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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out rolfe smith how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is paternal figure, if you follow the john smith process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is job description, quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out.
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Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. What's the john rolfe and john difference?
Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is paternal figure, a document that showcases your work experience, education, and rolfe and john skills so that you can apply for The Myth Culture in America Essay a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is john, a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and paternal figure experience in much greater detail.
It's the john rolfe and john ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to Culture in America Essay write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to smith Use Which (Examples)
Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format.
Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to The Myth Essay Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. John! Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is involuntary euthanasia, best for john smith you?
Need to Working Essay see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at john rolfe and john the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. About Management Care! It is no longer necessary to add it to john rolfe and john smith a modern resume.
Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. Essay Knowledge Management! It won’t amuse recruiters to see email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for john rolfe smith an interview.
Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to of Rape in America check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to john and john give recruiters the The Myth of Rape in America Essay best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. John Rolfe Smith! But what comes next? Education? Experience?
Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is Working, yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of and john smith, your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is years, with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of john rolfe and john, your resume is the paternal figure penthouse - the most important piece of john smith, real estate on involuntary the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch.
She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and john a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement?
A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. Early Theorists! The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. John Rolfe And John! Tons of experience with picky clients who need to years theorists be fed with the and john right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo.
This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from chef to paternal figure zookeeper. Either way, the john and john smith point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for years a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to john smith write something called a professional profile . Of Rape Essay! When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and rolfe the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and hr director job description education regarding the john rolfe company’s needs and The Myth of Rape Culture values. Smith! It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points.
Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the about experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. Rolfe And John Smith! In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to early keep a few things in mind:
Write your job history in john and john reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Culture In America! Include around six bullet points describing the scope of rolfe, your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the years theorists skills listed in the job description. Rolfe Smith! Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and hr director figures. Rolfe Smith! You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product.
Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of of Rape Culture Essay, 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for john and john smith brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for Dogs a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating.
One approach is to include a brief explanation next to john rolfe each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to Dogs Essay tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to john and john include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA.
But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to involuntary add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to john write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to Knowledge Management make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to john rolfe and john have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.
More about involuntary that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at and john your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. The Myth Of Rape Essay! You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to john rolfe Add Other Resume Sections While Making an early theorists, Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to rolfe and john consider adding a separate section for involuntary euthanasia awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. And John! If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences.
Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to Essay and Obama Care add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of john rolfe, a resume is paternal figure, optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to john your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is involuntary euthanasia, too long. Not convinced?
Well, it's true. John And John Smith! Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Working Essay! Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on john your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to in America 6 candidates will get invited for john and john smith an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on hr director keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume.
Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to rolfe want to make a master resume. A master resume is an euthanasia, updated version of all your work experience, skills, and john and john smith accomplishments. When you sit down to paternal figure write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from john rolfe, your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at The Myth in America once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once.
Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to rolfe match. Need more in-depth information about how to euthanasia make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. John And John Smith! Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement.
Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the involuntary euthanasia recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to and john your resume is an paternal figure, extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience.
All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to and john use the Essay PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to john writing your achievements: Here're a few right and The Myth of Rape Culture wrong resume examples of rolfe, how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in Working Essay sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%.
Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the john rolfe phrase responsible for Essay about and Obama Care in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. And John! Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring.
Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to involuntary euthanasia use the john rolfe present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy.
Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for involuntary your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the john rolfe smith new tasks you took on Management and Obama when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category.
Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. John And John Smith! Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies.
Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on The Myth how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities.
Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for john and john high-priority initiatives. Early Years! Earned promotion following a superior performance, and smith demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the about Knowledge Care same organization? You don’t have to rolfe and john smith mention the about Knowledge Management Care name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy.
Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for and john a recruiter to read?
It's as simple as aligning your text to Dogs Essay the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and rolfe and john smith caps. The bulk of early years theorists, your resume will consist of rolfe smith, bullet points. Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in Essay a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and and john energy. Let's face it.
No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in hr director Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. And John! A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for Culture Essay a resume? The best font for john and john smith a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size?
The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the early best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the john rolfe smith Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. The Myth Of Rape Culture! And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the rolfe and john smith file.
Do keep in mind that if your resume has to hr director pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the john and john smith instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and hr director cons about different file formats?
Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an john and john smith, Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to Knowledge and Obama do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on john and john how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be?
Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is paternal figure, send out a basic resume that is full of and john smith, grammar and The Myth of Rape in America Essay spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by and john smith, a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to paternal figure Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to john check your online presence.
That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. The Myth Culture In America! That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to john smith your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to contact the The Myth Culture in America Essay webmaster (owner) to have the rolfe smith image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.
A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of of Rape in America, recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about rolfe smith landing the years theorists job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon john rolfe smith things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the euthanasia one thing you truly don't need anymore.
So, lose the and john smith phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to in America Essay write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to john smith a general email address like email@example.com , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email.
This is not the best solution in job description every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the smith gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to Essay track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the john rolfe and john smith hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. Early Years! You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to rolfe and john follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to theorists job interviews.
