links. Computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista support both SMB 1.0 and SMB 2.0.

The version of SMB that is copperfield used for file sharing operations is determined during the asoka buddhism, SMB session negotiation. David! The following table shows which version of SMB that is used for plutarch, various combinations of copperfield client and server computers. Version of SMB used. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista.

Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 sets the startup state of the Computer Browser service to disabled by default for on cleopatra, a new installation of Windows Server and copperfield when upgrading an existing server to Windows Server 2008. The Computer Browser service helps maintain an Profiling Essay, updated list of characters domains, workgroups, and Profiling Essay server computers on copperfield characters the network and Profiling Essay supplies this list to client computers upon request. For detailed information about Computer Browser service operation, see Appendix C - Computer Browser Service.

The default startup state of the Computer Browser service on copperfield characters computers running Windows Server 2008 can cause problems for examples pdf, a domain controller in characters the primary domain controller flexible single master operations (PDC FSMO) role. For computer browsing, a computer in the PDC FSMO role centrally collects and Profiling Essay distributes information about domains, workgroups, and computers for multi-subnet networks. If the computer in the PDC FSMO role is not running the Computer Browser service, computer browse lists across the network will contain only domains, workgroups, and computers on the local subnet. Characters! To prevent this problem, configure the youngs moneymore, startup type for david copperfield, the Computer Browser service for Automatic on the computer in the PDC FSMO role and then start Computer Browser service. You can do this from the Services snap-in or at an elevated command prompt with the following commands: sc config browser start= auto.

Because the dissertation, Computer Browser service relies on file and printer sharing, you will also need to turn on File and Printer Sharing in david copperfield the Network and motors Sharing Center. Alternatively, move the david copperfield, PDC FSMO role to another domain controller that has the Computer Browser service started and configured for automatic startup and File and Printer Sharing turned on in the Network and Sharing Center. Additionally, if the only server computer on plutarch on cleopatra a subnet is running Windows Server 2008, client computers will become the copperfield, local browse server on the subnets. As client computers are started and are shut down, the role of the local browse server will pass from one client computer to another, possibly resulting in an inconsistent display of domains, workgroups, and computers. To prevent this problem, on the computer running Windows Server 2008, turn on file and printer sharing, configure the startup type for the Computer Browser service for Automatic, and then start the Computer Browser service.

Http.sys, the kernel mode driver that services Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic, has been enhanced in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with the following: HTTP Server API 2.0. ETW tracing for asoka buddhism, HTTP events. HTTP Server API is david copperfield characters a kernel-mode HTTP protocol driver with user-mode APIs available through Httpapi.dll. The HTTP Server APIs enables a server application to register HTTP URLs, receive requests, and service responses. HTTP Server APIs include: Simple-to-use HTTP listener functionality on asoka buddhism Windows for native Windows applications. Applications can use the HTTP Server API to co-exist and copperfield share TCP ports with HTTP Server API applications, such as Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0. This allows popular Web traffic TCP ports such as 80 and 443 to be used by youngs motors multiple server applications simultaneously as long as they are serving different parts of the URL namespace. A native HTTP stack for computers running on a Windows operating system that is HTTP/1.1 compliant. New APIs for configuring the HTTP server: Authentication, Bandwidth Throttling, Logging, Connection Limits, Server State, 503 Responses, Request Queues, Response Caching, and SSL Certificate Binding.

For more information, see Using the HTTP Server Version 2.0 API. Http.sys now provides server-side authentication through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs for the following schemes: Negotiate (Kerberos | NTLM), NTLM, Basic, and Digest. Previously, server applications had to implement their own authentication. David Characters! Advantages to Http.sys providing the motors moneymore, server-side authentication include the following: Server applications can run under lower privileged accounts. Server applications that support Kerberos authentication can now run under a different account than the default account associated with the Service Principle Name (SPN) of the local machine. A service using Http.sys authentication can now support Kerberos mutual authentication without requiring any explicit SPN configuration.

Seamless NTLM authentication handshakes do not cause a restart of the david copperfield characters, handshake process. Http.sys now provides logging through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs, supporting the following formats: W3C, centralized W3C, NCSA, IIS, and centralized binary log format. Within the centralized log file, site ID fields identify the site to which the motors moneymore, log entries belong. Http.sys now supports Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) for characters, hostnames. Clients can request sites with IDN hostnames. Http.sys converts IDN hostnames to Unicode prior to routing to server applications. Undergraduate Dissertation Examples Pdf! For all encoding formats used by clients in hostnames, Http.sys performs checks and normalization of david characters hostnames according to the IDN in Profiling Essay Applications (IDNA) standard (RFC 3490). Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) is a capability of Windows to obtain information about copperfield components and In Context events, typically written to log files.

ETW log files make it much easier to troubleshoot problems. Tracing can also diagnose end-to-end issues, in which an david characters, Activity ID indicates the flow across operations. Http.sys supports tracing for the following categories: HTTP requests and responses. SSL and authentication transactions. Connections and connection timers.

Service or application setup; setting or deleting properties. Activity ID based, including across other ETW-enabled components. For each tracing category, Http.sys supports four levels of information: Error, Warning, Informational, and Verbose. Http.sys tracing can be used as an advanced troubleshooting tool to obtain information about Http.sys processes and examples behavior. To start an ETW trace session for Http.sys, do the following: Create a folder to store the trace files. From this folder, create a file named Httptrace.txt with the following contents: Use the following command to start tracing: Perform the steps or tests that need to david copperfield, be traced.

To stop the ETW trace session for It's are human beings Essay, Http.sys, use the following command: An Httptrace.etl trace file should now appear in the folder. This file can be converted into XML format, HTML, or a CSV file with the Tracerpt.exe tool. Copperfield Characters! For example, to motors moneymore, convert the contents of the Httptrace.etl file into david a CSV file, use the following command: The CSV files can then be viewed in a text editor or spreadsheet application. You can now manage configuration settings and control diagnostics for asoka buddhism, Http.sys through a set of commands in the netsh http context. Netsh is a command-line tool that is used by many other Windows networking services, such as IPsec and Routing and Remote Access. The commands in the netsh http context replace the copperfield, sample tool Httpconfig.exe. With this new support, you can do the following at youngs motors moneymore a Windows command prompt: Configure SSL certificate bindings, URL reservations, IP listen lists, or global timeouts.

Delete or flush the HTTP cache or logging buffers. Display the Http.sys service or cache state. Http.sys now has the david characters, following performance metric counters to examples pdf, help you with monitoring, diagnosing, and capacity planning for Web servers: HTTP Service Counters. Number of URIs in the cache, added since startup, deleted since startup, and number of cache flushes. Cache hits/second and copperfield characters Cache misses/second. HTTP Service URL Groups. Data send rate, data receive rate, bytes transferred (sent and received) Maximum number of connections, connection attempts rate, rate for GET and HEAD requests, and total number of requests.

HTTP Service Request Queues. Number of requests in queue, age of asoka buddhism oldest requests in queue. Rate of request arrivals into the queue, rate of rejection, total number of david copperfield rejected requests, rate of undergraduate dissertation pdf cache hits. With these new performance counters, metrics can be viewed in through the Diagnostic Console snap-in or obtained through the Performance Counters API. Enhancements to the WinINet API in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the copperfield, following: Support for IPv6 literals and scope IDs. Support for HTTP decompression. Support for Internationalized Domain Names. Support for ETW tracing. IPv6 support in undergraduate dissertation pdf Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Support for IPv6 Literals and Scope IDs.

WinINet now supports RFC 3986 and the use of IPv6 literal addresses in URLs. Characters! For example, to connect to asoka buddhism, the Web server at the IPv6 address 2001:db8:100:2a5f::1, a user with a WinINet-based Web browser (such as Internet Explorer) can type http://[2001:db8:100:2a5f::1] as the address. Although typical users might not use IPv6 literal addresses, the ability to specify the characters, IPv6 address in the URL is valuable to application developers, software testers, and network troubleshooters. WinINet also supports the encoding of the IPv6 scope ID (also known as a zone ID) as part of the address to allow users to specify the scope for the IPv6 destination. For more information, see IP Version 6 Support. WinINet now includes built-in support for the gzip and deflate content encoding schemes. Processing decompression within WinINet will reduce data compression/decompression issues between Web browsers and Web servers while providing performance gains through reduced Web page download times. This can prove extremely beneficial for users with low bandwidth connection such as dial-up Internet users. For more information, see Content Encoding.

Support for undergraduate dissertation, Internationalized Domain Names. WinINet now conforms to the Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) standard (RFC 3490) for david copperfield characters, hostnames when you use the Unicode versions of the WinINet API. Asoka Buddhism! This new support ensures that applications work correctly with domain names containing non-ASCII characters without requiring IDN support within the david characters, Web application, installation of a third-party plug-in, or intermediate nodes in a network communication path. Motors! For more information, see IDN Support in WinINet. WinINet now supports ETW tracing that allows IT helpdesk and support specialists to obtain detailed information about WinINet processes and events to characters, help determine the source of protocol or application problems. By including identifiers for all of the WinINet events, you can construct a chain of ETW traces that span the entire networking stack, using the In Context Essay, identifiers to david characters, associate traces from adjacent networking layers. For more information about ETW Tracing, see Event Tracing. IPv6 support in Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Web Proxy Auto-Discovery (WPAD) script helper functions exposed by asoka buddhism WinINet have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinINet. For more information about characters WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support.

Updates to undergraduate pdf, the WinHTTP 5.1 API in Windows Server 2008 and copperfield Windows Vista include the following: Support for data uploads larger than 4 gigabytes. Support for chunked transfer encoding. Support for issuer list retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)-based client authentication. Support for optional client certificate requests. Support for 4-tuple connection information indication.

New error codes for plutarch, SSL client authentication. IPv6 support in WPAD scripts. Support for Data Uploads Larger than 4 Gigabytes. WinHTTP now allows applications to add a “Content-Length” header to david copperfield, specify a data length up to 2 64 bytes. Support for Chunked Transfer Encoding.

WinHTTP now allows applications to plutarch on cleopatra, perform “chunked” transfer encoding for their data and david characters send them using the It's because are human Essay, WinHttpWriteData API. David Copperfield! WinHTTP will detect the presence of a “Transfer-Encoding” header and make internal adjustments to ensure that the asoka buddhism, transfer is compliant to the HTTP 1.1 specification. Support for Issuer List Retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer-based Client Authentication. WinHTTP now allows the application to retrieve the issuer list that is characters associated with a client authentication challenge. An issuer list specifies a list of certification authorities (CAs) that are authorized by the server to It's because are human beings, issue client certificates. David! With this new support, a WinHTTP application can determine the correct client certificate to use for client authentication. Support for Optional Client Certificate Requests.

Some secure HTTP sites request a client certificate but do not require it. If the client does not have a client certificate to respond to the request, the server can use other types of HTTP authentication or allow anonymous access instead. Profiling Essay! To support interoperation with such server configurations, WinHTTP now allows an application to supply a NULL client certificate to indicate to david, the server that it does not have a client certificate for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication. Support for youngs moneymore, 4-tuple Connection Information Indication. Upon completion of copperfield a WinHttpReceiveResponse API, WinHTTP now allows an application to query the source IP/port and destination IP/port associated with the HTTP request that results in the response. New Error Codes for youngs motors moneymore, SSL Client Authentication. WinHTTP now includes error codes for david copperfield, the following common errors in SSL client authentication: The client certificate does not have an associated private key, which is because are human typically caused by importing a client certificate without the private key. The application thread that calls WinHttpSendRequest or WinHttpReceiveResponse does not have the privilege to access the private key associated with the supplied client certificate.

Verify that the david copperfield characters, access control list (ACL) for the private key allows the application to asoka buddhism, access it. WPAD script helper functions exposed by WinHTTP have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and david copperfield characters subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinHTTP. For more information about WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support. For information about enhancements to WinHTTP in In Context Essay Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see What's New in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista and SSL in WinHTTP.

Windows Sockets (Winsock) support has been updated with the following: New Winsock APIs. ETW Tracing for Winsock events. Layered Service Provider enhancements. Winsock Network Diagnostics Framework module. New kernel mode Sockets API. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the david copperfield, following new Winsock APIs: WSAConnectByName Creates a connection to the specified destination, given the destination host’s name. Profiling Essay! WSAConnectByName takes all the david, destination addresses returned by name resolution, all the local addresses, and attempts connections by using address pairs with the highest chance of on cleopatra success. David Copperfield! An optimal pairing algorithm provided by the transport determines the order of the address pairs.

WSAConnectByName ensures a connection will be established (if possible), in the minimal amount of time. WSAConnectByList Creates a connection to the specified destination, given a list of destination IP addresses. Asoka Buddhism! WSAConnectByList takes a list of M addresses and the local computer’s N addresses, and tries connecting using up to M x N address combinations before failing to david characters, connect. WSASendMsg Sends data and dissertation examples optional control information from connected and unconnected sockets. The WSASendMsg function can be used in place of the WSASend and WSASendTo functions. WSAPoll Determines status of david copperfield characters one or more sockets. For more information on these new APIs, search MSDN for beings, the API name. The following are some of the Winsock events that can be traced with ETW tracing:

You can enable ETW tracing for Winsock events using the following: Event Viewer snap-in. Logman.exe and Tracerpt.exe tools. To enable ETW Tracing for Winsock events using the Event Viewer snap-in, do the following: Run the Event Viewer tool in the Administrative Tools folder. In the tree of the characters, Event Viewer snap-in, open Application Logs , and then Microsoft-Windows-Winsock-AFD . In the Log Properties dialog box, click Enable Logging , and then click OK . To view the events, in the Action pane, click Refresh . Plutarch! To disable logging, clear the Enable Logging check box on copperfield the Log Properties dialog box for the Winsock/AFD item. You might have to increase the log size depending on how many events you want to view. To enable ETW Tracing for Winsock events using the Logman.exe tool, use the following commands:

A binary log file will be written to LogFileLocation . Undergraduate Dissertation Examples Pdf! To convert the binary file written by david copperfield characters the Logman.exe tool into readable text, use the Tracerpt.exe tool. Asoka Buddhism! For example, use the following command: To stop logging, use the david copperfield, following command: Layered Service Provider Enhancements. Winsock Layered Service Provider (LSP) support in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has been enhanced with the following: The installation and removal of LSPs are logged in the system event log to help determine which applications are installing LSPs and to troubleshoot failed LSP installations. To view the events logged in a console window, use the netsh winsock audit trail command. There is a new installation API (WSCInstallProviderAndChains) that software vendors can use to install an LSP into motors the Winsock catalog. Manually installing an LSP can be done using a series of Winsock functions, but if done improperly can leave the Winsock LSP catalog in an inconsistent state.

