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Benito Juarez Biography - Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline
nibelungenlied essay Die teusche Ilias : The Nibelungenlied. in the Early Years of juarez its Rediscovery. The best-known German epic today, the Nibelungenlied, was also popular with medieval audiences. Written approximately 800 years ago, some 35 mostly partial manuscript versions still survive, attesting to its broad appeal. Where Elizabeth! The poem is juarez biography, divided into two parts, the first of which chronicles young prince Siegfried’s courtship of the princess Chriemhild at the court of Burgundy and Siegfried’s murder by Essay about Positive Results Black, Hagen, a Burgundian courtier.
The latter half of the poem revolves around Chriemhild’s plot to benito avenge Siegfried’s death after Hagen goes unpunished. To this end, Chriemhild marries the Results Black Plague powerful King Etzel and when the Burgundians visit his court she sets her plan into motion. In the end, Hagen, Etzel, Chriemhild, and benito juarez biography her Burgundian kinsmen and a host of The Possibility of the of Knowledge others die in benito juarez biography a horrific battle. Sometime before the end of the 16th century, the poem fell into obscurity and remained forgotten until 1755, when a 13th-century manuscript was found in essays quotes the Royal Library of Hohenems in benito juarez Voralberg, Austria. The chance discovery was made by a local doctor who recognized its significance and social phenomena sent it to Johann Jakob Bodmer, a professor of Swiss history renowned for his work on German-language poetry. Despite the sensational plot and Bodmer’s efforts, reception of the juarez Nibelungenlied remained cool for decades. Where Elizabeth 1 Born! This response was shaped by Early Modern attitudes toward classical epic poems, particularly the Odyssey and biography Iliad . Homer’s reputation, always high in German-speaking lands, was at its all-time peak during the 18th century. Discovered at Essay about Positive Results of The Black Plague, this particular historical moment, the Nibelungenlied was not judged on benito juarez biography its own terms, but rather against Homer. Despite significant reservations about its quality, German literary critics did what they could to popularize the newfound poem so that they too might have a national epic. Gsc Buy Ticket! I would like to juarez biography welcome you to the exhibit with a brief introduction to the early reception history of the Nibelungenlied and to The Possibility Discarding Essay the poetics debate that informed it. The 1882 Lexikon der deutschen Nationallitteratur contains an biography, extensive article on the Nibelungenlied, in which the poem is introduced asthe “crown of a Moral Responsibility to Stop Climate medieval folk poetry and the only epic poem in the world, the importance of which is benito, comparable to the Homeric epics.”1 Considering the on We Have a Moral Responsibility to Stop Climate plot itself, one might be tempted to ask how this interpretation and the seemingly incongruous comparison to the Iliad came to be a standard enough aspect of Nibelungen scholarship at the end of the 19th century to benito juarez biography earn a place in a literary encyclopedia.
As Ulrich Wyss and others have noted, the prominence of the Nibelungenlied in the German canon “never went without saying.”2 In the following, I would like to essays quotes examine the very early reception history of the juarez Nibelungenlied as well as the poetics debate that informed it to help clarify later incarnations of the where elizabeth Nibelungenlied. Opitz and Some Questions of Relevance to the Reception of the Nibelungenlied. In the centuries during which the benito juarez Nibelungenlied was lost, a new tradition of poetic theory developed in social phenomena Germany; the most prominent of the early theorists, Martin Opitz, led his contemporaries to the first flowering of benito juarez German poetry in the modern era with Das Buch von der Deutschen Poeterey or The Book of German Poetics in 1624. In it, Opitz describes poetic technique and elizabeth encourages the juarez reader to gsc buy ticket become a writer. Perhaps a hundred similar theoretical works followed on the heels of The Book of juarez biography German Poetics , but most were imitations or extrapolations. An examination of where was queen 1 born The Book of German Poetics demonstrates that the status of German art in juarez relation to that of other nations was a thorny subject well before the rediscovery of the Nibelungenlied . In the Teutsche Poemata (also 1724), Opitz writes: We Germans, as we came somewhat later to Latin and Greek together with the liberal arts and nonetheless surpassed and left behind us all other nations in the rich increase of the social most learned people, we hope the same for our own poetry, which, despite the protracted wars, rises and stirs so much everywhere that it seems in this case also we will in time surpass all foreign peoples.3. Opitz’s concerns about the development of an adequate national literature display a curious tension between dismissal of and benito chauvinism for German literature, an attitude that shaped German literary criticism and the reception of the Nibelungenlied in particular in the centuries to come.
The next field-changing poetics after Opitz was Johann Christoph Gottsched’s Versuch einer critischen Dichtkunst or Critical Ars Poetica of phenomena 1729. Juarez! Gottsched (1700-1766) is an important “portal figure” and catalyst of the early Enlightenment, countering Baroque ideas with a “rationalistic legitimation” of literature.4 Gottsched addresses not only the essays quotes fundamental technical aspects of poetry, but also theoretical questions, such as to juarez what degree poetry is universal, that is, transcends issues of phenomena historical and benito juarez regional particularity.5 Although he could have chosen to Essay about Results of The cite critics such as Pope and biography Schaftesbury who emphasized the value of the “subjective imagination,” Gottsched, like German Baroque theorists before him, chose to follow a decidedly classical path, basing his poetics on Enlightenment philosophy as embodied by Christian Wolff (1679-1754).6 Wolff’s influence can be seen in essays quotes Gottsched’s enthusiasm for normative aesthetics based on benito juarez Christian rationality. Essays Quotes! Gottsched himself remarks that his Critische Ars Poetica is benito juarez, entirely derived from classical sources (with particular emphasis on Aristotle’s Poetics ); what is on We Responsibility Climate, new is his programmatic rationalist Christian orientation toward these sources. In the Critical Ars Poetica Gottsched argues that God’s creation (Nature) is the most perfect creation and secondary creators (i.e. Benito Juarez Biography! artists) should attempt to approach this standard. Reason enables us to determine what is most like Nature, but rather than imitating Nature directly, as Aristotle suggests, one should follow the example of the ancient Greeks, who are the first and best imitators of was queen elizabeth Nature.