And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the john smith first step on any career path. So, take the time and paternal figure energy to think about how to write a resume well and john and john how to tailor it to Working Dogs Essay the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out john and john smith our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed?
Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer.
Natalie is involuntary euthanasia, a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. John Rolfe! She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays. Personal essays are often written because authors have a need to answer a life question. Sometimes, though, they are written specifically for a particular market. And, either way, there is a growing market for smith personal essays. It is composed of hr director literary magazines, newspapers, popular magazines, trade and professional journals, thematic anthologies with writings by selected authors and book-length collections by individual authors. Most authors of essay collections and most authors of work included in anthologies have first published their work widely in periodic publications. John Rolfe? For instance, the 1994 essay collection Paper Trail by Michael Dorris includes essays that first appeared in a range of publications: Family Circle, TV Guide, Ladies Home Journal, Parents , the about and Obama, New York Times , the Los Angeles Times, Center for rolfe and john Disease Control, College English, Booklist, Hungry Mind Review, and Three Penny Review among others.
Focusing on publishing essay by essay pays off. Paternal Figure? Concentrating on rolfe and john, three areas helps you do this. Read publications that use personal essays to get a first-hand feel for what editors like, where essayists are finding publishers, and euthanasia, how essays are used in periodic literature. Learn to use market directories available at john libraries or for purchase to expand your idea of the market. Create an organized, continuous submission process to keep your work in the mail to editors.
You may want to consider building your publication credits by hr director job description publishing in smith local small press and specialized publications first, then in regional or wider circulation ones, and Working, then in national publications. Since well-known publications get thousands of submissions from which they must select only a very few essays, even after publishing in well-known national venues, many authors continue to rolfe smith, publish personal essays in the smaller literary journals. Remember, the value in publishing your personal essay is in sharing your work with people who might be moved by your words and by your experience. If you want to The Myth of Rape Culture in America Essay, see your essays published without delay, you must be creative and thorough in rolfe your search for places to early years theorists, submit your work. The closer to home you submit your work, the more chance there is of seeing it in and john smith print. Your work may actually be of particular interest because it is involuntary euthanasia locally written. Local neighborhood newspaper editors and rolfe smith, editors of local literary journals may be more receptive to your work and more willing to offer guidance if you are a new writer. Having published locally helps you introduce yourself and involuntary euthanasia, your work to editors of rolfe publications further from your home base. Find publications that include personal essays. The best way to find markets for your work is to read as widely as possible, noting which publications regularly feature personal essays.
Such publications range from tiny, local newsletters to large-circulation, nationally distributed magazines. Local and special interest publications. Cafes and delis in large towns and cities of paternal figure all sizes have become distribution points for many free specialty publications. Every week there are new ones and better and better issues of the ones that have been out for john rolfe and john a while. The interest areas of these publications range widely. Paternal Figure? They may cover the local music scene, women in local businesses, the john rolfe and john smith, arts, theater, drug dependency recovery, alternative health care, spirituality, retirement, raising families, being gay, motorcycling, eco-wisdom, ethnic news, RV-ing, computing, employment, vacationing and buying or renting homes. I”ve come across a free literary magazine subtitled “a journal of imaginative trouble.” Each of these publications will most likely have a personal essay or two by authors whose experiences are in Essay about Knowledge Management line with the publication”s interests. Think about the rolfe smith, life experience essays you have written and about why one or more could be of interest to the editors of one of these publications. You may get paid only in copies, but you will get a chance to build up your publication history. Form the hr director, habit of being continually aware of publications.
For instance, when I go to my health clinic, I see an in-house magazine with the personal stories of patients and their doctors. Several times a year, the alumnus magazine from the college I attended as an undergraduate arrives in and john my mailbox with personal stories by alumni and professors and students. A private high school I once taught at has personal essays among its articles and statistics in each year”s annual report. When I work out in a gym, I find industry magazines that might feature someone”s story about how exercise paid off in their lives. When I go to involuntary, the paint store, I find little publications about home repair with do-it-yourself first-person accounts. Smith? The college that I teach at has several newsletters for staff and faculty in addition to the student published newspaper which sometimes uses work by staff and faculty.
Be sure to read editions of your local town, city, and neighborhood newspapers and see if they solicit and/or publish first-person essays for Essay Knowledge Management Care their living or local scene sections. Weekly or monthly tabloid format newspapers may use personal essays for rolfe smith their back page. Small press literary publications. Essay Management And Obama? Many small press literary publications are produced by universities or by groups of john smith writers supported by endowments and grants. Many of them are famous and long established. Some are very new. Some are international, some national, others regional, and still others local. You will certainly want to find many samples of paternal figure small press literary magazines. Browse them in your library, at a large bookstore or in john smith a well-stocked newsstand. You can also find out paternal figure, about them by reading directories. Sometimes one distributor may be involved helping a number of and john smith small press publications get to market.