Using this new API can save a software vendor that is developing an LSP hundreds of lines of code. There are new facilities to david characters, categorize LSPs and to asoka buddhism, remove most LSPs from the processing path for system critical services. These new facilities provide more stability to copperfield, Windows, protecting system critical services from improperly designed LSPs. A new netsh winsock remove provider Winsock_catalog_ID command allows you to remove a single LSP. Profiling Essay! Use this command instead of the netsh winsock reset command, which resets the Winsock catalog to a clean state. There is a Winsock-specific diagnostics module for the Network Diagnostics Framework that will allow users to selectively repair the Winsock catalog by removing only those LSPs that are causing problems. The networking architecture of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a new interface called Winsock Kernel (WSK) . David Copperfield! WSK is a new transport-independent kernel mode Network Programming Interface (NPI) for TDI clients. Using WSK, kernel-mode software modules can perform network communication using socket-like programming semantics similar to those supported in the user-mode Windows Sockets 2 API. While TDI is The Spirit In Context Essay supported in Windows Vista for david, backward compatibility, TDI clients should be updated to use WSK to achieve the It's are human beings, best performance. Windows Server 2008 and david copperfield Windows Vista with no service packs installed include Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0.

NDIS specifies a standard interface between kernel-mode network drivers and the operating system. NDIS also specifies a standard interface between layered network drivers, abstracting lower-level drivers that manage hardware from upper-level drivers, such as network transports. For more information about youngs motors NDIS, see Networking. NDIS 6.0 includes the following features: New offload support. Support for lightweight filter drivers. NDIS 6.0 includes the david copperfield, following new support for offloading network traffic processing functions to network adapters: Offload of IPv6 traffic NDIS 5.1 in Windows Server 2003 and on cleopatra Windows XP already supports the offload of IPv4 traffic processing. NDIS 6.0 now supports the characters, offload of IPv6 traffic processing. Checksum offload supports IPv6 Offloading of checksum calculations for IPv6 traffic is now supported. Large Send Offload version 2 NDIS 5.1 already supports Large Segment Offload (LSO), which offloads the segmentation of The Spirit In Context Essay TCP data for data blocks up to 64 Kilobytes (KB) in david copperfield size.

Large Send Offload version 2 (LSOv2) in NDIS 6.0 can offload the Profiling Essay, segmentation of david characters TCP data for data blocks larger than 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size. Support for Lightweight Filter Drivers. In NDIS 6.0, intermediate filter drivers have been replaced with Lightweight Filter (LWF) drivers that are a combination of an NDIS intermediate driver and a miniport driver. LWF drivers but have the following advantages: There is no longer a need to write a separate protocol and miniport. All of The Spirit In Context Essay these functions are contained within a single driver. A bypass mode allows the LWF driver to examine only selected control and data paths. An example of an intermediate filter driver that has been converted to a LWF driver is Pacer.sys, formerly known Psched.sys. It has the same functionality, but takes advantage of performance improvements available with NDIS 6.0. In the architecture for david copperfield, multiprocessor computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP, a network adapter is associated with a single processor. The single processor must handle all the traffic received by the network adapter, regardless of whether there are other processors available.

The result of dissertation examples this architecture for copperfield characters, high-volume servers such as Internet-facing Web servers or enterprise file servers is examples pdf that the copperfield, amount of incoming traffic and number of connections that can be serviced by the processor associated with the network adapter is limited. If the Profiling Essay, processor associated with the david copperfield, network adapter cannot handle the incoming traffic fast enough, the network adapter discards the traffic, resulting in retransmissions and reduced performance. In Windows Server 2008 and undergraduate dissertation examples Windows Vista, a network adapter is not associated with a single processor. Instead, the david copperfield, processing for dissertation examples, incoming traffic is distributed among the processors on david the computer. This new feature, known as Receive-side Scaling, allows for undergraduate examples, much more traffic to be received by a network adapter on a high-volume server. David Characters! A multiprocessor computer can now handle more incoming traffic without having to add servers, resulting in lower costs. To take advantage of this new feature, you must install Receive-side Scaling compatible network adapters that can take advantage of the Profiling Essay, new architecture in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Copperfield Characters! Receive-side Scaling-compatible network adapters are available from many network adapter vendors. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NDIS 6.1, which includes the following features: Header-data split services.

Direct OID Request Interface. IPsec Task Offload Version 2. Header-data split services improve network performance by splitting the header and data in received Ethernet frames into separate buffers. By separating the moneymore, headers and the data, these services enable the headers to david copperfield characters, be collected together into smaller regions of memory. In Context! More headers fit into a single memory page and david copperfield more headers fit into the system caches. Therefore, the overhead for memory accesses in the driver stack is reduced. The header-data split interface is an optional service that is provided for header-data-split-capable network adapters. NDIS 6.1 provides a direct OID request interface for NDIS 6.1 and undergraduate pdf later drivers. The direct OID request path supports OID requests that are queried or set frequently. David Copperfield Characters! The direct OID request interface is asoka buddhism optional for NDIS drivers.

To support the direct OID path, drivers provide entry points and NDIS provides NdisXxx functions for david characters, protocol, filter, and In Context Essay miniport drivers. For NDIS 6.1, the copperfield characters, only interface that uses the youngs motors moneymore, direct OID request interface is IPsec offload version 2 (IPsecOV2). IPsec task offload provides offloading services for IPsec network data processing to characters, IPsec offload-capable network adapters. Asoka Buddhism! NDIS 6.1 supports IPsecOV2. David Copperfield! IPsecOV2 extends support for additional cryptographic algorithms, IPv6, and co-existence with large send offload (LSO). IPsecOV2 uses the Profiling Essay, NDIS 6.1 direct OID request interface. NETDMA provides services for offloading the memory copy operation performed by the networking subsystem, when receiving network packets, to a dedicated DMA engine. Characters! Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0. NETDMA version 2.0 introduces support for a more efficient DMA setup and Plug and Play.

In addition, on Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1, NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0 will be used in In Context more scenarios and configurations. Creating applications that can automatically adapt to changing network conditions has been difficult for developers. The Network Awareness APIs in copperfield characters Windows Vista allow applications to do the following: Register with Windows Vista to be informed when there are changes to the network to which the plutarch on cleopatra, computer is connected. For example, a user places a laptop into characters standby mode at work and then opens it at a wireless hotspot. After being alerted of network changes by Windows Vista, applications can automatically configure themselves or behave differently to provide a more seamless user experience. Query Windows Vista for characteristics of the currently connected network to determine the application settings and behavior. Characteristics include the following: Connectivity A network may be disconnected, it may provide access to asoka buddhism, only the characters, local network, or it may provide access to the local network and the Internet. Connections The computer may be connected to a network by one or more connections (such as network adapters).

Network Awareness APIs enable applications to determine the connections that Windows Vista is currently using to connect to a network. Location type (also known as Category) An application can configure itself automatically for the Windows Vista network location type. Because Are Human Beings! For more information, see Network Location Types in Windows Vista. Developers can enhance their Windows Vista applications for the different types of connectivity, connections, and network location types without having to build their own network detection components. The Network Awareness APIs allow developers to focus on features that make network connectivity transparent to the user, rather than the details of lower-level network determination. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on Windows Vista. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Enhancements.

Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking, originally introduced with the Advanced Networking Pack for david copperfield, Windows XP, is an operating system platform component and API in Windows Vista that allows the development of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications. Profiling Essay! Windows Vista includes the following enhancements to Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking: New, easy to use API APIs to access Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking capabilities such as name resolution, group creation, and security have been highly simplified in Windows Vista, making it easier to david, create P2P applications for Windows. New version of Profiling Essay PNRP Windows Vista includes version 2 of the Peer Name Resolution Protocol (PNRP) that is more scalable and uses less network bandwidth. David! For PNRP v2 in Windows Vista, Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking applications can access PNRP name publication and resolution functions through a simplified PNRP API. For highly simplified PNRP name resolution in youngs motors moneymore Windows Vista, PNRP names are now integrated into the Getaddrinfo Windows Sockets function. Copperfield! To use PNRP to resolve a name to an IPv6 address, applications can use the Getaddrinfo function to resolve the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) name .prnp.net, in which name is peer name being resolved. The pnrp.net domain is plutarch on cleopatra a reserved domain in Windows Vista for PNRP name resolution. The PNRP v2 protocol is incompatible with PNRP version 1 that was provided with the Advanced Networking Pack for david, Windows XP. Plutarch On Cleopatra! Microsoft has released a PNRP v2 upgrade for characters, Windows XP, which is available through Windows Update or from the Microsoft Download Center.

For more information about PNRP, see Peer Name Resolution Protocol. People Near Me A new capability of Profiling Essay Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking for Windows Vista that allows users to dynamically discover other users on the local subnet. For more information, see People Near Me. Contact management and copperfield serverless presence Peer-to-Peer Networking integrates with the In Context, Windows Address Book to provide functions for david copperfield, long term contact management. Users can add trusted contacts to plutarch, the Windows Address Book by david copperfield characters exchanging “Me” contact files with each other.

The “Me” contact file is youngs automatically created when a user starts the collaboration infrastructure for the first time. It contains information that identifies a user, and david copperfield can be used by others to protect against Profiling Essay, spoofing and to track a user’s presence through the Internet. Application invite This new capability allows applications to invite other users into collaborative activities. These other users can be contacts or discovered on the local subnet with People Near Me. The invitation and its acceptance launches an application on the invited user's computer and the two applications can begin working together. Windows Meeting Space Windows Vista includes Windows Meeting Space, a new P2P-based application that allows users to easily set up meetings, share files, pass notes, and project applications to the group.

Windows Meeting Space uses Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking functionality. Netsh configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings from characters commands in the netsh p2p context. Group Policy configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings with Group Policy from the Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesNetworkMicrosoft Peer-to-Peer Networking Services node. The new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has the following enhancements over the current Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and youngs moneymore later and david Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later: Supports filtering of both incoming and outgoing traffic. A network administrator can configure the new Windows Firewall with a set of rules (known as exceptions for Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later) to Profiling Essay, block all traffic sent to david copperfield, specific ports, such as the well-known ports used by virus software, or to specific addresses containing either sensitive or undesirable content. New Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in for graphical user interface (GUI) configuration. The new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, available from the Administrative Tools folder, provides wizards for configuring firewall rules for inbound and outbound traffic and connection security rules. For command-line configuration of advanced settings of the dissertation examples, new Windows Firewall, you can use commands in the netsh advfirewall context. Firewall filtering and copperfield Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection settings are integrated.

When using the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can configure both firewall filtering and traffic protection rules. Advanced configuration for plutarch on cleopatra, rules (exceptions) Configuration options for firewall filtering rules include three different profiles (domain, public, and private), source and destination IP addresses, IP protocol number, source and destination Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports, all or multiple TCP or UDP ports, specific types of interfaces, ICMP and ICMP for david characters, IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic by Type and It's because they Code, services, the copperfield, protection state (protected with IPsec), edge traversal, and specified users and computers based on Active Directory accounts. Unlike the Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, the new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 is enabled by default. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following improvements to Internet Protocol security (IPsec): Integrated firewall and IPsec configuration. Simplified IPsec policy configuration. Client-to-DC IPsec protection. Improved load balancing and clustering server support. Improved IPsec authentication.

New cryptographic support. Integration with Network Access Protection. Additional configuration options for protected communication. Integrated IPv4 and IPv6 support. Extended events and performance monitor counters. Network Diagnostics Framework support. Integrated Firewall and IPsec Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Windows Firewall and IPsec were components and services that had to be configured separately. Although the asoka buddhism, purpose of copperfield Windows Firewall was to examples, block or allow incoming traffic, IPsec could also be configured to block or allow incoming traffic.

Because block and allow traffic behavior for david, incoming traffic could be configured through two different and separate services, it was possible to have duplicated or contradictory settings. Essay! Additionally, Windows Firewall and IPsec supported different configuration options for specifying allowed incoming traffic. For example, Windows Firewall allowed exceptions (allowed inbound traffic) by specifying the application name, but IPsec did not. IPsec allowed exceptions based on an IP protocol number, but Windows Firewall did not. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, Windows Firewall and david characters IPsec configuration have been combined into a single tool with the new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, which now controls both traditional firewall responsibilities (blocking and allowing both inbound and outbound traffic) and protecting traffic with IPsec. Combining both firewalling and protection configuration helps prevent contradictory rules. Asoka Buddhism! Additionally, commands within the netsh advfirewall context can be used for command line configuration of both firewall and IPsec behavior. The integration of Windows Firewall with IPsec provides computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with an authenticating firewall.

Simplified IPsec Policy Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, IPsec policy configuration in many scenarios such as Server and Domain Isolation consists of a set of rules to david, protect most of the traffic on the network and another set of rules for protected traffic exemptions. Exemptions are needed for unprotected communication with network infrastructure servers such as DHCP and DNS servers and domain controllers. When a computer is starting, it must be able to obtain an IP address, use DNS to find a domain controller, and then log in to its domain before it can begin to use Kerberos authentication to authenticate itself as an IPsec peer. Other exemptions are needed for communication with network nodes that are not IPsec-capable. In some cases, there are dozens or hundreds of exceptions, which makes it more difficult to deploy IPsec protection on an enterprise network and to maintain it over The Spirit In Context Essay, time. IPsec in copperfield Windows Server 2008 and The Spirit Windows Vista provides an optional behavior when negotiating IPsec protection. If enabled, when initiating communication with another network node, an IPsec node running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista will attempt to communicate in copperfield characters the clear and undergraduate dissertation negotiate protected communication in parallel. David Characters! If the initiating IPsec peer does not receive a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the Profiling Essay, communication continues in the clear.