As such, they should be followed without exception; historical circumstances should not be allowed to benito juarez biography come between the poet and perfection.7 Those who fail to phenomena imitate the greatest writers, “follow their fantasy absolutely” instead of the divine harmony of the natural world, and biography write lesser genres that “deviate from natural harmony” such as “quodlibets, operas, novels, buffoonery and other fantastical theatrical inventions, that have neither a genre nor finesse.”8. Gottsched’s work, like the Critische Ars Poetica, is essays quotes, characterized by the “propagation of juarez national pride” to Essay Black Plague encourage German-speakers to embrace a “healthy bourgeois national consciousness;” Gottsched dedicates himself to improving the quality of German-language literature through good criticism and clear instruction.9 Despite his enthusiasm for the concept of benito a German national literature, Gottsched, like Opitz did not stand by what had already been produced. On We Have! In Gottsched’s case, this reluctance is colored by his neoclassical orientation rather than Opitz’s preference for other contemporary European literatures; Gottsched used no contemporary poets to illustrate the benito juarez biography principles outlined in his Critical Ars Poetica preferring examples drawn from antiquity. The Possibility Of The Discarding Of Knowledge Essay! This preference for benito juarez, the ancients and social his understanding of them as paradigmatic precludes the benito juarez appreciation of German literature per se. An excellent illustration of this is The Possibility of Knowledge Essay, Gottsched’s suggestion that the raw materials of benito juarez Germanic myth were equal to the task of creating an Essay about and Negative of The Black Plague, epic poem, but nonetheless nothing worthy had been written. Literaturstreit: Gottsched vs. Bodmer and juarez biography Breitinger. After the publication of Gottsched’s Critical Dichtkunst , the Zürich professors Johann Jakob Bodmer (Swiss history) and social Johann Jakob Breitinger (Hebrew and Greek) attacked Gottsched’s poetics, giving rise to a very public, drawn-out and juarez biography contentious debate called the Literaturstreit . The first volley was Breitinger’s poetics of 1740, which he published under the 1 born same name as Gottsched’s. Juarez Biography! Like Gottsched, Bodmer and social Breitinger based their poetics on juarez biography Wolff’s rationalism, accepting the imitation of Nature as the primary goal of the Essay on We Have to Stop Climate poet, but they expanded the “latitude of poetic subjectivity” beyond Gottsched’s.10 In short, the debate revolved around poetic license; the Swiss wanted to make room for the Marvelous in this schema, while Gottsched rejected its use in all but ancient settings. Bodmer and benito juarez biography Breitinger insisted that the poet could create as well as imitate, arguing that the primal source [Urgrund] of all poetic beauty is the Essay on We Responsibility Change New and that the Marvelous was the juarez biography ultimate degree of the New, thus the most important poetic element; furthermore, that the Marvelous occupies a position between truth and falsehood, as it is so close to true, that it is possible and, thus, not a lie.
The debate continued to roil around a second issue: Milton’s use of was queen 1 born genre in Paradise Lost. Gottsched calls heroic epic “the true magnum opus und masterpiece of all poetry,” endorsing, unsurprisingly, Homer as paradigmatic: Homer is, as far as we know, the very first to undertake this kind of work and accomplished it with such fortune or rather with such skill  and is held up as the paradigm to all of his successors  thus, Homer is the father and the first inventor of this poem, and consequently a truly great intellect, a man of special ability [. ]11. Gottsched’s approach requires him to benito ignore “historically conditioned” aspects of literature in online favor of moral arguments. This tactic emphasizes the eternal quality of benito biography literary standards, but cannot take into where elizabeth account all aspects of any work of art; for example, he reduces the benito juarez biography Iliad to Responsibility to Stop Climate an illustration of the idea that “trivial discord is ruinous: harmony, however, exceedingly beneficial.”12. Evaluating Western European epics, such as Don Cervantes and Chanson de Roland, Gottsched criticizes Paradise Lost , alleging that Miltonstrays too far from the benito biography epic form; the worst transgressions against the form include “sophistry in where 1 born words and turns of phrase  artificial ideas and other fool’s gold  deviating from the juarez simplicity of nature  grandiloquent und overblown expressions, immense amplifications and bombastic allusions.”13 Although not the first to criticize Paradise Lost , Gottsched brought the debate into essays quotes the German-speaking realm. Benito Juarez! Bodmer and Breitinger defend Milton’s unique reworking of epic form as well as his use of marvelous elements.14 The Swiss critics praised the simultaneous originality and historical ties [Gebundenheit] of Paradise Lost .15 Gottsched’s evaluation of Milton hinges on his understanding of the epic genre and the role of the about Positive poet. It was against benito juarez, this backdrop that the Nibelungenlied was rediscovered in 1755. Hoping to interest Bodmer in gsc buy online the text, the discoverer, Jakob Hermann Obereit (1725-1798), did his best to relate the barely read text to the topics of the Literaturstreit: the Marvelous and biography the ancients:
If one compares the The Possibility of the Discarding of Knowledge Essay ancient poetry of the juarez biography Greeks and Swabians [Germanic group] to about Positive Results of The our poets of the new British and biography Klopstockian taste, what does one see? The difference between Nature and Artifice.16. Bodmer and Breitinger shared with Gottsched a desire to of the Discarding Essay encourage good literature through good criticism but also wanted to prove that German-speaking lands already had produced a literature as worthy of juarez praise as that of other Western Europeans.17 This desire, in conjunction with Bodmer and Breitinger’s willingness to accept, to a degree, historically conditioned elements in literature, made it possible for the newly discovered medieval epic to gain a toehold in the German canon. The First Edition: Bodmer’s Chriemhilden Rache (1757) The first printing of the Nibelungenlied was Bodmer’s edition of essays quotes Manuscript C as Chriemhilden Rache or Chriemhild’s Revenge . In contrast to benito biography Gottsched, who rejects medieval courtly epic as inferior to ancient heroic poetry, Bodmer works hard to integrate the Nibelungenlied into contemporary aesthetics and essays quotes the new patriotism of the late 18th century.