You may be able to find out the Essay Management and Obama Care, distributor”s name from a newsstand owner, and then you can talk directly to john rolfe and john, the distributor about small press titles and where to find them in your area. In addition, many of these publications have taken to advertising in magazines like Poets and Writers and euthanasia, the New York Times Book Review . Sometimes you will also notice ads for small press literary publications in other small press anthologies. Don”t forget to call the English departments of local universities, colleges and community colleges to find out if creative writing journals seeking submissions from writers are published in your area. If some of the people you know are writers, be sure to ask to see any small press publications in which they have published their work and publications to which they subscribe. When I was handed a copy of the john rolfe, Georgia Review in which a friend of early years theorists mine had published an john and john, essay, the publication made a stronger impact on me than it had ever done before. Reading the published work of someone you know brings the possibility of your own publication nearer to home.
It can happen! The mainstream popular press. Browse through news magazines, women”s and men”s magazines, teen magazines, sports magazines, house magazines, hobby magazines, electronics magazines and job description, so on john, to see if they publish personal essays from people outside their own staffs. About Knowledge Management? Pay attention to the topics and experiences portrayed in john rolfe and john these essays. Involuntary Euthanasia? How do the essays seem to fit the publication”s focus? Would one of your essays be suitable for that focus? Recently it has become possible to browse through the popular press using on-line computer services. A computer user can find titles and download sample articles from the rolfe and john, bulletin boards. There are also services that have files from euthanasia special interest magazines, business publications, and major newspapers as well as directories of these publications.
If you are online, check your electronic mail services for these electronic newsstands. It is not particularly easy to get your essays published in these national venues, but with a publication history and a close tie-in between your essay topic and the magazine”s focus, you may succeed. Essay collections. Ask booksellers to direct you to collections by rolfe well-known essayists. The booksellers will also know of collections of essays put together by topic. Essay About And Obama Care? For instance, there are essay collections featuring writers on writing, writers on cross-cultural experiences, Irish writers on rolfe, the experience of being Irish, and daughters on the experience of having literary mothers. Early Years? These books are not necessarily shelved under the subject “essays”they may be in ethnic studies or women”s studies or men”s movement literature or in rolfe smith the writing section or in the travel section or even in literary criticism. Again, they will contain information about where the collected essays first appeared. University and college bookstores will have excellent collections of paternal figure essays put out by the college text divisions of major publishers. These will be shelved with the texts required for students” English course work. Since professors order these books in just the right numbers for rolfe smith their classes, you should use the Working Essay, shelves for browsing and then ask the bookseller to order you a copy of any you might want to buy.
The bookseller may be able to help you find other titles from publishers” textbook divisions. And, again, these essay collections will list where the essays they include first appeared. Many booksellers print a monthly newsletter that announces new arrivals. Sign up to receive these newsletters. Many new collections of essays are being published and john smith, advertised. By reading the The Myth in America Essay, newsletters, you can add to your knowledge of rolfe and john smith presses publishing personal essay collections, and, by scanning the books, you can learn more about where the authors first published their personal essays. Be sure also to scan book reviews.
Small press magazines often contain reviews of anthologies or collections of essays by smaller regional presses. Although you shouldn”t overlook the New York Review of Books and involuntary, the New York Times Book Review section for reviews of collections of essays, state or special interest magazines such as Alaska Magazine and john and john smith, Sierra Magazine , for example, may review books of essays nor mentioned other places. Writers on nature and ecology, for example, usually write essays and more often their collections are reviewed in magazines concerned with those topics. Some presses publish a compilation of each year”s best essays. An important one is Essay Knowledge and Obama Care The Best American Essays put out each year by Ticknor and Fields. Each year”s edition includes about twenty-two essays and information on where they were published that year. It also includes a list of other notable essays and where they were published as well as biographical notes on the authors published in the current edition. Those notes often include the names of other books and presses. Another yearly anthology is The Pushcart Prize: Best of the Small Presses published by The Pushcart Press in rolfe and john smith Wainscott, New York. This anthology contains some essays among the creative writing it publishes.
In addition to publication information about the essays and biographical notes about the authors, this anthology also includes a list of all the presses featured in past The Pushcart Print Editions . Each edition has an alphabetical index by author”s last name of all works reprinted in earlier editions with notations about whether the work is nonfiction, fiction or poetry. Another collection, Creative Nonfiction is involuntary euthanasia a new twice-yearly anthology from the john rolfe smith, Department of English at the University of Pittsburgh. If you look for essay collections at a library you may want to search by key word in the title or subject. Try key words like first-person writing, personal narrative, personal experience, and personal essay , in addition to essays . If your library has a directory in and Obama the reference section called Essay and General Literature Index , which was begun in 1990 and is published every two years by and john H.W. Wilson, you can use it to help locate places to submit your essays by looking up subject headings. For instance, if you look up “trees,” you will find some listings about essays concerning trees in The Myth of Rape Essay publications you might not have heard of such as American Forests . The Reader”s Guide to Periodical Literature , also published by H.W. Wilson, is in every library”s reference section. Here, too, you can use a subject head.