If the initiating IPsec peer receives a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the communication in the clear continues until the negotiation can complete, at which point subsequent communications are protected. With this optional behavior and the recommended configuration to require protection for incoming initiated communications and david copperfield request protection for outgoing initiated communications, the initiating node discovers whether the node it is communicating with is In Context capable of IPsec and behaves accordingly. This new behavior greatly simplifies IPsec policy configuration. For example, the initiating node does not need a set of predefined IPsec filters for exemptions for the set of hosts that either should not or cannot protect network traffic with IPsec. David! The initiating node tries both protected and unprotected traffic in parallel and if protected communication is not possible, the initiating node uses unprotected communication. This new negotiation behavior also improves the youngs motors, performance of unprotected connections to hosts. An IPsec node running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP that is configured to david, request protected communications but allow unprotected communications—a behavior known as fallback to motors, clear—sends the negotiation messages and then waits for david characters, a response. The initiating node waits up to 3 seconds before falling back to clear and attempting unprotected communications. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there is no longer a 3-second delay when falling back to clear because communications in the clear is already in they Essay progress while the initiating node is waiting for copperfield, a response. The IPsec Simple Policy Update for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP includes new negotiation behavior to simplify IPsec policy. Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 and on cleopatra Windows XP Service Pack 3 include the Simple Policy Update.

For more information, see Simplifying IPsec Policy with the Simple Policy Update. For Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Microsoft does not support IPsec to protect traffic between domain controllers and member computers (however, Microsoft does support protecting traffic between domain controllers). This is because the IPsec policy configuration can become very complex due to the different types of traffic sent between domain members and domain controllers. Additionally, there is a domain join issue. If the domain controller requires IPsec-protected traffic from computers that must provide domain-based credentials for authentication, a computer that is not a member of the domain cannot contact a domain controller to join the domain. This required the use of various techniques for initial computer configuration, such as setting up a separate, unprotected subnet for domain joins.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports securing traffic between domain members and domain controllers in the following deployment modes: You can configure IPsec policy in the domain to request protected traffic but not require it. Domain controllers will protect most traffic with domain members but allow clear text for domain joins and other types of traffic. You can configure IPsec policy to require protected traffic for domain controllers. Domain controllers are configured with IPsec settings that allow the use of Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for authentication. David! When a computer running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista attempts to join the plutarch on cleopatra, domain, the user is copperfield characters prompted for the user name and password of a domain user account. Profiling Essay! IPsec protection with the david characters, domain controller is negotiated with Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for a protected domain join. Because Are Human! This new behavior is only available for domain member computers running either Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and for domain controllers running Windows Server 2008.

Because of the new negotiation behavior, you no longer have to configure exemptions for domain controllers, simplifying IPsec policy and deployment of IPsec protection in david copperfield a domain. Improved Load Balancing and Clustering Server Support. IPsec in Windows Server 2003 supports load balancing and cluster servers. However, failover times to re-establish IPsec connectivity to a cluster virtual IP address are the following: Typically 3-6 seconds for administrative moves of clustered resources.

Up to two minutes when a cluster node suddenly becomes unavailable or another sudden loss of It's they are human connectivity occurs. The timeout of two minutes includes one minute for the IPsec idle time to expire and one minute to renegotiate security associations (SAs). Characters! This lengthy idle time can cause active TCP connections to the cluster to fail. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the timeout for a cluster node failure is substantially reduced. IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Essay Windows Vista is more tightly integrated into the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. Rather than relying on IPsec idle timeouts to detect a cluster node failure, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista monitors TCP connections for established SAs.

If the TCP connection for an established SA begins retransmitting segments, IPsec will renegotiate the SAs. The result is that the failover to characters, a new cluster node happens quickly, typically in time to keep the application from because they are human Essay failing. IPsec in david copperfield Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP supports the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and examples three authentication methods during main mode negotiations: Kerberos (for Active Directory domain members), digital certificates, and characters preshared key. For all of these authentication methods, the motors moneymore, authentication process is validating the identity and trustworthiness of a computer, rather than the copperfield, user of the computer. IKE only attempts a single authentication using a single authentication method. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the following improvements in IPsec authentication: Ability to asoka buddhism, require that IPsec peers authenticate with a health certificate. A Network Access Protection client obtains a health certificate through a Health Registration Authority (HRA) when it proves that its health state complies with current system health requirements. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article. Ability to specify user-based or health-based authentication during a second authentication. With support for characters, Authenticated IP (AuthIP), IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allows a second authentication for IPsec-protected communication.

With a second authentication, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista can perform an additional level of asoka buddhism authentication, which can be based on the following: Kerberos credentials of the copperfield, logged in user account. NTLM v2 credentials of the computer account. NTLM v2 credentials of the logged in user account. A user certificate. A computer health certificate. For example, you can use the first authentication and Kerberos credentials to plutarch on cleopatra, authenticate the david copperfield characters, computer and then the second authentication and a health certificate to validate the computer's health state. Second authentication can be configured with or without the first authentication. Multiple authentication methods are attempted. In Windows Server 2003 and on cleopatra Windows XP, you can select multiple authentication methods in a preference order for main mode IPsec authentication.

However, only one authentication method is used for authentication. If the authentication process for the negotiated authentication method fails, main mode fails and IPsec protection cannot be performed. When you select multiple authentication methods for computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista, IPsec will attempt multiple authentication attempts in an effort to perform mutual authentication. For example, if you specify that you want to authenticate using computer certificates with a specific certification authority (CA) and then Kerberos, the david, IPsec peer will attempt Kerberos authentication if the dissertation, certificate authentication fails. For more information about IPsec authentication improvements, see AuthIP in david characters Windows Vista. For more information about AuthIP, see The Authenticated Internet Protocol.

In response to governmental security requirements and trends in the security industry to support stronger cryptography, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support additional key derivation and asoka buddhism encryption algorithms. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the following additional algorithms to negotiate the david, master key material derived during main mode negotiation: Diffie-Hellman (DH) Group 19, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 256-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-256) DH Group 20, which is an plutarch on cleopatra, elliptic curve algorithm using a 384-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-384) These methods are stronger than DH algorithms supported in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later. For more information about these algorithms, see RFC 4753. These new DH algorithms cannot be used for main mode negotiation with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. In addition to the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple-DES (3DES), Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the following additional algorithms for encrypting data: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with cipher block chaining (CBC) and a 128-bit key size (AES 128) AES with CBC and a 192-bit key size (AES 192) AES with CBC and characters a 256-bit key size (AES 256)

These new encryption algorithms cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 and dissertation Windows Vista SP1 also include support for david copperfield, Suite B, a standard from the National Security Agency (NSA) that defines a common set of cryptographic algorithms for the needs of the US government. For Suite B support, Windows Server 2008 and asoka buddhism Windows Vista SP1 include the following additional integrity algorithms for main mode negotiation: Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for providing data integrity when using either Authentication Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP):

AES-Galois Message Authentication Code (GMAC)-128. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for providing data integrity and encryption when using ESP only: AES-Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)-128. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 also include the following authentication methods: Computer certificate with Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)-P256 signing. Computer certificate with ECDSA-P384 signing. These new integrity algorithms and authentication methods can be configured using commands in the netsh advfirewall context. They cannot be configured with the characters, Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IPsec Policies snap-ins. The additional Suite B integrity algorithms and authentication methods cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. For more information about Suite B support in IPsec, see RFC 4869. Integration with Network Access Protection.

With the new Network Access Protection platform, you can require that IPsec nodes perform a second authentication with a health certificate, verifying that the IPsec node meets current system health requirements. A health registration authority obtains a health certificate for an IPsec peer after its health status has been evaluated by a Network Policy Server (NPS). For more information, see “Network Access Protection” in this article. Additional Configuration Options for Protected Communication. When you configure a connection security rule with the new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can specify the following additional settings: By application name This greatly simplifies protected traffic configuration because the ports used by the application do not need to plutarch, be manually configured. All or multiple ports You can now specify all TCP or UDP ports or multiple TCP or UDP ports in a comma-delimited list, simplifying configuration. For all addresses in a numeric range You can now specify a range of david IP addresses using a numeric range, such as 10.1.17.23 to 10.1.17.219. For all addresses on pdf the local subnet A set of david copperfield characters predefined addresses that are dynamically mapped to the set of asoka buddhism addresses defined by your IPv4 address and subnet mask or by your IPv6 local subnet prefix.

For all wireless adapters You can protect traffic based on the interface type, which now includes wireless in addition to LAN and remote access. By Active Directory user or computer account You can specify the list of characters computer or user accounts or groups that are authorized to plutarch on cleopatra, initiate protected communication. For example, this allows you to david, specify that traffic to specific servers with sensitive data must be protected and can only youngs motors moneymore, originate from user accounts that are members of specific Active Directory security groups. By ICMP or ICMPv6 Type or Code value You can specify ICMP or ICMPv6 messages with values of the copperfield characters, ICMP or ICMPv6 message Type and Profiling Essay Code fields. For services You can specify that the exception applies to any process, only for services, for a specific service by its service name, or you can type the short name for the service.

IPsec support for IPv6 traffic in david characters Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 is limited. For example, there is undergraduate dissertation examples no support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) or data encryption. IPsec security policies, security associations, and keys must be configured through text files and activated using the copperfield characters, Ipsec6.exe command line tool. In Windows Server 2008 and In Context Essay Windows Vista, IPsec support for copperfield characters, IPv6 traffic is the same as that for youngs moneymore, IPv4, including support for IKE and copperfield characters data encryption. IPsec policy settings for both IPv4 and Profiling Essay IPv6 traffic are configured in copperfield characters the same way using either the moneymore, Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IP Security Policies snap-ins.

Extended Events and Performance Monitor Counters. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include new IPsec audit-specific events and the text of existing events has been updated with more useful information. These improvements will help you troubleshoot failed IPsec negotiations without having to enable the advanced Oakley logging capability. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include IPsec performance counters to help identify performance and networking issues with IPsec-protected traffic. Network Diagnostics Framework Support.

The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed IPsec negotiation, the Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an david characters, option to plutarch on cleopatra, identify and correct the problem. David Characters! IPsec support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the The Spirit Essay, source of the failed connection and either automatically correct the copperfield characters, problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the user to make the appropriate configuration change. Wireless and 802.1X-based Wired Connections. Windows Server 2008 and undergraduate pdf Windows Vista include many enhancements to support IEEE 802.11 wireless networks and networks that use IEEE 802.1X authenticating switches. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Changes and Enhancements. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes and enhancements to IEEE 802.11 wireless support: Native Wi-Fi architecture. User interface improvements for wireless connections. Wireless Group Policy enhancements. Changes in copperfield Wireless Auto Configuration.

FIPS 140-2 certified mode. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication. 802.11 wireless diagnostics. Command-line support for configuring wireless settings. Network Location Awareness and network profiles. Next Generation TCP/IP stack enhancements for wireless environments. In Windows Server 2003 and Profiling Essay Windows XP, the software infrastructure that supports wireless connections was built to emulate an Ethernet connection and can only characters, be extended by supporting additional EAP types for IEEE 802.1X authentication. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the software infrastructure for 802.11 wireless connections, called the asoka buddhism, Native Wi-Fi Architecture, has been redesigned for the following: IEEE 802.11 is copperfield characters now represented inside of asoka buddhism Windows as a media type separate from characters IEEE 802.3. This allows independent hardware vendors (IHVs) more flexibility in The Spirit Essay supporting advanced features of copperfield characters IEEE 802.11 networks, such as a larger frame size than Ethernet.

New components in the Native Wi-Fi Architecture perform authentication, authorization, and management of 802.11 connections, reducing the burden on IHVs to incorporate these functions into their wireless network adapter drivers. Motors Moneymore! This makes the development of wireless network adapter drivers much easier. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IHVs must develop a smaller NDIS 6.0 miniport driver that exposes a native 802.11 interface on its top edge. The Native Wi-Fi Architecture supports APIs to allow ISVs and IHVs the ability to extend the built-in wireless client for characters, additional wireless services and custom capabilities. Extensible components written by The Spirit Essay ISVs and david characters IHVs can also provide customized configuration dialog boxes and wizards.

User Interface Improvements for Wireless Connections. The wireless configuration user interface (UI) has been improved with the following: Wireless configuration integrated into new Network and are human Essay Sharing Center Connectivity to wireless networks has been integrated into the new Network and Sharing Center in Windows Vista, rather than from the properties of a wireless network adapter. From the Network and Sharing Center, you can connect to wireless networks, set up a wireless network that uses a wireless access point (AP) or an ad hoc wireless network, and manage your wireless networks. Wireless networks can be configured for copperfield characters, all users or per-user In the Manage Wireless Networks folder (available from the Network and Sharing Center), you can now specify the wireless network profile type. This allows you to they are human, specify that new wireless networks (known as profiles) apply to all users of the computer or can be configured to apply to specific users. Per-user wireless profiles are only david characters, connected when the user to which the profile applies logs in to the computer. Per-user profiles are disconnected when the user logs off or switches to another user. Extensible wireless UI As described in asoka buddhism the “Native Wi-Fi Architecture” section of this article, custom wireless configuration dialog boxes or wizards can be written and added to the built-in Windows wireless client, allowing the copperfield characters, configuration of custom ISV or IHV wireless features and they are human capabilities. Non-broadcast wireless networks can be configured A non-broadcast wireless network (also known as a hidden wireless network) does not advertise its network name, also known as its Service Set Identifier (SSID).

A wireless AP of a non-broadcast wireless network can be configured to send Beacon frames with an SSID set to NULL. Copperfield Characters! This practice is known as using non-broadcast SSIDs. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, you could not configure a preferred wireless network as non-broadcast, which sometimes produced confusing behavior when automatically connecting to preferred wireless networks, some of which are non-broadcast and some of Profiling Essay which are not. David! For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network. Moneymore! In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can also configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network. Non-broadcast wireless networks displayed as Unnamed Network In the list of available wireless networks in the Connect to a network wizard in copperfield characters Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, non-broadcast networks appear with the name Unnamed Network.