At the same time, however, Bodmer believes that some serious pruning is benito juarez, necessary before the Nibelungenlied can “bear fruit for national literature.”18 Bodmer's pruning takes place at a textual level: the first edition is actually only gsc buy ticket online a fragment of the Nibelungenlied . In the biography introduction to gsc buy ticket Chriemhild's Revenge , Bodmer expresses his ambivalence about the quality of the Nibelungenlied . At his most positive, Bodmer draws parallels between the Nibelungenlied and Homer’s epics: Courage appears here in wondrous variety in various forms; one is Rüdiger’s, another Blödelin’s, another Hagen’s, that of benito biography Volker, of Dietrich von Bern In the description of battles a diversity of encounters prevails such that hardly one fight, one battle, is Have a Moral Responsibility Change, like another. Benito Juarez Biography! Every new combat situation surpasses the last in Essay about and Negative Results Black greatness, danger and confusion. Those are characteristics which otherwise belong to Homer. The poet is also more similar to Homer in this regard than some others are, that he seldom lets us think of the poet; he engages us with the plot alone, and makes us readers into hearers.19. The Lament of the Nibelungen: It has a certain resemblance to the last book of the Iliad, in which appear the juarez lament of Andromache, Hecuba and Helen and Hector’s burial.20. All in all, the poet gives his most noble characters a sense of honor, great courage, and eloquence, which we do not encounter in the same clear light in Homer’s heroes.21. Despite positive statements like these and the fact that he would like ‘his’ discovery to become the gsc buy ticket online great national even universal epic, Bodmer, like Opitz and Gottsched before him, cannot embrace wholeheartedly the benito juarez work of earlier German poets. Bodmer’s concerns are based on his judgment of the Nibelungenlied against where, Homer’s epic; he sees a clear, qualitative hierarchy between classical (and neoclassical) epic forms and benito the style born of the was queen elizabeth 1 born “childish disposition” of the middle ages.22 An example of biography that is his evaluation of the Marvelous in Responsibility Change the Nibelungenlied . He points out that its use is “in the taste of the benito times,” that is, historically conditioned, while also being “very modest” in comparison to the “fictions” of other medieval authors.23 Furthermore, Bodmer downplays the significance of the Results Black Marvelous in biography the epic in favor of aspects he and his contemporaries admire more:
If one would reduce the exorbitant number of warriors and temper a few other things of that sort, we would have a work in which the childish tendency to the excessive and the falsely marvelous would be flattered the least; where, on the contrary, the love of Have a Moral to Stop Climate martial virtues and tangible deeds would be dealt with absolutely adequately. Everything is in the ideas of the poet's chivalrous times, and written according to the conventions most appropriate to his contemporaries. In the juarez execution there is an attractive simplicity and great clarity, things that have counted for much in all cultures and in ticket online all ages 24. Bodmer also argues that the unknown author of the benito juarez biography Nibelungenlied would have done things differently had he lived in a more enlightened age in gsc buy which other narrative techniques had reigned: If he had had the benito concept [of plot unity], it would have been easy for him to incorporate most of the The Possibility of the Discarding of Knowledge preceding stories with the part about the revenge in such a way that the benito juarez biography unity of the plot would not have suffered. He would have been able to give Chriemhild just one trusted person at [Etzel’s] court  to whom she herself would have told it.  He could have allowed her to perform this narration largely with the construction he uses in his own person.25. Bodmer posits that the power of the Nibelungenlied is Discarding of Knowledge Essay, it is biography, not artistry, but a more primitive kind of talent: Thus it was not the was queen elizabeth 1 born poet's art or his recognition of the rules of unity and the whole, or his perception of great effects, which come of it; it was only instinct or genius, which led him powerfully, so that we received a complete, broad, but still only one plot.26. Bodmer’s paring down of the benito Nibelungenlied to Chriemhild's Revenge is an attempt to was queen elizabeth resolve its divergence from a formal ideal predicated on benito juarez biography a particular conception of history. Bodmer sees history as a logical chain of events with emphasis on the great men” to whom he attributes its shaping, as we can see in the plays and theoretical works he wrote.27 The expectation that history be didactic presents a major stumbling block to Essay Positive and Negative Results Black Plague a positive evaluation of the epic, as the benito following passage shows: Eschilbach and his contemporaries writing narrative poems had no concept of plot unity and the whole.
Rather, they believed that they had to develop the life of their heroes from social phenomena, their birth on juarez to death; and they are very careful to apologize if they leave out a few bits of news for us.28. Bodmer explains his own decision to essays quotes leave out material from the Nibelungenlied in Chriemhild’s Revenge with a comparison to benito biography Homer: I cut all these parts, and, I think, with the same justification Homer had to Essay on We Responsibility Change leave out the kidnapping of Helen, the sacrifice of Iphigenia and all that happened during the benito biography ten years before the dispute between Achilles and was queen Agamemnon, to which he only occasionally alludes, as if to benito juarez familiar things.29,30. Ironically, it is Bodmer's appreciation for essays quotes, the text that leads him to make changes to juarez biography the text, becoming an about Positive Black Plague, active collaborator through his suppression of the bulk of the text. At the close of the introduction, Bodmer reflects on the project of juarez biography popularizing the Nibelungenlied : I do not know, if I may flatter myself with the hope that my encouragements will have some effect; I dare not expect much, as I see that the [medieval courtly romance] Eneas by [Heinrich von Veldeke], that second Aeneid adapted according to the mentality and taste of the twelfth century, of which such an old, complete and true manuscript exists, which is granted to Essay and Negative Plague scholars for biography, their use so compliantly, has found neither editor nor enthusiast nor publisher until now.31. Bodmer was right to social suspect that a wide and positive reception of the benito biography Nibelungenlied would not be forthcoming.
Despite all his efforts, Bodmer’s attempt to make the Nibelungenlied relevant failed, and his contemporaries remained disinterested. The initial unpopularity of the text may be explained by way of Bodmer's own attitude; the deleterious effects of reading of the Nibelungenlied against the Homeric form reduces the medieval epic to a copy of where 1 born a tale from Greco-Roman antiquity. A poem like the Nibelungenlied , which did not replicate the antique ideal, could not be embraced in benito juarez biography 18th-century Germany.32. The first complete Edition. The comparison of the Nibelungenlied to Homer’s epics remained integral to essays quotes its reception history until the early 20th century. In fact, as Max Wehrli remarks, “insight into the intrinsic value and the uniqueness of the medieval epic becomes ever more clouded” by the comparison.33 In 1783, the influential Swiss historian, Johannes von Müller (1752-1809), wrote an essay on juarez the Nibelungenlied , calling it “this excellent poem, of which our nation may be proud.”34 Müller draws attention to particular similarities between it and the Iliad ; beyond plot points and characters, he finds that “[i]n both poems there are more great passions than great people, greater heroes than kings, and portrayals of disasters that can leave no human soul untouched.”35 Despite this praise, Müller considers the Nibelungenlied deeply inferior to the Iliad : This is not the place to gsc buy describe in benito biography detail how and Essay about Positive Results Black why the Greek is so far above the German as Jupiter, whose raised eyebrow shakes the biography heavens, is above the dwarf Alberich; but we may be assured, that, if the Nibelungenlied is revised (not too much, but rather without harming its antique form), our nation too will be able to prove to essays quotes what degree Nature can succeed in the North.36. Müller’s famous pronouncement that the “Nibelungenlied could become the German Iliad” has been repeated by countless scholars.37 Of course, we see the usual disregard of the Nibelungenlied’s own merits, but the benito biography main thrust of the Essay argument is that German scholars must dedicate their efforts to creating a positive reception: “[the Nibelungenlied ] will never be as widely known as it deserves if scholarly hands do not do it the service, which Homer received from those who first made him to the favorite book of biography all Greeks.”38 Although Müller’s commentary on the Nibelungenlied did not awake interest in was queen the epic immediately, it did eventually take on the same great importance for the Nibelungenlied as Lessing’s 17th Literary Epistle on the reception of Shakespeare in Germany.39. As Jan-Dirk Müller has written, the Nibelungenlied has been a “projection surface” since its rediscovery, a projection surface “for a theory of the national epic, for heroic self-affirmation through prehistory, for benito juarez biography, an pristine national character and essays quotes the values and goals, which one attributed to this people.”40 The reception of the Nibelungenlied picked up steam after the turn of the 19th century and by 1810 the first scholar, Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen (a subsequent editor of the Nibelungenlied ), could speak of the epic as Germany’s “Nationalepos,” a status that remained unchallenged and benito juarez was often abused into The Possibility of the Discarding of Knowledge the 20th century.41 The meager 18th-century reception of the Nibelungenlied foreshadows central elements of the epic’s reception as the German national epic, but at the same time gives little insight into how that development came to be.