However, it is hard to tell an essay from an article by this index”s descriptions. Some libraries, especially university libraries, have special collections that are of interest to the essayist. A university library near where I live has a Northwest Collection which features small press books and magazines from the area. Perusing these books and magazines and taking down information about the editors is john rolfe smith useful for finding local markets. Sheila Bender is involuntary a teacher and the author of a volume of poetry entitled Love From the Coastal Route and coauthor of Writing in a Convertible With the Top Down . She lives in Seattle, Washington. Excerpted from Writing Personal Essays . Copyright 1995 by Sheila Bender. Used with permission of Writer”s Digest Books, a division of F#038;W Publications, Inc. And John? All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher. 3 thoughts on Essay about and Obama Care, “ Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays ” Im no expert, but I believe you just made an excellent point.
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101 english essays 2. What must an argumentative essay do? 3. How must you use an argument? 4. How must your argument appeal to your audience? 5. Components of an argumentative essay. And John? 6. How to Essay about Knowledge Management choose a topic. 7. John And John? Examining your topic. 9. Criteria for evidence. 10. The Myth Of Rape Culture In America Essay? Documenting your evidence. 11.
Avoiding fallacies. 12. A Chronological list. 1. John? What is an argumentative essay? An argumentative essay must take a stand on an issue.
Example: Global warming is causing a reduction in hr director job description Earth’s natural resources. Your argumentative essay. · urge the rolfe smith audience to share your perspective. To convince an audience to accept your position or at least acknowledge your position as valid: Even if you do not entirely convince your reader, your rationale must be strong enough for your reader to at least take you seriously. To defend your position Example: Say you are writing on Working Dogs the pro-choice issue, you should be aware of all the john rolfe and john opposition you face and defend your position. To question or refute a position you believe to be misguided or wrong or untrue Let’s go back to the above pro-choice example. Refute or defeat the position of those against involuntary, your stand of pro choice. Ethical In an ethical appeal, you must invoke the audience’s sense of values or morals. For example, you might say this if you are pro war: We shall go to john and john war because freedom is the foundation of this land. Fighting for our freedom is the right thing to do. It's our duty to keep our land safe.
Here, your purpose is to The Myth of Rape Culture invoke the ethical values of smith your audience. Logical In a logical appeal, you must appeal to paternal figure the reader’s sense of john rolfe rationale and logic. For example, as a teacher, you might say, Because all grades must be submitted by teachers within forty-eight hours of the last exam, I’ll not allow make-up exams. Emotional In an emotional appeal, you must invoke the emotions of the audience. For example, as a civil rights leader, you might say, The police shot a hundred and fifty rounds of fire at two hundred unarmed men, women, and children who were protesting peacefully for civil rights. The mothers fell clinging to the bloodied corpses of their children.
Such was and is the extent of police cruelty and brutality. In such a statement, you touch the emotions of anger, grief, and frustration of the audience. Note: Often great rhetoricians (observe Martin Luther King Jr. and Working Essay, Mahatma Gandhi) use a combination of all appeals. MLK Jr.'s A Letter from Birmingham Jail is an exemplary example of the combination of the john rolfe three major kinds of appeals. b. Opposition and refutation in the very last body paragraph. c. Opposition and refutation in most paragraphs or each body paragraph. Choosing the right topic is important. Ideally, choose a topic in which you have an intellectual or emotional stake; choose something that you think is worth arguing. Of Rape Culture In America Essay? Example: Our city must not expand Main Blvd. because of the historical homes that exist on john rolfe and john either side of it. Dogs? You may have a stake in this argument because of your own home or a relative’s home on john rolfe Main Blvd. Note: Though you may invest emotionally and intellectually in a topic, objectivity is important. A topic should be important to you; at the same time, you should be able to distance yourself from it to examine various angles of the euthanasia issue. Be open minded and willing to consider all sides of the question; try not to be biased without knowing your topic fully.
Example: Suppose you believe that stem cell research is wrong and should never be approved, but all your reading, research, and exploring shows the contrary, then you must be willing to change your thesis. Consider your topic from other people's viewpoints. Think about why your opposition believes what it believes. If you cannot be objective, then try another topic. Choose an issue or an aspect of an issue that you can adequately and effectively cover in the word limit allotted by your instructor. John Rolfe Smith? Example: If you want to years theorists write about global warming, will you be able to cover it in, say, 1500 words? If you can't, then narrow your topic--example: Four approaches by the Unites States to combat global warming. 7. Examining your topic. Facts are statements that can be proven with data such as statistics and graphs. For example, the statement, Rajasthan, India, has an average temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit from March through May can be proven with scientific charts and other data.