When you connect to plutarch, the non-broadcast wireless network, you will be prompted to type the david characters, non-broadcast wireless network name. Prompts user when connecting to unsecured wireless network Due to the risks associated with communicating on unsecured wireless networks, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista will now prompt the user when connecting to an unsecured wireless network and allow them to confirm the connection attempt. Network connection wizard lists the dissertation examples, security methods supported by the wireless network adapter The Connect to a network wizard in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista retrieves the security capabilities of the wireless network adapter and allows the copperfield characters, user to asoka buddhism, select the strongest security method. For example, if a wireless network adapter supports both Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), the Connect to a network wizard will allow the user to select WPA or WEP as the security method. For more information about the new wireless configuration UI, see Connecting to Wireless Networks with Windows Vista. Wireless Group Policy Enhancements. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, wireless Group Policy settings—located in the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings node in the Group Policy snap-in—include the following enhancements: WPA2 authentication options Wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow you to david copperfield, configure WPA2 authentication options; WPA2 (for WPA2 Enterprise) and WPA2-PSK (for WPA2 Personal). Youngs Motors Moneymore! To configure WPA2 authentication options for computers running Windows XP, you must install Windows XP Service Pack 3 or Windows XP Service Pack 2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Then, you must configure WPA2 authentication settings in Group Policy from a computer that is running Windows Vista. Lists of allowed and denied wireless network names The wireless client in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP prompts the david copperfield characters, user to connect to detected wireless networks if none of the preferred wireless networks were found or if none of the connections to detected preferred wireless networks were successful.

Wireless client computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP could not be configured to youngs, prompt the user to only connect to specific wireless networks or never prompt the user to connect to specific wireless networks. The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow you to configure lists of allowed and denied wireless network names. For example: With an allow list, you can specify the set of wireless networks by david characters name (SSID) to which the Essay, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless client is allowed to connect. This is characters useful for network administrators that want an organization's laptop computer to connect to a specific set of wireless networks, which might include the organization’s wireless network and wireless Internet service providers. With a deny list, you can specify the The Spirit Essay, set of wireless networks by name to david copperfield, which the wireless client is not allowed to connect. Profiling Essay! This is useful to prevent managed laptop computers from connecting to other wireless networks that are within range of the david, organization’s wireless network (such as when an organization occupies a floor of a building and asoka buddhism there are other wireless networks of other organization on adjoining floors) or to prevent managed laptop computers from david connecting to known unprotected wireless networks.

Additional preferred wireless network settings The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 allow configuration of the following for preferred wireless networks: Fast roaming settings Fast roaming is an plutarch, advanced capability of WPA2 wireless networks that allow wireless clients to more quickly roam from one wireless AP to another by using preauthentication and pairwise master key (PMK) caching. With Windows Server 2008 and copperfield Windows Vista, you can configure this behavior through wireless Group Policy settings. With Windows XP SP3 or Windows XP SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, you can control this behavior with registry settings that are described in undergraduate dissertation Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)/Wireless Provisioning Services Information Element (WPS IE) Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Non-broadcast wireless networks As described in the “User interface improvements for david copperfield characters, wireless connections” section of this article, you can locally configure preferred wireless networks as non-broadcast wireless networks. With Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks in wireless Group Policy settings as non-broadcast networks. Automatic or manual connection With Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista, you can configure a preferred wireless network for automatic (the default) or manual connection on the Connection tab of the properties of the preferred wireless network. With wireless Group Policy settings in are human Essay Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks for automatic or manual connection. For information about how to extend the schema of a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory environment to david copperfield characters, support Windows Vista wireless and asoka buddhism wired Group Policy enhancements, see Active Directory Schema Extensions for Windows Vista Wireless and Wired Group Policy Enhancements.

Changes in Wireless Auto Configuration. Wireless Auto Configuration is a service that dynamically selects the copperfield characters, wireless network to asoka buddhism, which the computer will automatically connect, based either on your preferences or on default settings. This includes automatically selecting and connecting to a more preferred wireless network when it becomes available. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes to Wireless Auto Configuration: Change in behavior when there are no preferred wireless networks available. In Windows XP and copperfield Windows Server 2003, if a preferred wireless network cannot be connected and the wireless client is configured to prevent automatic connection to undergraduate examples, wireless networks that are not in the preferred list (the default), Wireless Auto Configuration creates a random wireless network name and places the wireless network adapter in david copperfield infrastructure mode. However, the The Spirit Essay, random wireless network does not have a security configuration, making it possible for a malicious user to connect to the wireless client using the random wireless network name.

Windows XP SP3 and Windows XP SP2 with the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2 modifies this behavior by configuring the wireless network adapter with a random name and a security configuration consisting of a 128-bit random encryption key and the strongest encryption method supported by the wireless network adapter. This new behavior helps prevent a malicious user from connecting to the wireless client using the random wireless network name. For computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista that use updated wireless drivers designed for Windows Vista, Wireless Auto Configuration removes the vulnerability by parking the wireless network adapter in a passive listening mode. While parked, the wireless network adapter will not send Probe Request frames for a random wireless network name or any other name and malicious users cannot connect to the wireless client. David! Most wireless network drivers have been updated for It's because they are human beings Essay, Windows Vista. If you are using a wireless network adapter driver that was designed for Windows XP, computers running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 will use a random wireless network name with a security configuration. New support for non-broadcast wireless networks. In Windows XP and david copperfield characters Windows Server 2003, Wireless Auto Configuration attempts to match configured preferred wireless networks with wireless networks that are broadcasting their network name. If none of the available networks match a preferred wireless network, Wireless Auto Configuration then sends probe requests to determine if the preferred networks in the ordered list are non-broadcast networks. The result of this behavior is that broadcast networks will be connected to before non-broadcast networks, even if a non-broadcast network is plutarch on cleopatra higher in the preferred list than a broadcast network.

Another result is that a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 wireless client advertises its list of preferred wireless networks when sending probe requests. For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with SP2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can configure wireless networks as broadcast (the wireless network name is included in the Beacon frames sent by the wireless AP) or non-broadcast (the Beacon frame contains a wireless network name set to NULL). Wireless Auto Configuration now attempts to connect the wireless networks in the preferred network list order, regardless of whether they are broadcast or non-broadcast. Because the wireless networks are now explicitly marked as broadcast or non-broadcast, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless clients only send probe requests for copperfield characters, non-broadcast wireless networks. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include built-in support to configure WPA2 authentication options with both the standard profile (locally configured preferred wireless networks) and plutarch on cleopatra the domain profile with Group Policy settings. WPA2 is a product certification available through the Wi-Fi Alliance that certifies wireless equipment as being compatible with the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2 in characters Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports both WPA2-Enterprise (IEEE 802.1X authentication) and WPA2-Personal (preshared key authentication) modes of operation. Windows Server 2008 and Profiling Essay Windows Vista also include support for WPA2 for david copperfield characters, an ad hoc mode wireless network (a wireless network between wireless clients that does not use a wireless AP). Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support AES encryption in a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 certified mode. FIPS 140-2 is motors moneymore a U.S. government computer security standard that specifies design and implementation requirements for cryptographic modules.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 are FIPS 140-2 certified. David! When you enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 will perform the AES encryption in Profiling Essay software, rather than relying on david characters the wireless network adapter. You can enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode with the netsh wlan set profileparamete r command and through the advanced security settings of a wireless network profile in wireless Group Policy. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Enterprise, and dynamic WEP connections that use 802.1X authentication can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to prevent wireless clients that do not comply with system health requirements from youngs motors moneymore gaining unlimited access to an intranet.

For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection (NAP) in this article. For easier development of copperfield characters Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods for IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the new EAPHost infrastructure. For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in this article. New Default EAP Authentication Method. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the undergraduate examples, default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections is EAP-Transport Layer Security (TLS). Although the david copperfield characters, most secure form of authentication employing mutual authentication with digital certificates, EAP-TLS requires a public key infrastructure (PKI) to The Spirit Essay, distribute, revoke, and david characters renew user and computer certificates. In many cases, organizations want to leverage the account name and password-based authentication infrastructure that already exists in Active Directory. The Spirit Essay! Therefore, in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections has been changed to Protected EAP-Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (PEAP-MS-CHAP v2). PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is a password-based 802.1X authentication method for copperfield characters, wireless connections that only are human, requires computer certificates to be installed on david copperfield the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers. For more information about PEAP-MS-CHAP v2, see PEAP with MS-CHAP Version 2 for Secure Password-based Wireless Access. Diagnostics Support for Wireless Connections.

Troubleshooting failed wireless connections, although improved in pdf Windows XP Service Pack 3 and Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2, can still be difficult. Copperfield! In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, troubleshooting wireless connections is made much easier through the following features: Wireless connections support the because are human beings, new Network Diagnostics Framework The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed wireless connection, the Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an option to identify and david copperfield correct the problem. Wireless support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the source of the failed connection and either automatically correct the problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the user to make the appropriate configuration change. New information stored in the Windows event log For a failed wireless connection attempt, the Profiling Essay, wireless components of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista record detailed information about the connection attempt in the Windows event log. These event records can be used by david support professionals within an organization to perform further troubleshooting when the wireless diagnostics either could not resolve the problem or when it could resolve the problem but the The Spirit In Context, problem cannot be fixed by characters changing wireless client settings. The information in the Windows event log can shorten the time needed to resolve wireless connection support problems.

Additionally, these event log entries can be automatically collected by network administrator using Microsoft Operations Manager or other types of central management tools and analyzed for trends and wireless infrastructure design changes. Wireless diagnostics tracing To perform a detailed analysis, Microsoft or your support specialists need in-depth information about the computer’s state and wireless components in Windows and their interaction when the plutarch on cleopatra, problem occurred. You can obtain this information from wireless diagnostics tracing in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. To use wireless diagnostics tracing, you must start tracing, reproduce the problem, stop tracing, and then collect the tracing report. To start wireless diagnostics tracing, use the netsh wlan set tracing mode=yes command. To stop wireless diagnostics tracing, use the netsh wlan set tracing mode=no command. To view the tracing report, in the console tree of the Reliability and Performance Monitor snap-in, open Reports, System, and then Wireless Diagnostics. For additional information about wireless diagnostics facilities in Windows Vista, see Wireless Networking in copperfield Windows Vista.

Information can be sent to Microsoft for on cleopatra, analysis and improvements Users that experience wireless connection problems will also be prompted to send the connection information to Microsoft for analysis through the Windows Error Reporting (WER) infrastructure. Additionally, successful diagnostics can be sent to Microsoft through the Software Quality Metrics (SQM) infrastructure, also known as the Customer Experience Improvement Program in Windows XP. In both cases, only wireless network diagnostic information is sent (no personal information about the computer or the copperfield characters, user). Profiling Essay! Microsoft will use this information to identify the top root causes for wireless connection failures, identify new wireless connection problems and their causes, and take appropriate actions to either improve the david characters, wireless client software in Windows or work with wireless vendors to they beings Essay, help improve wireless hardware products. Command Line Interface for Configuring Wireless Settings. Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP does not have a command line interface that allows you to configure the david, wireless settings that are available from the wireless dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder or through the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings. Command line configuration of wireless settings can help deployment of wireless networks in the following situations: Automated script support for wireless settings without using Group Policy Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings only apply in an Active Directory domain.

For an environment without Active Directory or a Group Policy infrastructure, a script that automates the configuration of wireless connections can be run either manually or automatically, such as part of the It's they beings Essay, login script. Bootstrap of a wireless client onto the protected organization's wireless network A wireless client computer that is not a member of the domain cannot connect to the organization's protected wireless network. Additionally, a computer cannot join the domain until it has successfully connected to the organization's secure wireless network. Copperfield! A command line script provides a method to connect to on cleopatra, the organization's secure wireless network to join the domain. For information about joining a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to characters, a Domain. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can use Netsh commands in the netsh wlan context to do the following: Save all wireless client settings in a named profile including general settings (the types of wireless networks to access), 802.11 settings (SSID, type of authentication, type of data encryption), and plutarch on cleopatra 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and their configuration). Specify Single Sign On settings for a wireless profile. Enable or disable FIPS 140-2 certified mode. Specify the list of allowed and denied wireless network names. Specify the order of preferred wireless networks.

Display a wireless client’s configuration. Remove the david copperfield, wireless configuration from a wireless client. Migrate wireless configuration settings between wireless clients. Network Awareness and Network Profiles. Many applications are not network aware, resulting in customer confusion and they are human beings Essay developer overhead. For example, an application cannot automatically adjust its behavior based on characters the currently attached network and undergraduate examples conditions.

Users might to david copperfield characters, have to The Spirit In Context Essay, reconfigure application settings depending on david the network to plutarch, which they are attached (their employer's private network, the user's home network, the Internet). To remove the copperfield characters, configuration burden, application developers can use low-level Windows APIs, data constructs, and perhaps even probing the network themselves to determine the current network and asoka buddhism adjust their application's behavior accordingly. To provide an operating system infrastructure to allow application developers to more easily reconfigure application behavior based on the currently attached network, the david, Network Awareness APIs in asoka buddhism Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista makes network information available to applications and enables them to easily and effectively adapt to these changing environments. The Network Awareness APIs allow applications to obtain up-to-date network information and location change notification. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on Windows Vista. Next Generation TCP/IP Stack Enhancements for Wireless Environments. As described in the Enhancements for High-loss Environments section of this article, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack includes support for new TCP algorithms that optimize throughput by recovering from single and multiple packet losses and detecting spurious retransmissions, which improves performance in wireless network environments. Single Sign On allows network administrators to specify that user-level IEEE 802.1X authentication occurs before the user logon process. This capability addresses domain logon issues in specific configurations.

Single Sign On also simply and seamlessly integrates wireless authentication with the copperfield characters, Windows logon experience. Network administrators can use netsh wlan set profileparameter commands or the new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on youngs motors moneymore wireless client computers. Configuring Single Sign On to perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and wireless client domain joins. For more information, see Wireless Single Sign-On. For an example of using a Single Sign On profile to copperfield characters, join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to asoka buddhism, a Domain. IEEE 802.1X-based Wired Connectivity Enhancements. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, there is characters limited support for deployment of 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections to an authenticating switch. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following enhancements for undergraduate examples, easier deployment of 802.1X-authenticated wired connections: Group Policy support for characters, wired 802.1X settings. Command-line interface for configuring wired 802.1X settings. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication.

Change in 802.1X service state. Group Policy Support for Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that use Active Directory and Group Policy, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Profiling Essay Windows XP Service Pack 3 include Group Policy support for characters, 802.1X authentication settings for undergraduate dissertation examples pdf, wired connections under Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Wired Network (IEEE 802.3) Policies. Command-Line Interface for Configuring Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that do not use Active Directory or Group Policy or for domain join scenarios, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also support a command line interface for configuring 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections. Using commands in the netsh lan context, you can do the david characters, following: Save all wired client settings in a named profile including 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and their configuration) Specify Single Sign On settings for asoka buddhism, a wired profile. Display a wired client’s configuration. Remove the wired configuration from a wired client. Import a wired profile to migrate wired configuration settings between wired clients.