Bryn Savage, M.A., M. Phil. Yale University, 2007/2011. 1 Stern 262: “Krone der mittelalterlichen volksmäßigen Poesie und die einzige epische Dichtung der Welt, welche an juarez biography, Bedeutung den homerischen Epen vergleichbar ist.” 3 Opitz’ introduction to was queen elizabeth 1 born Teutsche Poemata : “Wir Deutschen / wie wir zu dem Latein und Griechischen / nebenst den freyen Künsten / etwas später kommen sind / unnd doch alle andere Nationen an benito, reichem Zuwachs der gelehrtesten Leute uberholet / und hinter uns gelassen haben / also wollen wir von unserer eigenen Poeterey ingleichen hoffen / die / ungeachtet der nunmehr langwirigen krige / sich allbereit hin und wieder so sehr wittert und reget / daß es scheinet / wir werden auch dißfals frembden Völckern mit der Zeit des Vortheil ablauffen” (n. Phenomena! pag.). 6 Finken 40, Mitchell 27.
8 The 1741-edition of benito Gottsched’s Critische Dichtkunst (I.1 153) cited in Pizer 32-36: “folgen schlechterdings ihrer Phantasie,” “Quodlibete, Opern, Romane, Pickelheringspossen und andere phantastische Erfindungen in theatralischen Sachen, die weder Art noch Geschicke haben.” 9 Rieck 93 (“gesundes bürgerliches Nationalbewußtsein”); Hofmann 67. 11 Gottsched 1751, II.4 469: “das rechte Hauptwerk und Meisterstück der ganzen Poesie” / “Homer ist, so viel wir wissen, der allererste, der dergleichen Werk unternommen, und mit solchem Glücke, oder vielmehr mit solchem Geschicklichkeit ausgeführet hat  und allen seinen Nachfolgern zum Muster vorgeleget wird.  Homer ist also der Vater und der erste Erfinder dieses Gedichtes, und folglich ein recht großer Geist, ein Mann, von besonderer Fähigkeit gewesen .” 12 Pizer 38; Gottsched 1751, II.4 470-471: “Mishälligkeit ist verderblich: die Eintracht aber überaus zuträglich.” 13 Gottsched 1751, II.4 504. 16 Obereit to Bodmer on July 19, 1755: “Man halte die alten poetischen Griechen und Schwaben gegen unsere Dichter vom neuen brittischen und klopstockischen Geschmack, was erblikt man?
Einen Unterschied zwischen Natur und Kunst” (quoted in Ehrismann 1975, 29). 18 See Ehrismann 2002, 169. 19 Bodmer vii-viii: “Die Dapferkeit erscheint hier in einer wunderbaren Verschiedenheit bey verschiedenen Personen; eine andere ist Rüdigers, eine andere Blödelins, eine andere Hagenen, des Volkers, Dietrichs von Bern In der Beschreibung der Kämpfe herrschet eine Mannigfaltigkeit von Begegnissen, so daß schwerlich ein Kampf, ein Gefecht, dem andern gleich ist. Online! Jedes neue Gefecht erhebt sich über das vorhergehende an Grösse, Gefahr, und Verwirrung. Das sind Eigenschaften, die sonst dem Homer zugehören. Der Poet hat auch diese mit dem Griechen mehr als so mancher anderer Poet gemein, daß er uns selten an biography, den Poeten gedenken läßt; er nimmt uns allein mit seiner Handlung ein, und machet uns aus Lesern zu hörern.” 20 Bodmer viii: “Die Klage: Es hat einige Aehnlichkeit mit dem lezten Gesang der Ilias, wo die Klage der Andromache, der Hecuba, und der Helena, und Hectors Leichenbegängniß vorkommen.” 21 Bodmer viii: “Ich glaube, daß die großmüthigsten von unsern heutigen Kriegern mit dem Edelmuth und der Aufrichtigkeit dieses Helden zufrieden seyn können.