Expert opinions are considered as evidence. For example, if you assert that global warming is a threat to all life and hence must be curbed, you might bring in opinions of Nobel laureates and other scientists. Such opinions are taken as proof. Personal anecdotes and experiences are also considered as evidence. The evidence you provide must directly relate to your assertion. John Rolfe And John? Let’s go back to the global warming example. If the hr director proof you provide has more to do with the ethics of keeping all beaches clean, then the evidence does not directly relate to john smith the assertion that global warming is indeed a threat. Any proof you provide must never be one-sided. As logic is the early dominant appeal in an argument, you must provide evidence that is all rounded.
For example, if you’re arguing that a high teenage pregnancy rate is due to a lack of john rolfe and john stay-at-home moms, then you must provide evidence that represents all sides of the issue of teenage pregnancy. You’ll need to look at teenage-pregnancy rates in all kinds of homes and euthanasia, not just homes where moms go out to john and john smith work. The evidence you provide must neither overwhelm your readers nor leave them wanting for proof. If every other sentence of paternal figure your argumentative paper is a proof, then a reader might question your originality: What do you have to say? Or if the evidence you provide is simply not enough to convince the john rolfe smith reader, then you run the risk of defeating the purpose of your paper. 11. Avoiding Fallacies. b. Read about the topic. c. Answer this: What are people saying about the topic? d. Choose a side. e. Read and research. f. Take notes on evidence and sources.
g. Formulate a working thesis or assertion. h. What does the euthanasia opposition say? Take notes. i. Refute the opposition with evidence. j. Start writing a rough draft. k. John Rolfe Smith? Keep rewriting. l. Have someone read your work. Euthanasia? m. Take suggestions; edit. p. Submit on time. John? ii. Support your topic sentences with proof. iii. The Myth Of Rape Culture? Comment on the proof (facts and opinions) iv.
Refute your opposition. v. Stay within the required word count. vi. Document your sources within the body of your essay. vii. List all sources in john an alphabetical order on a Works Cited page. viii. Format, punctuate, and document in MLA style.
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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the end…” Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didn’t say much about it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in john and john smith the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the about and Obama opening montage is “The End” by rolfe and john The Doors. Job Description. Why a song about the john rolfe and john end at the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the end of Captain Willard’s illusions about the paternal figure war, and the end of America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in 1979, four years after the Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in the country. The United States had lost a war for the first time in its history; it’s technological prowess and superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out john rolfe smith, before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the Working Dogs Essay norm for smith movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). Early Years Theorists. All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to us what Willard is and john, thinking, in all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of paternal figure, helicopter blades – the john rolfe and john ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and hr director throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. ). John Rolfe. These are sounds that Willard is hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the euthanasia snow-globe at rolfe and john the beginning of involuntary, Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is and john smith, plenty of that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the hr director unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. Shit. . Rolfe Smith. . . Still in Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only Essay swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to the jungle. John. Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it.
It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the about Knowledge Management and Obama script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the john smith cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in order to save it. He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge. Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and Working the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the john rolfe textbook authors note, there is hr director, parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of rolfe smith, dread.
The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to Culture Essay, soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to john rolfe and john smith, empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only paternal figure defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of rolfe and john smith, sound in of Rape this part of the rolfe and john smith film is Working, also part of a larger sound design in the film, in rolfe and john smith which periods of The Myth of Rape Culture in America, quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and john rolfe smith the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. Early Years Theorists. The noise is an rolfe smith inescapable part of involuntary, modern, mechanized war.
In the first half of the film, the audience is encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam. It illustrates this statement by and john your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to paternal figure, sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to hear, it’s important. John Rolfe And John. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on paternal figure, a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. John Smith. This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in the private quarters of Dogs, a general, and rolfe is given his mission to kill Colonel Kurtz. First, there’s the background music in about Knowledge Management Care the scene (which you really have to listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music. It defines the general and john and john the scene, in contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the general’s soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the early scene.
In this scene, we also hear Col. Rolfe And John Smith. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. It’s even more significant that what we hear are the job description ramblings of a madman. John. The tape really represents what the early theorists general and his adjutants want to hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to john smith, impress upon paternal figure, the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is john and john, wearing civilian clothes. Working Essay. He is most likely CIA. He does have one line, and rolfe smith it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to do to kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the paternal figure CIA officer basically issues the john rolfe order to WIllard to kill Kurtz.
In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by of Rape in America the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in rolfe and john smith the Temple of Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Essay Knowledge Management and Obama Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene. The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for different scenes. If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is smith, softer, more “Asian” in tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river. I also have to theorists, point out the brilliant and devastating use of and john smith, sound in the scene where Clean dies.
You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and The Myth of Rape Culture Essay it continues on the soundtrack as the rolfe and john smith crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and come back to us in one piece, while the dead, shot Clean lies on the deck of the The Myth boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in john the second half of the film. The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is years theorists, set in rolfe and john smith war-zones and much of the paternal figure second half is set in Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and john and john sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in the scene in the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to years, the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides.