For information about characters using wired profiles to join a Windows Vista wired client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wired Client to a Domain. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to The Spirit In Context Essay, prevent wired clients that do not comply with system health requirements from gaining unlimited access to a private network. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in david copperfield this article. For easier development of EAP authentication methods for IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the new EAPHost infrastructure.

For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in motors this article. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support Single Sign On for wired connections. Network administrators can use netsh lan set profileparameter commands or the new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on wired client computers. Configuring Single Sign On to perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of copperfield characters login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and Profiling Essay wireless client domain joins. For an example of using a Single Sign On profile to join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain.

In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, the 802.1X service for wired connections was enabled by default but was placed in a passive listening mode, in which the david, computer did not attempt to contact the switch. The 802.1X service for wired connections in undergraduate dissertation examples pdf Windows Vista, known as the Wired AutoConfig service, has the startup type set to Manual by default, but when it is david copperfield characters started operates in It's because they are human beings an active listening mode, in which the characters, computer attempts to Profiling Essay, contact the switch. To obtain an Authentication tab for the properties of a LAN connection to configure 802.1X settings, you must first start the Wired AutoConfig service. For an individual Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008-based wired client, you can use the Services snap-in to david copperfield characters, start the Wired AutoConfig service and youngs motors moneymore configure it for automatic startup. For a Group Policy object of an Active Directory domain, configure the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/System Services/Wired AutoConfig setting for automatic startup. For more information about how to deploy Windows-based wireless and david wired clients, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include changes to the following components and services of network infrastructure: Network Access Protection. Network Policy Server. New EAPHost architecture.

Remote access and VPN connection enhancements. Network Access Protection (NAP) in Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 is a new platform and solution that controls access to network resources based on a client computer?s identity and compliance with corporate governance policy. They Are Human Beings Essay! NAP allows network administrators to define granular levels of network access based on who a client is, the characters, groups to which the client belongs, and dissertation the degree to which that client is compliant with corporate governance policy. If a client is not compliant, NAP provides a mechanism to automatically bring the client back into compliance and david then dynamically increase its level of undergraduate dissertation examples pdf network access. Administrators can use a combination of david copperfield policy validation and network access limitation components to control network access or communication. Administrators can also choose to temporarily limit the It's they are human beings, access of computers that do not meet requirements to a restricted network. Depending on the configuration chosen, the restricted network might contain resources required to david characters, update noncompliant computers so that they then meet the health requirements for unlimited network access and normal communication. NAP includes an dissertation examples pdf, API set for developers and vendors to create complete solutions for health policy validation, network access limitation, automatic remediation, and ongoing health policy compliance.

Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 include the following NAP enforcement methods: IPsec With IPsec enforcement, you can confine the communication on copperfield characters your network to compliant computers. Client and server computers can block all communication originating from non-compliant computers. IPsec enforcement confines communication to compliant computers after they have successfully connected and obtained a valid IP address configuration. IPsec enforcement is the strongest form of limited network access in NAP. IEEE 802.1X With 802.1X enforcement, a Network Policy Server (NPS) instructs an 802.1X-based access point (an Ethernet switch or a wireless AP) to are human Essay, place a restricted access profile on the 802.1X client until it performs a set of david copperfield characters health remediation functions. On Cleopatra! A restricted access profile can consist of david characters a set of IP packet filters or a virtual LAN identifier to confine the traffic of an 802.1X client. 802.1X enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers accessing the network through an asoka buddhism, 802.1X connection. Copperfield Characters! For more information about NPS, see Network Policy Server in this article. VPN With VPN enforcement, VPN servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to on cleopatra, make a VPN connection to the network. VPN enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers accessing the network through a VPN connection.

VPN enforcement with NAP is different than Network Access Quarantine Control, a feature in Windows Server 2003. DHCP With DHCP enforcement, DHCP servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to lease or renew an IP address configuration on the network. DHCP enforcement relies on a limited access IPv4 address configuration and IPv4 routing table entries for NAP enforcement. TS Gateway With TS Gateway enforcement, TS Gateway servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts a connection. Using NAP APIs, third-party software vendors can create their own NAP enforcement method. For more information about the NAP platform, see the Network Access Protection Web page.

For more information about how to david copperfield, deploy NAP, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Network Policy Server (NPS) is the Microsoft implementation of Profiling Essay a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server and proxy in Windows Server 2008. NPS replaces the david copperfield characters, Internet Authentication Service (IAS) in Windows Server 2003. NPS performs all of the functions of Profiling Essay IAS in david copperfield Windows Server 2003 for VPN and plutarch on cleopatra 802.1X-based wireless and wired connections and performs health evaluation and the granting of either unlimited or limited access for NAP clients. NPS also supports sending RADIUS traffic over IPv6, as specified in RFC 3162. Windows Server 2008 and david copperfield Windows Vista include EAPHost, a new architecture for Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods and EAP-based supplicants.

EAPHost provides the following features that are not supported by on cleopatra the EAP implementation in Windows Server 2003 and david Windows XP: Support for additional EAP methods EAPHost supports other popular EAP methods. Network Discovery EAPHost supports network discovery as defined in RFC 4284. RFC 3748 compliance EAPHost conforms to the EAP State Machine and addresses a number of because they are human Essay security vulnerabilities that have been specified in RFC 3748. Additionally, EAPHost will support additional capabilities such as Expanded EAP Types (including vendor-specific EAP Methods). EAP method coexistence EAPHost allows multiple implementations of the same EAP method to copperfield characters, coexist simultaneously. For example, the Microsoft version of PEAP and the Cisco Systems, Inc. version of PEAP can be installed and youngs moneymore selected.

Modular supplicant architecture In addition to supporting modular EAP methods, EAPHost also supports a modular supplicant architecture in which new supplicants can be easily added without having to replace the entire EAP infrastructure in david copperfield Windows. For EAP method vendors, EAPHost provides support for EAP methods already developed for on cleopatra, Windows Server 2003 and characters Windows XP and an easier method of developing new EAP methods for The Spirit In Context Essay, and Windows Server 2008 and david characters Windows Vista. Certified EAP methods can be distributed with Windows Update. EAPHost also allows better classification of EAP types so that the asoka buddhism, built-in 802.1X and PPP-based Windows supplicants can use them. For supplicant method vendors, EAPHost provides support for modular and pluggable supplicants for copperfield characters, new link layers. Because EAPHost is undergraduate dissertation examples integrated with NAP, new supplicants do not have to be NAP-aware. In order to copperfield characters, participate in NAP, new supplicants just need to register a connection identifier and a callback function that informs the supplicant to reauthenticate. For network administrators, EAPHost provides availability of on cleopatra new EAP methods and david characters a more robust and flexible infrastructure for 802.1X-authenticated connections. For more information about EAPHost, see EAPHost in Windows.

Remote Access and VPN Connection Enhancements. Remote access and The Spirit In Context VPN connections in Windows Server 2008 include the following enhancements: Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) SSTP is a new VPN protocol that uses an HTTP over SSL session between a remote access VPN client and copperfield characters VPN server to exchange encapsulated IPv4 or IPv6 packets. The Spirit Essay! SSTP-based remote access VPN connections use TCP port 443 and can work seamlessly across most firewalls, NATs, and david proxy servers. On the VPN client, SSTP can be configured manually and dissertation with Connection Manager.

On the copperfield characters, VPN server, you must install a computer certificate with the Server Authentication or All-Purpose Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) property. VPN clients running Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 or Windows Server 2008 support SSTP. For more information, see The Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol and the Routing and Remote Access blog. VPN enforcement for In Context Essay, remote access VPN connections The built-in VPN client and Routing and Remote Access add components to copperfield characters, support VPN enforcement in the NAP platform. For more information, see Network Access Protection in It's because they are human Essay this article. IPv6 support The built-in remote access client and david copperfield characters Routing and Remote Access now support IPv6 over the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), as defined in RFC 2472.

Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over Profiling Essay, PPP-based connections. For example, this allows you to connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over david, Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections (used for broadband Internet access). The built-in remote access client and Profiling Essay Routing and Remote Access also support IPv6-based Layer Two Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec) VPN connections. Additional IPv6 support includes a DHCPv6 Relay Agent, IPv6-based static packet filters, and RADIUS traffic over IPv6. For more information, see IPv6 Traffic over VPN Connections. A revised connection creation wizard This new wizard provides a simplified way to configure dial-up, broadband Internet, and david characters VPN connections. Updated Winlogin support Allows a third-party access provider to plug in their connections to on cleopatra, automatically create a remote access connection during the user login. Multiple-locale support for the Connection Manager Administration Kit Allows Connection Manager profiles to be created on a server of any locale for installation on a client of any other locale running Windows Vista or Windows XP, which simplifies Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK)-based client management. Connection Manager clients support DNS dynamic update Connection Manager clients now support the registering of david DNS names and pdf IP addresses using DNS dynamic update.

New cryptographic support L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections now support the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with 128 and 256-bit keys. Copperfield Characters! Support for weaker cryptographic algorithms—40 and 56-bit Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) for It's they are human, PPTP and DES with Message Digest 5 (MD5) for L2TP/IPSec—has been disabled by david copperfield characters default. To enable 40 and 56-bit MPPE for PPTP-based connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowPPTPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to 1, and then restart the asoka buddhism, computer. To enable DES with MD5 for L2TP/IPSec connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowL2TPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to 1, and then restart the computer. Changes to authentication protocols PPP-based connections no longer support the copperfield, SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP authentication protocols. Remote access PPP-based connections now support the use of they are human beings Protected EAP (PEAP) with PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 and PEAP-TLS.

Additional certificate checking for L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections The VPN client computer by default performs additional analysis of the fields of the VPN server’s computer certificate to david, help detect man-in-the-middle attacks. The analysis includes verifying that the Subject Alternative Name or the Subject fields of the VPN server’s computer certificate are the youngs motors moneymore, same as the name or IP address of the VPN server as specified on the General tab for david copperfield, the properties of the VPN connection in the Network Connections folder and verifying that the certificate contains the Server Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU). Profiling Essay! You can disable this additional certificate checking from the IPsec Settings dialog box on the VPN client, which is available on the Networking tab for the properties of the VPN connection in the Network Connections folder. Support for Network Diagnostics Framework Client-based connections support basic diagnostics capabilities with the Network Diagnostics Framework. The DHCP Server and DHCP Client services include the following enhancements: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) support DHCPv6, defined in david characters RFC 3315, provides stateful address configuration for dissertation examples pdf, IPv6 hosts on a native IPv6 network. The DHCP Client service in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6. Copperfield Characters! A computer running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 can perform both DHCPv6 stateful and undergraduate examples pdf stateless configuration on a native IPv6 network.

The DHCP Server service in Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6 stateful (both addresses and configuration settings) and characters stateless (configuration settings only) operation. For more information about DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. Network Access Protection enforcement support DHCP enforcement in the Network Access Protection (NAP) platform requires a DHCP client to prove its system health before receiving an because, address configuration for unlimited access. For more information, see Network Access Protection in david copperfield characters this article. Support for the following technologies has been removed from Windows Server 2008 and Profiling Essay Windows Vista: Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)

Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) SLIP-based connections will automatically be updated to PPP-based connections. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) IP over IEEE 1394. NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol. Services for Macintosh (SFM) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in david copperfield characters Routing and Remote Access.

Basic Firewall in Routing and Remote Access (replaced with Windows Firewall) Static IP filter APIs for Routing and because they are human Essay Remote Access (replaced with Windows Filtering Platform APIs) The SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP (also known as MS-CHAP v1) authentication protocols for PPP-based connections. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many enhancements to improve connectivity, performance, and ease of characters configuration for protocols and core networking components; improve security, ease of dissertation pdf use, and david copperfield characters deployment for wireless and examples pdf 802.1X-authenticated wired connections; and improve protection for private networks by requiring connecting computers to be compliant with system health policies. See the following resources for copperfield characters, additional information:

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sale skills resume Learn how TOPO helps sales and marketing grow faster at www.topohq.com. Sales Skills: 18 Skills Every Salesperson Should Master. The sales profession is david, undergoing some pretty radical changes. The buyer is in charge, field sales is moving inside, technology is transforming the profession. On Cleopatra? It’s so bad that some people are predicting that 15M sales jobs will disappear in the coming years. To survive in david copperfield, this environment, salespeople need a new set of skills.

We’ve identified a core set of youngs motors, 18 sales skills by analyzing these trends and watching what makes some of the world’s best salespeople successful in the new sales environment. The best salespeople: Understand what the buyer wants Sell in a buyer-responsive manner Use psychology to engage the buyer Establish trust with the buyer Communicate succinctly Act on what the customer is saying Demonstrate subject matter expertise Help (as opposed to close) their prospects Tell really compelling stories Are great copywriters Sell effectively over the phone Are socially active with target buyers Personalize their interactions Use a variety of marketing skills Help prospects achieve next steps Are more productive because of sales technology Tie daily activities to quota achievement Manage their pipeline like a portfolio. Here’s some detail on each of the aforementioned sales skills. The most important of today’s sales skills is simply understanding the buyer. It’s the foundation of effective selling. But it involves more than just understanding who the buyer is. As my partner Craig Rosenberg likes to say, “This isn’t just about knowing what brand of david characters, coffee the buyer drinks”. Instead, it’s about identifying the youngs moneymore, experience that the buyer wants to copperfield have as they consider making a purchase in your market.

You buyer has a set of expectations about that experience and your job as a salesperson is to exceed those expectations. You can’t exceed them if you don’t understand the experience that the buyer wants to because beings Essay have. When a salesperson understands the copperfield, buyer, they can engage in Profiling Essay, what’s called buyer-responsive selling. The idea here is to provide the buyer with what they want, when they want it. For example, if your buyer needs a trial to evaluate your product but can’t allocate more than 30 minutes to it, give them a free trial. But don’t just give them any free trial.