Ueberhaupt giebt der Poet seinen vornehmsten Personen Empfindungen von Ehre, Großmuth, und Redlichkeit, die wir bey Homers Helden nicht in demselben offenbaren Licht antretten.” 23 Bodmer viii: “nur mit sparsamer Hand angebracht.” 24 Bodmer viii: “Das Abentheurliche, und Unglaubliche, das in diesen abgerissenen Stüken herrschet, das in dem Geschmake der Zeiten des Verfassers ist, und mit den Erdichtungen des von Osterdingen und einiger anderer verglichen noch sehr bescheiden ist, wird in der Rache, die wir allein liefern, nur mit sparsamer Hand angebracht. Wenn man die übermäßige Anzahl der Kämpfer heruntersetzte, und einige andere Sachen von dieser Art mäßigte, so würden wir ein Werk bekommen, in welchem der kindischen Neigung zu dem Uebersteigenden und dem falschen Wunderbaren am wenigsten geschmeichelt wäre; wo hingegen der Liebe zu martialistischen Tugenden und handfesten Thaten ein völliges genügen geschähe. Alles ist in den Ideen der ritterlichen Zeiten des Poeten, und nach den eigensten Sitten seiner Zeitverwandten geschrieben. Es ist in der Ausführung eine anziehende Einfalt, und eine große Klarheit; Sachen, die bey allen Völkern und in allen Zeiten viel gegolten haben .” 25 Bodmer vi: “Er hätte sie diese Erzählung grossentheils mit der Ausbildung können verrichten lassen, mit welcher er sie in seiner eigenen Person gethan hat. Ich will den Inbegriff davon ein wenig umständlicher aus einander setzen. 26 Bodmer v: “Also war es nicht die Kunst des Poeten, oder seine Erkenntniß der Regeln und der Einheit und dem Ganzen, oder Empfindung der grossen Würkungen, die daher entstehen; es war nur Instinkt oder Genie, die ihn mächtig leiteten, daß wir in der Rede der Chriemhilde eine volle, ausgebreitete, und doch nur eine Handlung bekommen haben. Hättet er diesen Begriff gehabt, so wäre es ihm leicht gewesen, die meisten vorhergehenden Geschichten mit dem Stüke von der Rache so zu vereinigen, daß die Einheit dieser Handlung nichts darunter gelitten hätte. 28 Bodmer v: “Von der Einheit der Handlung, und diesem Ganzen hatten Eschilbach un seine Zeitgenossen, die erzählende Gedichte geschreiben haben, keinen Begriff.
Sie glaubten vielmehr, sie müßten das Leben ihrer Helden von ihrer Geburt an bis zum Tode entfalten; und sie sind sehr sorgfältig sich zu entschuldigen, wenn sie uns einige Nachrichten davon mangeln lassen. 29 Bodmer vii: “Alle diese Stüke habe ich abgeschnitten, und ich glaube mit demselben Rechte, mit welchem Homer die Entführung der Helena, die Aufopferung der Iphigenia, und alle Begegnisse der zehn Jahre, die vor dem Zwiste zwischen Achilles und Agamemnon vorgergegangen sind, weglassen hat, auf die er nur bey Gelegenheiten sich als auf bekannte Sachen beziehet.” 30 Bodmer applied the same structural ‘improvement,’ to a later hexameter translation of the Nibelungenlied that follows the same trajectory as Chriemhild’s Revenge, “Die Rache der Schwester” or “The Sister’s Revenge.” One must note that Bodmer, like other Enlightenment-era translators, used hexameter for online, all reworkings of medieval poetry (Bender 40). 31 Bodmer xvi: “Ich weiß nicht, ob ich mir mit einiger Hoffnung schmeicheln darf, daß meine Aufmunterungen eine sonderliche Würkung haben werden; ich darf nicht viel erwarten, da ich sehe, daß der Eneas des von Veldeg , diese zweyte Aeneis, die nach der Denkungsart und dem Geschmake des zwölften Jahrhunderts umgearbeitet ist, von welcher eine so alte, so vollständige, und richtige Handschrift vorhanden ist, die den Gelehrten so willfährig zu ihrem Gebrauch gegönnet wird, bisher weder Ausgeber, noch Liebhaber, noch Verleger gefunden hat.” 32 Despite his enthusiasm for the newly discovered epic, Bodmer made other mistakes in the initial reception of the benito juarez Nibelungenlied; particularly his misunderstanding of its verse form and attribution of authorship (of both Klage and Lied ) to Essay Positive and Negative Black the Konrad mentioned in benito biography the Klage, which quickly became Konrad von Würzburg (Bodmer ix; Körner 6). In “Mutmaßen von der Person des Dichters der Chriemhilde” (1784), an article published posthumously in the Leipzig journal, Für Ältere Litteratur und Neuere Lectüre , Bodmer restated and essays quotes fleshed out benito juarez this position, advancing Cuonrat Marner as an alternative author (Körner 10).
This position would be embraced, debated and refuted by many in the coming years. 33 Wehrli 95: “die Einsicht in den Eigenwert und die Eigenart des mittelalterlichen Epos wird in immer steigendem Maße getrübt.” 34 Müller’s review of Essay of The Black Plague Myller’s Der Nibelungen Liet in benito juarez biography the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen . St. 36. Of The Essay! 353-358. 1783. In the benito juarez original: “diese vortreffliche Gedicht, auf welches die Nation stolz thun darf” (Müller 1783, 354).
35 Müller 1783, 357: “In beiden Gedichten sind mehr große Leidenschaften als große Menschen, größere Helden als Könige, und Gemälde von Unfällen, welche keine menschliche Seele kalt lassen können.” 36 Müller 1783, 357-358: “Es ist hier der Ort nicht, ausführlich darzuthun, worin und warum der Grieche so hoch über den Deutschen ist, als der Jupiter, dessen Augenbrauen durch ihre Bewegung den Himmel erschüttern, über den Zwerg Alberich; aber das dürfen wir versichern, daß, wenn der Nibelungen Lied nach Verdienst bearbeitet wird (nicht aber zu sehr, sondern seiner antiken Gestalt ohne Schaden), auch unsere Nation eine Probe wird aufstellen dürfen, wie weit es die Natur im Norden zu bringen vermochte” (Cited in countless treatments of the reception history of the Nibelungenlied , for example, Ehrismann 2002). 37 “Der Nibelungen Lied könnte die Teusche Ilias werden.” On page 121 of social phenomena Müller’s Geschichte der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (Leipzig, 1786) quoted by juarez biography, Körner (14) and many others. 38 Müller 354: Das Nibelungenlied “wird nie so allgemein bekannt werden, als es verdient, wenn ihm nicht gelehrte Hände den Dienst leisten, welchen Homer von denen empfing, die ihn zuerst allen Griechen zum Lieblingsbuch machten.”
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Benito Jurez Biography - life, parents, story, history, old, information
alexis king resume ALEXIS KAGAME AND AEQUATORIA. Benito Juarez Biography! CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOGRAPHY OF KAGAME ALEXIS (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586. ALEXIS KAGAME ET AEQUATORIA. CONTRIBUTION À LA BIOGRAPHIE D'ALEXIS KAGAME (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586 (Texte revu) ALEXIS KAGAME AND AEQUATORIA. CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOGRAPHY OF KAGAME ALEXIS (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586.
Alexis Kagame was a Rwandan Catholic priest from the diocese of of the Discarding of Knowledge Essay, Kabgayi. He was known for his political opinions and for a comprehensive corpus of publications in the domains of literature and cultural philosophy. Benito! He was the editor-in-chief of The Possibility, Kinyamateka (1), a local periodical in Kinyruanda. Kagame was also in correspondence with Tempels and Hulstaert. At a certain moment, he tried to become a Jesuit priest (letter from 13-1-1948).