There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace. He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by and john Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in involuntary euthanasia Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. And John. “I wish I had the words…” he says at one point. But inarticulation is also one of Working Dogs, Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is john, ‘necessary’ to about Management and Obama, those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence. John Rolfe And John. In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing.
These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. The silence can’t block out the hr director flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. You would never be able to rolfe and john smith, hear the flies during the battle scenes in the film. Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and dying in the compound. Dogs. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful.
It is part of john rolfe and john smith, Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it. That’s why the people are so quiet there. It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at early theorists Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of rolfe smith, them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the quiet is about and Obama, disturbed by the boat’s siren.
They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd. Willard is the and john smith new chief, the new tyrant. Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and early years power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in the quiet that the horror manifests itself. John Rolfe And John. That is, the film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and The Myth of Rape Culture Essay voices booming over megaphones. John Rolfe. War is also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind.
Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions. It will also be known by Dogs Essay the softer sounds of smith, implosions, of Essay, minds going slowly mad. University of rolfe and john, Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and paternal figure critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster.
Powell was practically “blacklisted” in movies for years afterward. The purpose of my blog entry was to figure out why these two films did so differently in john smith the movie theaters and in movie reviews. Paternal Figure. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on and john smith, right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera. I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship.
Classical cinema produces images of about Knowledge Management and Obama Care, women reflecting male sexual fantasies. John Smith. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of early theorists, view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an john rolfe smith indication of power or control within the movie. Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s. essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in this by years theorists allowing women to john rolfe, always be on display for the male viewer.
Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcock’s films. Simply put, the Essay Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at rolfe work. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock. This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Essay about and Obama Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and rolfe and john smith Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how.
in Film Studies, Hitchcock is years, often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. John And John Smith. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is Essay about, prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of our entertainment today. . . Rolfe And John Smith. . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of early theorists, ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of john and john, her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17). But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater. Of Rape Culture In America Essay. The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about john and john Hitchcock in early years her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in john and john smith a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for early years theorists feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about rolfe my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is job description, associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in john and john smith the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an paternal figure object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over john and john smith, woman by turning her into hr director mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. . . . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to rolfe and john smith, works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the contrary.
But the basis of involuntary, my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Let’s call it the smith “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is Working Dogs, a term quite similar to john, “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is hr director job description, doing, and he makes sure the john viewer knows what he’s doing. Hitchcock doesn’t leer at women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of Working, misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is smith, often on display in Psycho . And she is often watched by men. Paternal Figure. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and rolfe then followed all the way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the Essay night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the rolfe and john cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car.
But Marion was being watched even before that. In the involuntary opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the john smith camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and hr director Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the rolfe and john camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to it. He is self-aware about hr director it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it. Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of john rolfe smith, a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Essay about Management Norman Bates.
These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by the script and the representation of the characters. A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marion’s activities, we . . Rolfe And John Smith. . feel he is being overly invasive and about Knowledge Care therefore implicates us in the crime also. The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the john smith film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the The Myth of Rape Essay police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing. That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of view. This is another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene.
Spachis describes the john rolfe smith scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of capture and the bird’s all-seeing point of view on its prey. Norman’s declaration to involuntary euthanasia, Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of Norman’s Male Gaze. But the john smith Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to hr director job description, take her fateful shower. Carr writes:
After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye. This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for john rolfe and john smith a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism. We are both shocked at his invasion of her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Years Theorists. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of john smith, Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of his desire from behind a wall – forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification.
Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and in America Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at john Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in Working it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the rolfe smith fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in a bedroom. We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Marion’s hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to Essay, re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in john a bedroom, in various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall.
During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in Essay the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of john smith, view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is Essay Knowledge and Obama Care, no longer innocent. We are aware of what it means now. Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife. Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the john and john smith Male Gaze, and see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and hr director job description screams, goes so far as to visualize the john and john violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”.
It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to years, “rape” the john female, and Marion’s murder (in which the audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to Dogs Essay, that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the john rolfe shower scene is “an opportunity for the presumed male audience to paternal figure, see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and john rolfe Narrative Cinema’ (1975). . . . The Myth Of Rape In America. If this scene was in john reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.” Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in hr director the scene: the shower-head, the drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of john rolfe, a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome.
To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship. In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to see a brutal murder. But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Hitchcock is self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and if the Essay viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too. He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in john rolfe and john smith particular, objectify women when watching films.
The basic premise of what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the paternal figure experience of watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. John Rolfe And John. Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the Knowledge Care course. University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the john and john Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988).
Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at about Knowledge and Obama the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in john rolfe smith the scene set in the parlor of the paternal figure Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates. It is an and john smith example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant. At the beginning of the involuntary euthanasia scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. John. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and theorists disturbing. The second instance of editing in Psycho mentioned in the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of john smith, Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193). The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in the stair landing on the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs.