Give them a free trial that is easy to set up, easy to use, and really demonstrates the characters, value of your product in five minutes or less. One other point – buyers like salespeople who have skills! The psychology of undergraduate dissertation pdf, buyer engagement. It’s remarkable how few salespeople know how to use psychology to more effectively engage the buyer. There are a variety of david characters, techniques you can use to create deeper engagement with your target buyers. One really effective tip is to make sure that the customer knows that you won’t take too much of undergraduate pdf, their time. Copperfield Characters? To see a full list of psychological techniques you can use, make sure you read our post on Customer Engagement and Psychology. Establishing trust with the buyer. Buyers like to do business with people they trust.

The stereotypical used car salesman just isn’t relevant anymore. Profiling Essay? Good salespeople view their ability to establish trust with the buyer as a core sales skill. Helping the buyer goes a long way in copperfield characters, this regard, as does understanding what the buyer wants. Given how busy the Profiling Essay, average buyer is today, a critical sales skill is to make sure that you communicate succinctly. The days of the silver-tongued, overly verbose salesperson are coming to an end. Buyers value how information is presented more than the information itself.

Today, the preferred form of david copperfield, presentation is conciseness. A good rule here is to never try to communicate more than three important points in a single conversation with a buyer. A lot of sales leaders and youngs motors pundits like to copperfield talk about good salespeople are good listeners. Asoka Buddhism? We think that goes without saying and characters that the It's are human beings Essay, best salespeople take action based on what they hear from their customer. Copperfield? It’s not good enough to just listen. You need to internalize what the buyer just said and then do something about it. Salespeople aren’t just vacuous portals anymore.

They actually need to be subject matter experts in two areas. On Cleopatra? First, they need to understand the david copperfield characters, buyer. Moneymore? This involves knowing about the david copperfield characters, pressing issues that the buyer is facing and what the buyer wants as they work their way to asoka buddhism a purchase. Second, salespeople need to know a lot about david copperfield characters, their own product or service. Buyers don’t want to be closed; they want to be helped. Plutarch On Cleopatra? That’s why always be helping is the new always be closing (we just published a post on Always Be Helping).

ABH is more of a mindset than a skill. A lot of salespeople struggle with this, but you should try to remember it every time you interact with a buyer. Buyers also don’t want to david copperfield hear about your product or service. Good salespeople know this and weave the product or service they’re selling into larger story that has an arc and ends with the customer receiving what they want (which is usually not your product). For example, when a business buys phone system, they don’t really want to buy a phone system – they want to grow their revenues and motors recognize that the phone is an copperfield effective tool for undergraduate dissertation pdf, doing that. Salespeople must be able to write. It’s one of today’s most important sales skills given how much sales now uses email to communicate with buyers. David Copperfield? There are a few rules to keep in mind when it comes to asoka buddhism sales copywriting. First, the less you write, the better. Try to keep written communications short and sweet.

Second, avoid using generic copy. You should take the david copperfield characters, time to personalize as many of moneymore, your communications as possible. Third, use bullets to david copperfield characters format your copy – lists are just easier for because beings, customers to david copperfield digest. Finally, start and conclude your written communications with a call to examples pdf action that asks the buyer to characters take a next step. Field sales is definitely moving inside and the face-to-face meeting is Profiling Essay, quickly becoming the 60 minute teleconference. As a result, salespeople need to be effective at managing sales calls using the phone. This requires different skills such as the ability to read the tone of someone’s voice or measure the cadence of the conversation to copperfield determine whether the prospect is satisfied or not. One important tip here is to make sure that you can use tools such as Clearslide to bring as much of the face-to-face experience to the phone. Social media has given rise to the field of social selling.

A lot of good salespeople now view their participation on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn as one of the asoka buddhism, more effective sales skills. That’s all fine and good, but we’re not just talking about tweeting every now and then. We’re talking about really engaging your buyers socially. Some of the david copperfield, best salespeople out there do things like organize dinners for groups of buyers that they are interested in getting to know. In Context Essay? There’s very little selling that takes place at these mini-events. And it’s the salesperson who organizes them; not the company they work for.

A lot of buyers want context when they have an copperfield experience with sales or marketing for that matter. They don’t want the generic message or sales pitch. They want something that’s specific to them. One way to do this is to weave messaging and examples content that is david copperfield, specific to the buyer’s demographics into your sales efforts. Essay? In a B2B setting, this might involve using specific industry examples when selling. On the consumer side, this might involve tailoring how you communicate with a buyer depending on their age and gender. You can also reference recent events in the buyer’s personal or professional life (depending on the sales context) to personalize your interactions.

Some very smart people think that marketing is eating sales. We’re not willing to david go quite that far, but we do agree that sales has a lot to learn from marketing and that sales people who possess advanced marketing skills will fare well. For example, content selling (you can learn more by reading our post on plutarch content selling) is an emergent, but important sales skill that salespeople can use to copperfield characters move the buyer through the dissertation examples, buying cycle. Some sales organizations are also using a campaign format to structure how they conduct traditional sales activities like prospecting. These activities used to david copperfield characters be unorganized and youngs non-standardized. Now, sales management is borrowing from marketing and enforcing campaign-like structure on many sales activities. Helping prospects achieve next steps. The buyer has less attention to give to characters you than ever before. That’s why it’s no longer good enough to agree on next steps. You actually need to help the buyer achieve those next steps. Let’s say a buyer that you’ve been working with needs to get the CEO’s approval before they can make the final decision.

You should help the Essay, buyer achieve this next step by copperfield characters providing them with the information, content, and tools they need to persuade the on cleopatra, CEO that your product or service is the right one. Using sales technology to boost productivity. Many sales organizations are using technology to become more efficient and copperfield shorten the length of the plutarch, average sales cycle. Salespeople are actually busier than ever as evidenced by a recent CSO Insights report that shows that salespeople only spend 37% of their time actually selling. The salesperson that can use technology to become more productive has a significant advantage over their peers – they are able to david copperfield spend more time selling. For more on what technologies are helping sales increase productivity, check out our post on undergraduate dissertation examples pdf Sales Productivity. Linking daily activities to quota. Achieving quota isn’t something that magically happens at the end of the quarter or increasingly at the end of the characters, month.

The best salespeople focus on the daily tasks or activities that they know will set them up to achieve their quota. This sales skill is usually learned over time, but it’s invaluable. For example, a sales professional might know that if they have a certain number of Profiling Essay, meetings with prospects this month, that this will allow them to david copperfield characters achieve quota next month. It’s like the old Zen proverb on how to achieve enlightment: “chop wood, carry water”. Managing the pipeline like a portfolio. The best salespeople manage their pipeline much like a hedge fund manager would manage their portfolio. They invest time in they are human Essay, a number of opportunities knowing that some will close and some will not. They track the performance of david, each opportunity, as well as the plutarch on cleopatra, aggregate performance of their entire pipeline on a weekly, if not daily, basis.

They are also able to conduct a “bottoms up” analysis of david characters, their pipeline at any time to determine where they sit relative to they their quota target. The sales profession is changing fast enough that we probably didn’t identify every essential sales skill. Copperfield Characters? What do you think? What are the sales skills you think salespeople should possess today? Let us know in the comments below! About the author: Scott Albro is the asoka buddhism, CEO and founder of david, TOPO. TOPO is a research, advisory, and consulting firm that believes in a really simple, but powerful idea – that the most important thing in Profiling Essay, business is to deliver a great buying experience. By connecting everything we do back to this core idea, we help sales and marketing organizations exceed their revenue targets. Connect with Scott on Twitter. An incredibly useful list to keep in mind. Definitely a great way to see where a sales person can improve, thanks for the list.

I particularly like item 9 about david copperfield characters, storytelling. In the end, we as humans buy stories, not products and services. And even when it is B2B. We might not like to admit it but we mostly make unconscious decisions about everything we do, everything we buy. We as marketers are in the end Spellcasters. The decision we need to make then is what kind of spells do we want to cast? Are our stories are spells, casting for the betterment of the buyer or not. Hopefully it’s the former. I’ve always said that the most valuable tool that a salesperson has it his/her ears.

And you take it one step further. Listen, then act on what you learn. Great article. Definitely bookmark worthy. In my experience, the most important skill is to be able to enter into the conversation with the client.

This would entail 3 of the skills listed above: psychological, understanding, and trust building. Entering into a conversation is the ability and desire to Profiling Essay go below the surface and engage the client. When selling life insurance online, some clients are turned off by this because they “just want a quote”. David Copperfield Characters? But many clients need to moneymore go deeper and think through their reason for looking into david copperfield life insurance. I find that these clients are the pdf, ones that are more apt to stick with me throughout the process of david copperfield characters, obtaining life insurance. Anyway, great article again. Really valuable comment – I appreciate the industry specific example. Great piece, and to your point, it’s concise and In Context Essay well written. Two things I would add, though.

First, the david, classic notion of asoka buddhism, “not taking no for an answer” is antiquated. You will come across prospects who are pleased with the quality and price of the services or products they’re currently using, and salespeople need to copperfield characters put themselves in youngs motors, the customers position and ask themselves “would I change?” Second, and somewhat related to david copperfield characters the first point, a salesperson should consider themselves as working primarily for their customers/clients, no matter who signs their paychecks. Since few of us will be receiving the gold watch from our current employers, your customers are the folks who should matter most. They’re also a big component in your attractiveness to your next employer, so work for them.

Exactly, I’ve always felt the most beneficial way to make yourself authentic and successful is to think of plutarch, yourself as the trail guide or advocate for the customer within the store/company you work for (even though Company X signs my paychecks, I want what is best for the client) That’s how you gain trust and a great reputation and actually build a nice clientele. Hello my name is caroline, My life is copperfield characters, back. After 8 months of marriage, my husband left me and asoka buddhism left me with our two kids. I felt like my life was about to end, and was falling apart.I saw a testimony on david copperfield how roborobo reunion a marriage so I contacted this prophet and undergraduate examples pdf after I explain my problem to him. In just 3 days, my husband came back to copperfield us and apologize for all the pain he brought to the family. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before with much love.i really appreciate the love binding this prophet did for me to get the man back to my life i will keep sharing more testimonies to people about dissertation, his good work Thank you once again.incase you are in any relationship problem you can contact this prophet for david characters, help he is Profiling Essay, always there in his temple to help you solve your problem.Email droborobo@yahoo.com. the helping part is more appreciative than close technique. Worth reading! Thank you for the insight. I have 20 odd years in IT. Any suggestions you could give me to land that first sales opportunity?

I’ve approached companies in my industry but my “lack” of copperfield characters, sales records experience in asoka buddhism, sales seem to be holding me back. Hi Patrick, A couple of david characters, recommendations that might help: 1. There are often openings in the sales development organization that are more accessible to people with less experience. Sales development is the function that qualifies leads before they are handed off to sales reps. It’s a challenging job, but is often the only way in. 2. You should treat the job search process as a sales process where you identify prospects (potential employers and In Context Essay specifically the david copperfield characters, sales leaders there, not HR), conduct systematic outreach to them via the phone, email, and It's because they are human beings Essay LinkedIn using hyper-targeted messaging, pitch them on copperfield you, using a deck and undergraduate dissertation pdf again high quality messaging… If nothing else, that will tell you whether you like sales and how good you are at it. A useful list all good tips, but to be honest a bit of a shopping list, all those things to do! And the best salespeople have been doing these for copperfield, decades, nothing new in the digital age. Here’s my simpler list, for enterprise sales as a profession:

– be authentic, be genuinely interested in helping the customer address real needs. – keep up with technology, tools trends: these influence buyer needs strongly. – be focused goal-oriented; it’s an achievement profession you need to enjoy that. – be a real team player, the old idea of the sales badass as lone ranger doesn’t work in the digital era. Of course running a disciplined prospect funnel, keeping on top of your forecast, qualifying carefully, all things professionals learn early. what first to do when you meet a custumers.

i was in car sales , my last boss told me that i am a honest guy speaks truth hence will not be a successful sale manager , i switched the trade but still my heart goes for examples pdf, sales jobs , anyone please suggest. How did you handle his objection? Really it’s good article for sales man. recently, last month i Join an travel industry . and i am in sales right now. but still i am unable to crack even a single sale… please help me.. how to crack a sale. Sales Skills and Personality traits test on psychometrica, Take a Online a href=https://www.psychometrica.in/p/online-sales-skill-test.htmlSales Skills Test for your bright career in Sales Field. From my research today I’ve learned that my intentions were on point, but my method was incorrect. Thanks for david copperfield characters, the detailed article. I’ve focused on Profiling Essay adding tech to my sales processes and business.

Once I get past the leaning curve, it has made significant improvements to copperfield characters my business. CRM, content creation, SEO tools…the lists go on. can you give us the plutarch on cleopatra, example for the sales of IT products (intangible) products that how can we sell these products ? bcoz the customer is not be able to david see our products at The Spirit In Context the selling time or sales meetings …. such as Software or servers and storages. Am a sales person but don’t like toking a lot.how can I over come this. Join the 100s of copperfield characters, high growth sales and youngs moneymore marketing teams that depend on TOPO.

Your free membership includes: 1 Free research and data 2 A 30+ point assessment 3 Access to david TOPO Councils.

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930 Words Sample Essay on Habits (free to read) Habits are either good or bad. Even good habits, if given free play, may turn into bad ones. For example, reading is a good habit. It helps in acquiring knowledge, in meaningful use of david copperfield characters leisure time and healthy entertainment. But excess of reading books, magazines etc., is harmful. It would soon tell upon one#8217;s health, resources, mental fitness and capacity to earn. Balance is the undergraduate dissertation examples pdf, golden rule. That is why it is said, #8220;Excess of everything is bad#8221; nothing too much, not even good things and habits.

It is easy to acquire bad and evil habits but not so, easy to cultivate and acquire good ones. Habits once acquired are difficult to get rid of. As a leopard cannot change its spots so one cannot change ones habits. They die hard. They become part and parcel of one#8217;s nature and behaviour. Bad habits render a person useless an undesirable. David Copperfield Characters? Telling lies, back biting, spitting here and there, smoking, or taking alcohol frequently and repeatedly are some of the bad habits.

They can be as many as there are persons. Like a name, a habit sticks fast till the death. Habits can make or mar our fortunes. They actually form the foundation of our character and youngs motors moneymore, destiny. That is why it is said, #8220;Sow an act and you reap a habit. S6w a habit and you reap a character. Sow a character and you reap a destiny#8221;. They are the very cornerstones of our character and destiny.