Kagame began his scientific career with his stay in Rome where he receives his doctorate in philosophy in 1955. After this moment, the correspondence with Hulstaert became less intensive. But Hulstaert continued occasionally to ask for juarez an article or a book review for of the Discarding of Knowledge Essay Aequatoria. Kagame promised to send in some of these, but eventually only delivered two texts (published in benito juarez biography Aequatoria 16(1953)89-92 and 23(1960)146-147). On three occasions I published a brief note signalling the existence and an abbreviated content of an exchange of letters between Kagame and social Hulstaert (2). Benito! In fact we have 32 letters from Hulstaert and Essay Have Responsibility to Stop 22 from benito biography, Kagame, written between 1944 and 1976. Where! In this file are a few other pieces, notes and letters, documenting some arguments which were originally attached to the letters. Benito Juarez! There is also a brief correspondence between Hulstaert and Essay Have a Moral Responsibility to Stop Climate Change Kagame's bishop, Mgr Déprimoz; a long exposition by benito, Kagame on civilization (letter from 16-5-1947); and gsc buy finally a theologian's criticism of an article by Kagame in benito Aequatoria 1945. Online! The main contents of two important letters from Mgr Dellepiane (3), Apostolic Delegate, and of a letter from Mgr Hemptinne (4), bishop of Elisabethville, addressed to the bishop of Coquilhatville, Mgr Van Goethem (5), have already been published elsewhere (cf. Le Centre Aequatoria de Bamanya.
Cinquante ans de recherches scientifiques, in Zaire-Africa 27(1987)212, especially p.87-91). They contain very negative evaluations of juarez biography, Kagame and Have a Moral Responsibility to Stop Climate Change Hulstaert. The original of the biography, letters and other documents mentioned, are available at the Archives of the Aequatoria Center of Essay about Positive Results of The Black Plague, Bamanya, and classified under Correspondence Hulstaert (Microfiches HP 4 and 5). Juarez Biography! Gustaaf Hulstaert was put in contact with Alexis Kagame by where elizabeth, Father Joseph Moeyens (6) when passing a holiday in Rwanda in 1944. Father Hulstaert opened the correspondence by biography, a letter of May 10, 1944, inviting Kagame to of the of Knowledge Essay collaborate in Aequatoria. Juarez Biography! Most of the Responsibility Change, letters are on juarez biography the publication and on We Responsibility Climate the content of juarez biography, Kagame's article Rwanda and Essay Positive and Negative Results of The Black Plague its King, in Aequatoria 8(1945)41-48). The correspondence comes at a time when Kagame reveals himself as writer and benito africanist researcher, as he writes in his letter of The Possibility Discarding, 7-10-1944: I am always in a period of personal formation, and biography it is for the first time that I am going to communicate the fruit of my work to an European public. Later in a letter to phenomena Hulstaert of biography, 25-4-1953, he recognized: I don't forget that Aequatoria was the first scholarly publication to open its columns for gsc buy ticket online me and to juarez allow me to publish in French. The king's rights.
The main goal of online, Kagame's article was to make the colonizers understand the biography, irreplaceable role of the King for the good running of Rwandan society. The opportunity that triggered his reaction was the where was queen 1 born, Government's decision to have the cow markets organised by the administration, which was considered an benito biography attack on of the Discarding of Knowledge Essay the King's traditional rights. Kagame incited Hulstaert to publish his text as quickly as possible in a single issue: The meeting of the notables of the benito, country (. The Possibility! ) will take place probably at mid-June. In this way the article will arrive in time to benito juarez biography make the responsible persons reflect on what they are doing. The Possibility Of Knowledge! The King attaches a great importance to this issue. (Kagame in Hulstaert on 14-4-1945). Benito Juarez Biography! The article had important consequences. Kagame wrote (30-9-49): I did not forget that my article in Aequatoria triggered the about and Negative Results of The Black Plague, happy present events in Rwanda He certainly made here an allusion to benito juarez biography the following: (1) the authority on organizing the was queen elizabeth, cow markets had been restored to biography the King; (2) the climate of understanding between colonized and colonizer changed in 1946 after the departure of about Positive and Negative Results Black Plague, Eugene Jungers who, according to his successor Jean Paul Harroy, had reigned as a dictator; (3) the departure of Brother Secundien, the almighty director of the Groupe Scolaire of juarez, Astrida (BBOM VI, 771) (e). About Results Of The Black Plague! On the benito biography, personal level, the consequences are less brilliant for Climate Kagame. Juarez Biography! He was forbidden to was queen 1 born collaborate with Aequatoria, to regret of juarez biography, Hulstaert (9).
In 1948 he wrote: I am stopped from publishing in Have a Moral Responsibility Change French (Kagame to Hulstaert, 28-4-1948). What credit should one give to the affirmation by Harroy, who says that Kagame was confined (in punishment) to Gisaraga (in his Rwanda book, 1984, p.145, note 1) and that has was assigned to residence, without authorization to juarez biography move away of of Knowledge Essay, it, from May 1947 to end 1949 (Bulletin de l'ARSOM, 28(1982), p.72)? However, at that time, he was transferred to become assistant priest of the benito juarez, parish of gsc buy online, Gisaraga. Biography! This cannot necessarily be interpreted as a punishment. Nothing like this appears from the correspondence, which was very open on to Stop Change topics related to the aftermaths of the release of biography, Rwanda and his King. Black and online white civilization.
In second line of importance comes the benito juarez biography, discussion on civilization and on the differences between African and where was queen elizabeth 1 born Western culture. We attest here one of the juarez biography, earliest written expressions of a certain black intellectual nationalism in gsc buy ticket online the Belgian Colonies, based on both cultural values and historic traditions. The publication of the biography, article of Kagame by Aequatoria constituted for ticket the Apostolic Delegate, Mgr Dellepiane, a proof of the misguided attitude of the journal. The journal was suspended temporarily (1945); which teaches us a lot on the methods of ecclesiastical censorship used by the Apostolic Delegation. They were strongly related to the personality of Mgr Dellepiane (inspired by the ebullient Mgr de Hemptinne).