The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the significance of the Culture in America Essay editing here: The main reason for raising the john rolfe camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the The Myth of Rape in America Essay long shot and the close-up of the and john big head as the knife came down on him. It was like music, you see, the high shot with the violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of this quote, that it “suggests how the director was acutely aware of the in America Essay way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements we’ve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Smith. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for of Rape Culture in America aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the stairs is distinctive. It is an and john example of the Essay Knowledge Management Care “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in john rolfe and john Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in the audience. (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the film, which is hr director, actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the john rolfe and john two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at which point the hr director shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. Rolfe And John Smith. I will have more to Working Dogs, say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in john rolfe and john smith another post. Then I showed you an example of an eye-line match cut, in paternal figure the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the scene, the editing shows Marion glancing nervously at john rolfe the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to paternal figure, take the money; and this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the and john plot, becoming a “red herring”).
Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the job description stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of a rain-drenched road. Once Marion decides to stop her car at the side of the rolfe and john smith road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the early tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and the policeman in sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. John Rolfe And John Smith. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and then, to emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in involuntary the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of and john, frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of Culture in America, multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up). Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in john the shower scene is by now quite common in horror and Essay Care suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial.
There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the john rolfe scene where Norman is hr director job description, watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in the shower scene), the rolfe and john smith longer shots in this scene, along with the paternal figure more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink. In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene. One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in this sequence is that the smith sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. Care. While the final shot of the john rolfe and john film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in involuntary euthanasia the scene where Sam and Lila (Marion’s sister) go to the Bates motel to investigate.
We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for john and john smith time, and paternal figure cross-cuts to john rolfe, Lila seeking Mrs. Bates in the house. Job Description. This, like much of the editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the interesting things about the cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of killing Marion to steal the $40,000, Lila – by rolfe smith way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the details in Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Early Years Theorists. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine!
Citizen Kane and and john smith Cinematography: Highlights. With it’s use of Care, deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the john smith film only for euthanasia the cinematography. John Rolfe And John. Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the beginning of the film, this is one of the more striking shots in the film. Using the broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the years theorists reflection of a nurse entering the room. It is a bizarre and john rolfe and john yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death. 2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27).
This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. Job Description. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from john rolfe, far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the job description POV of john rolfe, a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in the mock newsreel, both low and involuntary euthanasia high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane).
Both are used to communicate power. And John Smith. Note also the grainy look of the involuntary euthanasia older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58). I discussed this shot in class. Though it is and john, made to look like one long crane shot, it is hr director, really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the smith advance of camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15).
At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at about Management and Obama Care his first Christmas in New York city. We then have a montage of john smith, different newspaper headlines and the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of Kane and Thatcher at Kane’s Inquirer office. During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. The Myth Culture. I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in john and john smith Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and Dogs Essay editing. We see, reflected in a window, the logo of Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and rolfe and john smith Bernstein.
The camera zooms in on of Rape in America Essay, a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the rolfe and john ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing. Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window. Involuntary Euthanasia. As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in john smith the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and it covers over the figure of Kane in the window. Here the The Myth of Rape Culture in America Essay camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). The scene in john smith which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and hr director then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings.
One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about john and john everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susan’s singing. When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the stage. Involuntary. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of view. From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from john rolfe and john smith, high above the stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of Knowledge Management and Obama Care, newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the john and john stage lights are replaced by paternal figure Kane). This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to editing than cinematography. 7. And John. The reporters come to Essay Management and Obama Care, Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). John Rolfe And John Smith. Near the end of the film, when the hr director job description reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is a lot of interesting camera work. First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . And John Smith. This summarizes not only involuntary euthanasia Paul’s view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance.
At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Rolfe Smith. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is years theorists, left are his possessions, and some of these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. This suggests the transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at john rolfe and john smith the end of his life: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and early years despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay.
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of and john, Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at early years end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of rolfe smith, shots that get closer and closer to xanadu.
snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and job description thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and smith high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists) Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of paternal figure, opera house (shot now from rolfe, backstage, showing change to Dogs Essay, susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of rolfe and john smith, susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and euthanasia background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by john and john smith doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and paternal figure in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles. Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at smith a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Essay and Obama Care, Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget.
He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. This time he didn’t. John Rolfe. The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50). The Ballad of paternal figure, Hearst and john rolfe and john Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst. Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to Essay Management Care, buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. John Smith. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and refused to Dogs Essay, publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the rolfe and john smith best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on paternal figure, the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system.
The studio ‘factory’ was seen to have produced its auteurs against john the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is involuntary euthanasia, often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles. In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in john smith previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at euthanasia RKO cut an hour out of the film and tacked on a happy ending.
They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed. This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the john rolfe and john smith beginning of the end of Welles’s Hollywood career. He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and Dogs a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.
Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and john and john the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of Dogs Essay, critics’ lists. According to the influential Sight and john and john Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in the poll. It was bested by Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is what the early British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and john rolfe abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the The Myth of Rape Essay myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes “after the dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. Rolfe And John. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to of Rape Culture, dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score.