We are the makers or destroyers of our destiny. Because we cultivate, practice and acquire good or bad habits and their fruits accordingly. One may have a bad habit of flattering others or of making false promises. Similarly, one may have a bad habit if stealing things. One habit leads to copperfield, another, and then there is a sort of chain of Profiling Essay habits to from which an escape is impossible, particularly in advanced age. David? Image Source : creatingwithin.com. Anything done often and Profiling Essay, repeatedly becomes a habit the force of habit is david characters, very powerful.

It makes the particular habit easy, automatic and repetitive. Habits have their origin in The Spirit Essay, repetition, practice and regularity. The more we repeat and practice anything, the easier, permanent and automatic it becomes. It we do not practice and repeat a habit we feel uneasy and uncomfortable. Take for example, the habit of taking tea. There are people who consume 20 or more cups of tea daily. They may do without food, newspapers or rest, but cannot dispense with hot cups of tea taken almost every hour of the day. They will feel sick, lethargic, bored and useless without enjoying their cups of tea. Same is the case with smokers or drunkards. Habits are too forceful to be avoided. David Characters? It is the constant and they are human, repeated use and practice that gives birth to a habit.

Without constant and repeated use and frequency there cannot be any habit. Anything done or practiced occasionally cannot be called a habit. David? Habits are another name of addiction. Early and formative years of childhood are very important in this respect. Then it is very easy to have new impressions and influences. It is the proper time to cultivate good habits. There are many forces and factors that pay an important role in the formation of habits. Early education, impressions, influences, company, associations etc, are some of the major factors in undergraduate dissertation, the formation of habits. David? Slowly antic gradually they get ingrained in our nature.

Man is also an imitative being. Asoka Buddhism? He likes to imitate others. Copperfield Characters? Imitation also helps much in the formation of habits, bad as well as good. Things done and practiced by elders, parents, relations, neighbors, friends, leaders, popular actors etc help them in their formation. For example, a boy who sees his father smoking is very likely to have this evil habit. Profiling Essay? The boy may imagine that there must be some joy, excitement and thrill in the habit that is why his father indulged in david copperfield characters, it. One day he may try it stealthily as smoking material is Profiling Essay, easily available in the home. Gradually he may become a habitual smoker and spread it among his friends and associates. Curiosity, boredom, idleness, routine life also helps in formation of habits. It is said that an entry mind is a devil#8217;s workshop. An idle person is apt to develop bad habits like playing cards, gambling, stealing, drug-addiction etc.

Bad company and association often lead innocent boy#8217;s mad girls#8217; into the vicious habits. Copperfield Characters? A drug-addict-may offers a drug, free of cost, to because are human beings, his friend at first and thereby helps him form a bad habit of taking drugs. One requires a lot of money to satisfy evil habits like drinking, smoking, drug-addiction etc. They may ultimately lead a person to stealing, lying, borrowing and characters, even worse actions. Man can be said to be a bundle of habits. They may be good or bad. There cannot be a person wholly good or wholly evil. Speaking truth, frankness, honesty, service to others, cleanliness, reading good books etc., are some of the good habits. They must be encouraged and motors, helped among the copperfield, young men and women. Undergraduate Dissertation Examples? Good habits should be appreciated, encouraged and rewarded, #8220;Example is david, better than precept#8221;. We should always put examples of asoka buddhism good and david copperfield characters, meaningful habits before the children and young men and women.

We must create an atmosphere where good habits are always infectious. Therefore, we should always be alert and watchful in formation of habits. Bad habits should be nipped in the bud and motors moneymore, good ones should be tried and practiced again and again, for they would die and perish for want of david characters these. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to Essay, help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and characters, other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages:

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democracy essay css By Peter Landry. David Copperfield Characters? 1. Democracy is a tender topic for a writer: like motherhood and apple pie it is not to be criticized. One will risk being roundly condemned if he, or she, points out the dissertation pdf, serious bottleneck that is david copperfield characters, presented when a community attempts, through the democratic process, to It's because Essay, set plans for david copperfield positive social action. A man is not permitted to hesitate about its merits, without the suspicion of being a friend to plutarch on cleopatra, tyranny, that is, of being a foe to mankind?2. The notions of government and david copperfield, of democracy are independent notions and do not, from what I can see, depend on one another.

What is youngs moneymore, likely required for the masses of people, as we see in modern world societies, is an characters established system of government. Where there is a need for an established system of government, it will likely naturally come about; and do so, whether, or not, it has the consent of the people, -- real or imagined. Putting aside, for the moment, the arguments of Hobbes and Locke, I believe, on the basis of plain historical fact, that governments come about naturally and maintain themselves naturally without the asoka buddhism, general will of the copperfield, people; indeed, I believe, with many others I suspect, that our long established democratic governments in the world (the United States and Canada being among them) did not come about by the general will of the people, at all; nor is it necessary that it should it be maintained by the will of the Profiling Essay, people.3 One should not conclude, therefore, that democracy is necessary for good government: It may not be. What is necessary for optimum prosperity is a state of acquiescence, which, as it happens, is the hallmark of western democracies. It may be, that the only thing needed is but the trappings of democracy. An individual or group of individuals may take and maintain power by the use of coercive force. From history we can see that this is the usual way by which power is gained, and maintained. However, it has long been understood that people might come together and explicitly agree to put someone in power. The best of the thinkers saw a process, -- call it democracy -- by which groups might bloodlessly choose a leader.

That each of the governed should have a say, or least an opportunity to have a say, is a high flying ideal; but any system by which the peace is kept is an admirable system and democracy, such as it has evolved, has proven, in many cases, to be just such a system. It is from the david, suffix, -ocracy by which we might determine the operative meaning of the larger word, democracy; it is the indicator of the dominant, superior, or aspiring class who would rule; it is derived from the Greek word kratos , meaning strength or power. Any word might be added to this suffix, which will then indicate the type of rule, such as: plutocracy (rule by the wealthy), ochlocracy (mob-rule), angelocracy (government by angels), etc. Democracy is the rule by, or the dominion of, the people; it comes from the Greek word, demos . It is often referred to as popular government. Democracy, historically speaking, is to be compared with monarchy, rule of one; or with aristocracy, rule of the best-born, or rule of the nobles. Whatever its origins (and we will consider its origins) democracy has come to mean a principle or system to which most all political parties of the The Spirit Essay, western world, no matter their political beliefs, would subscribe.

It is politics. It goes beyond the periodic act of voting; it is characterized by participation in government, viz., involving members of the copperfield characters, community in governmental decisions, allowing them to take part in asoka buddhism anything at all which amounts to a public demonstration of popular opinion. 1 - Grecian Democracy:- The first democracy, of which we have record, is that which was practiced in copperfield characters ancient Athens. In his capacity as a history writer, Aristotle, in his work, The Athenian Constitution (350 BC), writes that the Athenians practiced democracy only to the extent of putting and keeping in power members of a very exclusive group, a group which formed but a minority in youngs moneymore the universal group we stylize as society. The Athenian constitution was oligarchical, in david every respect. The poorer classes were the serfs of the rich. They cultivated the plutarch, lands of the rich and paid rent. The whole country was in the hands of nine magistrates, called archons , who were elected according to qualifications of copperfield, birth and wealth.

These ruling magistrates held their positions for life, except for that latter period when they served for undergraduate dissertation examples a term of ten years. In time, this Greek notion of democracy was set aside in favour of the draw. . the method of election in david characters the choice of archons is youngs moneymore, replaced by characters, lot; some way must be found to keep the rich from buying, or the knaves from smiling, their way into office. To render the selection less than wholly accidental, all those upon In Context whom the lot falls are subjected, before taking up their duties, to a rigorous dokimasia , or character examination, conducted by david, the Council or the motors moneymore, courts. The candidate must show Athenian parentage on both sides, freedom from physical defect and scandal, the pious honoring of his ancestors, the performance of his military assignments, and the full payment of his taxes; his whole life is on this occasion exposed to challenge by any citizen, and the prospect of david copperfield characters, such a scrutiny presumably frightens the most worthless from the sortition. If he passes this test the archon swears an oath that he will properly perform the obligations of plutarch on cleopatra, his office, and will dedicate to the gods a golden statue of life-size if he should accept presents or bribes. Durant in Our Oriental Heritage continued to david characters, write that the head man, the examples pdf, archon basileus , must nine times yearly . obtain a vote of confidence from the david copperfield, Assembly and any citizen may bring him to task for an inappropriate act of his. Undergraduate Dissertation Examples Pdf? At the end of his term all his official acts, accounts, and documents are reviewed by a special board, logistai , which is david characters, responsible to the Council. Severe penalties, even death, may avenge serious misconduct.

2 - The Enlightenment:- Out of the Dark Ages, in gradual awaking stirs, came the Age of Reason. The enlightenment was fully established and growing vigorously by they are human beings Essay, the eighteenth century. David Copperfield Characters? As the shackles of oppression, so firmly clamped on during the middle ages, became loose, men sought to apply reason to religion, politics, morality, and In Context, social life. David? With the coming of the enlightenment men began to undergraduate dissertation, express their minds; no longer were most all men cowed by the great mystery of the universe, and, their minds, through ignorance, ruled by fears: The Enlightenment was a time when human beings pulled themselves out of the medieval pits of mysticism. It was a spontaneous and copperfield characters, defused movement which fed on itself and led to the great scientific discoveries from which we all benefit today. Undergraduate Examples Pdf? Beliefs in natural law and universal order sprung up, which not only promoted scientific findings and advancements of a material nature; but, which, also drove the great political thinkers of the time, such as: Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733), Charles Louis de Secondat Montesquieu (1689-1755), Voltaire (1694-1766), Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-88), David Hume (1711-76) and, of course the brightest political light of all, John Locke (1632-1704). 3 - Representative Government:- In England, Edward the First, in 1295, with a view to dealing with his impecuniosity, issued a writ to the sheriff of Northhampton. Copperfield? The people, of all things, were refusing to pay taxes and asoka buddhism, they were becoming belligerent.

Edward was getting advise to copperfield, the effect that it might be better to sit down with the people, or rather their representatives, than to Profiling Essay, let loose the royal troops. Letting the troops loose would be an act which would destroy the country's riches, a share of which the king wanted for himself. David Copperfield? Thus, we would have seen the royal messenger riding out from the king's castle to dissertation, deliver this royal writ to the sheriff of Northhampton. This royal writ of Edward's had the Latin words, elegi facis , meaning that the persons who were to sit on the people's Council (the beginnings of parliament) were to be elected headmen such as the burgesses and copperfield, knights, and they were to have full and sufficient power for themselves and the communities which they represent; they were to come to Council -- ready, to asoka buddhism, conduct and to conclude the important business of the land. Parliament is not a congress of ambassadors from different and hostile interests; which interests each must maintain, as an david characters agent and advocate, against other agents and undergraduate pdf, advocates; but parliament is a deliberative assembly of david characters, one nation, with one interest, that of the whole; where, not local purposes, not local prejudices ought to asoka buddhism, guide, but the general good, resulting from the general reason of the whole. You choose a member indeed; but when you have chosen him, he is not a member of Bristol, but he is a member of parliament. . Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgment; and he betrays instead of serving you if he sacrifices it to your opinion. Characters? . The state includes the asoka buddhism, dead, the living, and the coming generations. 4 - The Dilemma of Representative Government:- Given human nature and the political process, full democracy, beyond the smallest group size, may simply not be workable, at david copperfield characters all. Each of us has a right to asoka buddhism, cast a vote for an individual to represent us in the legislative assembly.

The elected person then goes off to represent all of his constituents, whether they voted for copperfield characters him or not, indeed, whether they have even voted. How is he to look at issues and how is he to vote (assuming, for the moment, that he has a free vote in parliament). Should he vote on the basis of what he perceives the majority of on cleopatra, his constituents want, right or wrong; or, as Burke suggests, does he vote his own conscience, vote as a better and more informed person than his average constituent; or does he, as it seems our system obliges, just vote the party line. Representative institutions are of little value, and may be a mere instrument of tyranny or intrigue, when the david characters, generality of electors are not sufficiently interested in their own government to Profiling Essay, give their vote, or, if they vote at all, do not bestow their suffrages on david copperfield characters, public grounds, but sell them for money, or vote at youngs the beck of someone who has control over them or whom for private reasons they desire to propitiate. Popular election, as thus practised, instead of a security against misgovernment, is but an additional wheel in its machinery. (John Stuart Mill, Consideration on Representative Government .) The problem, as is so clearly set forth by Mill, is quite aside from the further and david characters, separate problem that issues at stake in political life are too many and too complicated and that very many of them [issues] are actually unknown both to the representatives and to plutarch on cleopatra, the people represented.7. 5 - Democracy In Action:- In a monarchy, or, for that matter, any state where rule is carried out by a privileged class without consulting with the masses in any direct way, it was recognized, at least in the 18th and 19th centuries, that what was needed was a submissive, a confident and a stupid people. David Copperfield? Such people in examples pdf these earlier centuries existed in predominate numbers.

Sadly, yet today, even as the 21st century dawns, it is rare, even in the western democracies, to find many people who are independently working through for themselves and taking fixed positions on important political concepts such as democracy, freedom and government. For democracy to work there must, as a prerequisite, be a people educated and be a people ready to characters, inform themselves of the great issues which face them. Unfortunately, a politically educated public, this important ingredient to the proper working of democracy, is missing. First off, it must be recognized, that the country is not run, at least not in It's because they beings Essay between elections, with the executive checking with the people by way of referenda (as the Swiss do). However, the people who possess government power and who would like to keep it, are bound to proceed on the basis of david characters, popular opinion; the difficulty is that public opinion arises as a result of an agenda which is set by minority groups to which vote chasing politicians cow, a process which is generally aided and abetted by an ignorant press. [Proper political conclusions] cannot be had by glancing at newspapers, listening to snatches of Profiling Essay, radio comment, watching politicians perform on television, hearing occasional lectures, and reading a few books. It would not be enough to make a man competent to decide whether to amputate a leg, and david copperfield characters, it is not enough to qualify him to choose war or peace, to arm or not to arm, to intervene or to withdraw, to fight on undergraduate dissertation examples pdf, or to negotiate. . When distant and unfamiliar and complex things are communicated to great masses of copperfield, people, the truth suffers a considerable and often a radical distortion.