Mgr Van Goethem, the bishop of Hulstaert, testifies on his behalf, when writing: His Excellence is benito juarez biography so violent in where was queen 1 born his indignation (Van Goethem to benito biography Dellepiane, 31-8-1945 Arch.Aeq. MF. CH 4.5) Later, Hulstaert came two times back to the philosophical conceptions of Kagame. In a lengthy text: Reflections sur la Philosophie Africaine, he dedicates 36 pages to the philosophical writings of Kagame.
It has been partially published in a local periodical Réflections (magazine of the Major Seminary of on We a Moral Responsibility Change, Bamanya, 1984, p.1-14). Benito! Afterwards, in 1981 he attacked Kagame in an article in where 1 born Annales Aequatoria (2(1981)1-19) on his methods in benito biography linguistics. -Strategies Compared: The Cultural Translations of Alexis Kagame and Amadou Hampâté Bâ. In Hal Wylie and Bernth Lindfors, editors, Multiculturalism and Hybridity in African Literatures: Selected Papers of the where elizabeth 1 born, 1998 ALA Conference. 2000 Trenton: African World Press. Pp. 379-391. Benito Juarez! -Bontinck Frans, In Memoriam Alexis Kagame, RAT (Kinshasa) n.11(1982)113-1-15. -Harroy Jean Paul, Alexis Kagame, Bulletin de l'ARSOM 28(1982) 66-78. -Hategelimana G, 1988, 20 (numéro spécial de Education, Science et Culture). Elizabeth 1 Born! -Hategelimana G., Education, Science et Culture, 1982, 1, p.143-163. -Hulstaert G., Alexis Kageme, Réflexion (Grand Séminaire de Bamanya, Mbandaka) -Mudimbe Valentin Y., In memoriam: Alexis Kagame (1912-1981). In: Recherche, Pédagogie et Culture, Paris.
1982. Juarez Biography! Nr. 56, S. Social! 74-78. -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Traduttore Tradditore? Alexis Kagame's Transposition of benito, Kinyarwanda Poetry into Essay on We Have a Moral Responsibility Climate Change, French. Juarez Biography! (conférence prévue pour juin 2002) -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Poésie humoristique et nationaliste chez l'Abbé Alexis Kagame, Congrès du CIEF, 26 mai au 2 juin 2002, Abidjan. - Nzabatsinda Anthére, The Aesthetics of gsc buy online, Transcribing Orality in benito juarez biography the Works of Alexis kagame, Writer of Rwanda, in: Research in African Literatures 28(1997)1,98-111. -Vidal Cl., Alexis Kagame, entre mémoire et Histoire, dans History in Africa 15(1988)493-504. Essays Quotes! -Vinck H., La correspondance Hulstaert-Kagame, Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-588. 1. Biography! Kinyamateke, bimonthly, founded by was queen elizabeth, the Catholic Mission in 1937, published in indigenous language.
The Journal was under the direction of Kagame from benito, 1941 to where was queen elizabeth 1 born 1547 and from October 1950 to benito juarez biography September 1952. Discarding Of Knowledge Essay! CONTRIBUTION À LA BIOGRAPHIE D'ALEXIS KAGAME (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586 (Texte revu) Prêtre catholique rwandais du diocèse de Kabgayi, il s'est distingué à la fois par ses prises de position politiques et par une publication prolixe dans le domaine de la littérature et de la philosophie culturelle.Rédacteur en chef de Kinyamateka (5). En parcourant son courrier, nous apprenons qu'au même moment, Kagame était en correspondance avec Tempels (lettre du 28-4-1948) et qu'il a essayé de se faire jésuite (lettre du 13-1-1948). Lorsque Kagame commence sa vraie carrière scientifique lors son séjour à Rome où il obtient son doctorat en philosophie (1955), la correspondance avec Hulstaert se raréfie. Juarez! Hulstaert continue à lui demander un article ou une recension pour Aequatoria.Kagame promet, mais n'enverra que deux textes (publiée dans Aequatoria 16(1953)89-92 et 23(1960)146-147). A trois reprises, nous avons publié de brèves notices signalant l'existence et le contenu (résumé) d'un échange de lettres entre Alexis Kagame et Gustaaf Hulstaert (1).Nous disposons de 32 lettres de Hulstaert et de 22 de Kagame, écrites entre 1944 et 1976.A ce dossier s'ajoutent quelques autres pièces, documents et correspondances, éclaircissant certains points mentionnés dans les lettres ou qui y étaient attachés originellement.Ainsi trouvons-nous une brève correspondance entre Hulstaert et l'évêque de Kagame, Mgr Déprimoz ; ensuite, un long exposé de Kagame sur la Civilisation (attaché à la lettre du 16-5-1947), et, finalement, les critiques d'un théologien sur l'article de Kagame dans Aequatoria. Where Was Queen Elizabeth 1 Born! Nous avons déjà publié ailleurs (cf.
Le Centre Aequatoria de Bamanya: cinquante ans de recherches africanistes, dans Zaïre-Afrique 27(1987)212, surtout p.87-91), le contenu essentiel de deux lettres importantes de Mgr Dellepiane (2), Délégué Apostolique et le résumé d'une lettre de Mgr de Hemptinne (3), évêque d' Elisabethville. Toutes ces lettres étaient adressées à Mgr Van Goethem (4), évêque de Coquilhatville, et contiennent des considérations fort négatives sur Kagame et son article, ainsi que sur Hulstaert, Les originaux de ces lettres et autres documents sont disponibles aux Archives du Centre Aequatoria de Bamanya, classés sous Correspondance Hulstaert (Microfiches CH 4 et 5). Le Père Gustaaf Hulstaert avait été mis en contact avec l'Abbé Alexis Kagame par l'intermédiaire du Père Joseph Moeyens (6) qui avait passé un congé au Rwanda en 1944.C'est Hulstaert qui ouvre la correspondance par une lettre du 10 mai 1944 en invitant Kagame à collaborer à Aequatoria.La plupart des lettres tournent autour de la publication et du contenu de l'article de Kagame: Le Rwanda et son Roi, dans Aequatoria 8(1945)41-48. La correspondance se situe au moment de l'éclosion de Kagame comme écrivain et chercheur africaniste, comme il l'écrit lui-même dans sa lettre du 7-10-1944: Je suis toujours en voie de formation personnelle, et c'est pour la première fois que je vais communiquer le fruit de mon travail à un public européen. Plus tard dans une lettre à Hulstaert (25-4-1953), il reconnaît: Je n'en ai pas oublié pour autant que Aequatoria fut la première publication scientifique à m'ouvrir ses colonnes et me lancer dans les publications en langue française. Les droits du roi. Avec son article, Kagame a comme but principal de faire comprendre aux colonisateurs le rôle irremplaçable du Roi pour le bon fonctionnement de la société rwandaise.L'occasion qui a déclenché sa réaction fut la décision du Gouvernement, de faire organiser les marchés de vaches par l'Administration. Ce qui empiétait sur les droits traditionnels du Roi. Benito Juarez Biography! Kagame incite Hulstaert à publier son texte le plus vite possible en une seule livraison (..). Plague! La réunion des grands notables du pays (. ) aura lieu probablement à la mi-juin.
De cette façon, l'article arrivera peut-être à temps pour faire réfléchir les responsables. Benito! Le Roi y attache une grande importance (Kagame à Hulstaert 14-4-1945). L'article a eu d'importantes conséquences. Essays Quotes! Kagame écrit: Je n'ai pas oublié que mon article dans Aequatoria a déclenché les heureux événements actuels au Rwanda (30-9-49).Il fait ici certainement allusion aux événements suivants: (1) L'autorité sur l'organisation du marché des vaches a été restituée au Roi; (2) Le climat d'entente entre colonisé et le colonisateur a changé après le départ en 1946 d'Eugène Jungers qui, selon son successeur Jean Paul Harroy, avait régné en satrape; (3) Le départ du Frère Secundien, l'omnipotent directeur du Groupe Scolaire d'Astrida (BBOM VI, 771) (e). Au niveau personnel, les conséquences sont moins brillantes. Kagame se verra interdire de collaborer à Aequatoria, au grand regret de Hulstaert (9).En 1948, il écrivait: Je suis empêché de publier en français (Kagame à Hulstaert, 28-4-1948). Quel crédit doit-on accorder à Harroy qui affirme que Kagame a été en punition à Gisaraga (dans son livre Rwanda, 1984, p.145, note 1) et virtuellement assigné à résidence, sans autorisation de s'en éloigner, de mai 1947 à fin 1949, (Bulletin de l'ARSOM, 28(1982), p.72) ? S'il fut effectivement muté à la paroisse de Gisaraga comme vicaire paroissial, rien de tel n'apparaît dans la correspondance, pourtant très ouverte sur des sujets liés aux séquelles de la parution du Rwanda et son Roi. Civilisations noire et blanche. En seconde ligne d'importance vient la discussion sur la civilisation et sur les différences entre la culture africaine et occidentale. Benito Juarez! Nous sommes ici devant une des expressions les plus précoces d'un certain nationalisme noir, raisonné et basé sur des valeurs culturelles et des traditions historiques, dans les colonies belges.
La publication de l'article de Kagame par Aequatoria, constituait pour le Délégué Apostolique, Mgr Dellepiane, une preuve de plus de l'attitude foncièrement erronée de la revue, de ses tendances indigénistes.La revue fut temporairement suspendue (1945). Nous apprenons à cette occasion, beaucoup sur les méthodes de censure ecclésiastique pratiquées par ce qui s'appelait à l'époque la Délégation Apostolique. Ces méthodes étaient fortement liées à la personnalité de Mgr Dellepiane, lui-même inspiré par le bouillonnant Mgr de Hemptinne. C'est ce dernier que vise Mgr Van Goethem, l'évêque de Hulstaert, quand il écrit: Qu'il est donc violent ce Monseigneur dans son indignation (Van Goethem à Dellepiane, lettre du 31-8-1945 Arch.Aeq. fiches CH 4.5) Vers 1980, Hulstaert est revenu à deux reprises sur les conceptions philosophiques de Kagame. Dans un long essai: Réflexions sur la philosophie africaine (jamais publié tel quel), il dédie 36 pages à l'њuvre philosophique de Kagame. Une partie en a été publiée dans Réflexions (revue du Grand Séminaire de Bamanya, 1984, p.1-14). Dans Annales Aequatoria 2(1981)1-19, il attaque ses méthodes en matière linguistique. 1. Il s'agit des articles dans les Annales Aequatoria 5(1984)178; 6(1985)177-187 et 7(1986)332-333.
Quelques références bibliographiques/ Some bibliographical references. -Strategies Compared: The Cultural Translations of Alexis Kagame and Amadou Hampâté Bâ. In Hal Wylie and Essay Positive and Negative Plague Bernth Lindfors, editors, Multiculturalism and Hybridity in African Literatures: Selected Papers of the 1998 ALA Conference. 2000 Trenton: African World Press. Pp. 379-391. -Bontinck Frans, In Memoriam Alexis Kagame, RAT (Kinshasa) 11(1982)113-1-15. -Harroy Jean Paul, Alexis Kagame, Bulletin de l'ARSOM 28(1982) 66-78. -Hategelimana G, 1988, 20 (numéro spécial de Education, Science et Culture). -Hategelimana G., Education, Science et Culture, 1982, 1, p.143-163. Juarez! -Hulstaert G., Alexis Kageme, Réflexion (Grand Séminaire de Bamanya, Mbandaka) -Mudimbe Valentin Y., In memoriam: Alexis Kagame (1912-1981).
In: Recherche, Pédagogie et Culture, Paris. 1982. Nr. 56, S. Essay Results Of The Plague! 74-78. -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Traduttore Tradditore? Alexis Kagame's Transposition of biography, Kinyarwanda Poetry into phenomena, French. (conférence prévue pour juin 2002) -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Poésie humoristique et nationaliste chez l'Abbé Alexis Kagame, Congrès du CIEF, 26 mai au 2 juin 2002, Abidjan. - Nzabatsinda Anthére, The Aesthetics of Transcribing Orality in the Works of biography, Alexis kagame, Writer of Rwanda, in: Research in social phenomena African Literatures 28(1997)1,98-111. -Vidal Cl., Alexis Kagame, entre mémoire et Histoire, dans History in juarez Africa 15(1988)493-504.
-Vinck H., La correspondance Hulstaert-Kagame, Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-588.
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Writing a great cover letter is juarez biography probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the Discarding Essay first thing a potential employer sees, and benito it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against was queen, a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to biography, read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and where double spaces between paragraphs.
Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Juarez! Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Social Phenomena! Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for biography this position.
Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here.
A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Where Was Queen! Just remember to benito, develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the was queen elizabeth 1 born entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the benito biography reader to invite you to an interview. On We A Moral Responsibility! You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. Finally, state the juarez easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to gsc buy online, go beyond your computer’s spell check and biography grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a Moral Responsibility a few hours, or overnight if possible, and benito juarez biography look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to online, proofread your cover letter.
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