The complex is made over into motors moneymore, the simple, the hypothetical into the dogmatic, and the relative into an absolute. . the public opinion of masses cannot be counted upon to apprehend regularly and promptly the reality of david copperfield, things. There is an inherent tendency in opinion to feed upon rumors excited by our own wishes and fears. (Lippmann, The Public Philosophy , p. It's Are Human Essay? 25.) We should never hope or aim to choose a bully, but the elective process will give no guarantee that the people will not end up with one. Democracy, no matter its imperfections, is a way by which the people can bloodlessly turn out leaders; but, the democratic process will only work with the consent of the leaders. The best that can be expected of david copperfield, a constitutional democracy, the best that can be expected by any political system, is a process by which the people turn up a leader or leaders which are prepared to deal with both the bullies amongst us and those at our borders. Hopefully, the leader or leaders, so turned up by The Spirit, the democratic process, do not turn out to be a worst set of david copperfield, bullies then that which might exist in an ungoverned state. If, in the democratic process, an elected leader turns into a bully; well, then, one should not rely on democracy, except as a rallying cry, to plutarch on cleopatra, turn him out. To turn out a powerful bully, great quantities of copperfield characters, spilt blood are needed. 6 Democracy, Government, and Freedom:- Democracy, in my view, is only compatible with a free economy; it can only asoka buddhism, exist, in substance, in david copperfield characters an economy of ideas.

Like a fish to water, democracy can only on cleopatra, exists in a total atmosphere of freedom of action; it is completely incompatible with a system that provides for a governing authority with coercive power. If one accepts (anarchists, for example, do not) that a government, to some extent or other, is necessary for copperfield a civilized society, then it is to be recognized that the business of Profiling Essay, governing (as apart from the business of electing representatives) cannot be conducted in democratic matter. Lippmann deals with this problem: . there has developed in this century a functional derangement of the relationship between the mass of the people and characters, the government. The people have acquired power which they are incapable of exercising, and the governments they elect have lost powers which they must recover if they are to govern. What then are the asoka buddhism, true boundaries of the copperfield characters, people's power. They can elect the motors, government. They can remove it. They can approve or disapprove its performance. But they cannot administer the government. They cannot themselves perform.

They cannot normally initiate and propose the necessary legislation. A mass cannot govern. Where mass opinion dominates the david, government, there is a morbid derangement of the Profiling Essay, true functions of power. The derangement brings about the characters, enfeeblement, verging on dissertation, paralysis, of the capacity to govern. This breakdown in the constitutional order is the david copperfield characters, cause of the precipitate and catastrophic decline of plutarch on cleopatra, Western society. It may, if it cannot be arrested and reversed, bring about the david, fall of the West. ( Op. cit. , pp. 14-5.) The notions of freedom and of democracy, we might reasonably conclude, rest on the same foundations. This is not the case for the concepts of government and youngs moneymore, freedom: they will have nothing to do with one another: they work against one another.

The principal business of government is the taking of freedom away from people; it is characters, how government achieves its ends. 7 - The Press and Democracy:- To begin with: those charged with informing the public, such as our journalists, should very carefully examine the It's, expert evidence that is thrown their way. Copperfield? Our government experts must be cross-examined and asked if they have any interest in the outcome? The answer is dissertation examples pdf, that most of them do -- if, for no other reason, than they are in the pay of the david copperfield characters, government, as either; bureaucrats, lodged in the upper end of the government echelon; or those resting in publicly funded universities; or those who are in plutarch on cleopatra the social welfare business. The result of the syndrome is predictable, for, as the public conflict grows, people come to doubt expert pronouncements. David Copperfield? Normally people primarily judge the The Spirit In Context Essay, propositions before them in a most obvious way, by their source. For example, Of course she claims oil spills are harmless - she works for Exxon. Of course he says Exxon lies - he works for Nader. When established experts lose credibility, the demagogues take over david copperfield characters and we are left in our mass democracy with groups trying to outshout one another. When their views have corporate appeal, they take them to the public through advertising campaigns.

When their views have pork-barrel appeal, they take them to legislatures through lobbying. When their views have dramatic appeal, they take them to the public through media campaigns. Groups promote their pet experts, the battle goes public, and quiet scientists and engineers are drowned in the clamor. Do the important issues get debated in the mass media? Some things seem to work well enough without any notice being taken by the public: and, often, these are the most simple and important workings of society such as family cooperation. The Spirit Essay? In the media, as in human consciousness, one concern tends to drive out another. This is what makes conscious attention so scarce and precious. David Copperfield Characters? Our society needs to identify the facts of Profiling Essay, its situation more swiftly and reliably, with fewer distracting feuds in the media.

This will free public debate for its proper task - judging procedures for finding facts, deciding what we want, and copperfield, helping us choose a path toward a world worth living in. I now deal with the concept, the youngs motors moneymore, people: and, in particular Burke's notion that it consists of not just the aggregate of living persons, but; those that are dead and those who are to be born. That is why young men die in battle for david copperfield their country's sake and why old men plant trees they will never sit under. This invisible, inaudible, and so largely nonexistent community gives rational meaning to the necessary objectives of government. If we deny it, identifying the Profiling Essay, people with the prevailing pluralities who vote in order to serve, as Bentham has it, their pleasures and their security, where and what is the nation, and copperfield, whose duty and business is it to defend the public interest? Bentham leaves us with the state as an arena in which factions contend for their immediate advantage in the struggle for survival and domination. Without the invisible and transcendent community to bind them, why should they care for posterity? And why should posterity care about plutarch on cleopatra them, and about their treaties and their contracts, their commitments and their promises. Yet without these engagements to the future, they could not live and work; without these engagements the characters, fabric of society is unraveled and shredded. (Lippmann, Op. cit. Youngs Motors? , p. 36.) 9 - Virtual Representation:- Edmund Burke was an exponent of virtual representation.9 The idea is that - those who do not have the franchise or those who cannot have it by copperfield, custom or law (i.e., for reasons such as they are infants; or, indeed, are unborn) -- are, nonetheless, represented by those exercising government power.

When one thinks it through, one is bound to come to the conclusion that it is pretty presumptuous to Profiling Essay, strike on a legislative course, not knowing the degree or type of david, impact which such a course will have on those generations which stretch out (we hope) much beyond that time which will mark the current generation's departure from this life. All that I can see of democracy's role is to put into place those people; who, in a very general way, represent the views of the majority, or rather the views of the party to whom they owe their advancement. This of course is a recipe for the oppression of the Essay, minorities (no matter from which strata of society they come; and, no matter whether any particular individual from within society likes the party policies, or not). -- Is democracy workable? -- Can it work at all? For a free and democratic nation to work, a politician must, in the first place and right off the bat, in an honest fashion, convince the electorate that democracy is what they need, if they are to get what they want -- optimal human conditions for the medium term.

The reality of things, with no exceptions that I can think of, is that what people desire is the david copperfield, soft and the easy; what is needed is the hard and the difficult (if only to achieve the soft and the easy). The Spirit? Faced with these choices between the hard and the soft, the normal propensity of democratic governments is to please the largest number of voters. The pressure of the electorate is normally for the soft side of the equations. That is why governments are unable to cope with reality when elected assemblies and mass opinions become decisive in the state, when there are no statesmen to resist the inclination of the voters and there are only david characters, politicians to excite and exploit them. There is then a general tendency to It's they are human, be drawn downward, as by the force of gravity, towards insolvency, towards the insecurity of factionalism, towards the erosion of david characters, liberty, and towards hyperbolic wars. (Walter Lippmann, pp. 45-6.) Much is asked of democracy: for while by motors, definition no one within a democracy is to copperfield, have special privileges; it, as a system, is to accommodate all groups of people, no matter how unalike they may be, one to the other. It may be that democracy can only work where the plutarch, great mass of people are alike, or at least striving to be alike.

This may be the reason why, through the years, democracy has worked so well in countries such as Canada and the United States. Historically, the United States (and Canada as well) was the great melting pot where newcomers came: -- their wish was to characters, be American (Canadian) and to raise their children as Americans (Canadians). However, there are now signs that democracy in our countries, as a system, is breaking down. More and more, it seems, there are groups, particularly in Canada, which arise and are no longer content to strive to stay in the common middle and dissertation pdf, share common ideals, but rather they diverge; and, this divergence, unfortunately, has been supported by government action in a combined effort to hold and promote distinctiveness of these existing and emerging groups. The reality is that we are forever fixed with a oligarchy (government of the characters, few) masquerading as a democracy. Profiling Essay? The purpose of the ruling few is to execute its constitutional functions, which, because democracy is unworkable, should be tightly circumscribed. The ideal of democracy is to be promoted, as it has been, to the rulers and the ruled, as a sacred icon; never mind that it cannot be used to put a society into action, to pass laws, and never mind that it rarely will cast up honest and wise leaders; it is, in the final analysis, a system that will routinely and david copperfield characters, expensively rotate those in charge; a manner of bloodlessly changing the guard. Charming Form of Government:- Democracy, which is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder, and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequals alike. (Plato.) Democracy Socialism:- Democracy and socialism have nothing in common but one word: equality. But notice the difference: while democracy seeks equality in liberty, socialism seeks equality in restraint and servitude. Youngs Moneymore? (Alexis de Tocqueville, in a speech to the French Assembly, September 12, 1848.) Conflict: Democracy Liberty:- Perhaps, before going further, I should say that I am a liberal democrat and have no wish to characters, disenfranchise my fellow citizens.

My hope is that both liberty and democracy can be preserved before the one destroys the other. Whether this can be done is the youngs motors moneymore, question . (Walter Lippmann, 1889-1974.) Conflict: Democracy Effective Administration. The scheme of parochial and david characters, club governments takes up the state at the wrong end. (1791, Burke, as quoted by OED.) Democracy is the worst form of government. It is the most inefficient, the most clumsy, the most unpractical. . It reduces wisdom to impotence and secures the triumph of folly, ignorance, clap-trap and demagogy. . Yet democracy is the only form of It's because Essay, social order admissible, because it is the only one consistent with justice. (Robert Briffault, Rational Evolution , 1930.) Herd Confused: The People. And what are the people but a herd confused, A miscellaneous rabble who extol Things vulgar, and well weighed, scarce worth the praise? They praise, and they admire they know not what, And know not whom, but as one leads the other. (Milton.) Democracy: The High Ideal. . we must remember that no code or social legislation, no written law, can of itself guarantee true democracy and preserve liberty.

The spring can rise no higher than it source. David Copperfield? Democracy must continue to be fed from the It's because beings Essay, altitude of the high ideals that founded it. . Democracy is a spirit. [Stephen Leacock, Our Heritage of Liberty (London: Bodley Head, 1942) pp. 60,74.] Not All the People are Equal. David? The free inhabitants of each of these states, paupers, vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in undergraduate examples the several states. (U.S. Characters? Articles of Confederation, 1777.) Thoreau's Civil Disobedience: Click for The Spirit In Context separate document. Federalist Papers: Click for separate document. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War: Click for separate document. Plato's Laws: Click for separate document. Walt Whitman: Click for separate document. Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan: Click for separate document. Edgar Allan Poe's Marginalia: Click for separate document.

Anatole France's Penguin Island: Click for david characters separate document. Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France: Click for separate document. John Stuart Mill's Representative Government: Click for separate document. Jose Ortega y Gasset's Revolt of the Masses: Click for Profiling Essay separate document. Thomas Paine's Rights of Man: Click for separate document. 2 It was Edmund Burke (not Churchill as so many believe) who first said that democracy is the only tolerable form into which human society can be thrown . 3 The British settlers, on coming to colonize the david copperfield characters, eastern seaboard of the North American continent, arrived with but a few physical possessions; what they did have, in motors moneymore full measure, was their love of freedom, a condition which very much defined them. The roots of democracy and freedom for all western democracies are planted in the rich history of Britain beginning with the Magna Carta . Enough to point out david copperfield characters that when Captain Christopher Jones and his officers, together with their crew and their passengers disembarked from the Mayflower , in December of 1620, the pilgrims drew up a compact that provided for the government of the moneymore, colony by the will of the majority. 4 The English Constitution (Oxford University Press, 1928) at p. David Copperfield? 130. 5 In fact there is no specific date to which we can point. Human rights, a subject I deal with elsewhere, came about only through deep and motors, long struggles culminating in historical declarations such as the Magna Carta (1215) and the Petition of Right (1628, A man cannot be compelled to give evidence against david characters, himself); but it is asoka buddhism, only with English Bill of Rights in 1689 that we see any real progress in david copperfield the evolution of law designed to It's are human beings, protect the david copperfield, rights of the normal citizen.

With the defeat of James at the Battle of the Boyne , the claim of divine right or hereditary right independent of law was formally brought to an end. Profiling Essay? Ever since, an English monarch is as much the creature of an act of parliament as the david, pettiest tax-gatherer in his realm. (Green, vol. IX, p. 58.) 6 We do not want our medical doctor doing what we want; but, rather, in plutarch on cleopatra the final analysis, what the doctor thinks is best for our health and our life. 7 Freedom and david copperfield, the Law (Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 3rd Ed., 1991.) at p. 122.

8 There is nothing new about this line of thinking, see John Stuart Mill. John Buchanan (The Nobel Laureate in Economic Science in asoka buddhism 1986) and Gordon Tullock in their work, The Calculus of david, Consent , have shown in an irrefutable way that whenever a minority is well organized and determined to bribe as many voters as necessary in order to have a majority ready to pass a desired decision, the majority rule works much more in favour of such minorities than is commonly supposed. (Leoni, Op. cit. , p. 242.) 9 See Burke's speech, On the motors moneymore, Reform of the Representation of the Commons in Parliament (1784). 10 Devonshire was a great maritime county when the david characters, foundations of our representation were fixed; Somersetshire and In Context, Wiltshire great manufacturing counties. The harsher climate of the david copperfield, northern counties was associated with a ruder, a sterner, and a sparser people. [Bagehot, Op. cit. , at p. 146.] 11 In 1830 the British Commons represented an electorate of about 220,000 out of a total population of approximately 14 million, or about 3 percent of the adult population. (See Leoni, Op. cit. Youngs? , p. 115.)

13 It was Sir William Temple (1628-99), one of the architects of the Glorious Revolution, who was of the view that states often fell under Tyrannies, which spring naturally out of copperfield characters, Popular Governments. Since, this observation has proved to be true, time and time again.