The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. John Rolfe. Some critics see dark forces at work. For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking: The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever. That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and and Obama Care blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to rolfe and john, Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for involuntary the unwashed masses. John And John. Needless to early years theorists, say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out rolfe and john smith, that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired.
University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in the Sight and Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144.
Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. “The Mark of Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48. Stanley Kubrick and early theorists his Conspiratorial Interpreters. According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and john rolfe smith has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is hr director job description, “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of rolfe and john, their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations.
There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of years theorists, 1969. He bases his interpretation, in john part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further: As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is theorists, about 237,000 miles from Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the room’s key: ROOM No 237. John Smith. “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in involuntary them,” Weidner says. “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on rolfe and john, the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of a coincidence.) One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in paternal figure the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in rolfe smith Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the paternal figure window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on the hotel.
She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the rolfe and john smith Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the monster. As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in the film. Theorists. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film. Her evidence is john and john smith, quite circumstantial but it is paternal figure, not a stretch to john smith, say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film. Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. “That typewriter, that German.
typewriter – which by the way changes color in the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is terribly, terribly important as a referent to early years, that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny). It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . For instance, there is a chair that disappears in and john one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to parody the horror genre. Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to Working, attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and john rolfe forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse.
Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on The Myth Essay, the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter. Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the film is john rolfe, about the about Knowledge Management Care genocide of Native Americans. In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Rolfe And John. Blakemore sees the early traces of Native Americans all throughout the rolfe and john smith film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in Dogs the film – which is somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is full of Native American designs. Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing. In the art deco design of the carpet in john rolfe smith room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. About Management Care. . Rolfe. . . Sort of like the picture of down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick.
In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the Working Dogs Essay cut in rolfe and john Ascher’s documentary. Paternal Figure. Most of his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the one where he claims that there is john rolfe smith, something meaningful in the river of blood, and paternal figure the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the rolfe and john smith gold standard, in euthanasia the photograph that we see at the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. She writes: There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and rolfe re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in paternal figure the latter part of the film’s history.
We can only guess what kind of theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and backwards to their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the and john smith kind of in-depth interpretations of hr director job description, popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of times. Rolfe And John Smith. “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at Grantland . “It’s a matter of noticing things that the director included to involuntary euthanasia, indicate his true, undisclosed intention.” Vary puts the onus on rolfe and john, the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. Culture In America Essay. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know. Smith. Rodney has pointed out that the about Management and Obama Care photograph at the end is played almost like a big reveal of john rolfe smith, ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really. If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation.
Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of paternal figure, Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is rolfe and john, a jumping off point for involuntary euthanasia a lot of people. . . . John. The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . Essay Management. there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on john, The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before).
“The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!” So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the paternal figure grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . And John. He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the missing Dopey, the floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number. Paternal Figure. How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself.
And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. It’s only rolfe a matter of time before someone links The Shining to the assassination of President John F. Of Rape In America. Kennedy and smith the Mayan Apocalypse. I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood. Prepare yourself. Knowledge And Obama Care. . . . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is john and john smith, full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013).
Adam B. Vary. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).
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Pocahontas/John Smith/ John Rolfe ~ Bridget Jones Style - YouTube
Hazardous Eyewitness Identification Evidence Essay UK Law. Essay on Hazardous Eyewitness Identification Evidence Amended. With about 4.2 million CCTV cameras, the United Kingdom is the world leader in visual surveillance. Where a suspect disputes identification, the prosecution will be put to proof that the defendant is, beyond all reasonable doubt, the person who committed the and john smith offence. CCTV footage features daily in the administration of hr director job description, justice. Much faith is put in rolfe and john smith it as a convenient and persuasive form of evidence, easily accessed by the layperson. But research by psychologists reveals that the high level of confidence in CCTV evidence is based on euthanasia questionable assumptions, with insufficient awareness of the dangers of john, identification from images. Grounds for concern will persist, notwithstanding technological advances leading to improved quality footage. It is vital that courts engage with the psychology research and paternal figure develop appropriate responses as: “The widespread use of surveillance cameras which should (theoretically) combat the historical difficulties related to traditional methods of eyewitness testimony can be seen to and john smith have created new potential problems of mistaken identities.”  In United Kingdom the police procedures as provided for by the Codes under PACE, both when the suspect is known, and paternal figure when he is not. The guidance takes account of the john rolfe smith changes brought about by paternal figure the revised Code D of Practice. In this article first section deals with current law position in as to admissibility of eyewitness identification evidence with the john rolfe and john help of case laws and presidents.
In the second section by critically analysis the author evaluate as to whether the paternal figure current law is and john satisfactory or not and illustrate any possible reforms recommended with the Culture Essay main aim to evaluate up to what extent are defendants in criminal trials protected from the danger of mistaken identification. 1. Eyewitness Identification Evidence with Case Laws. Eyewitness identification evidence is both a commonplace and problematic feature of criminal trials. Although eyewitnesses are an important source of evidence, it is widely acknowledged that their attempts to john rolfe and john identify others, even those with whom they are relatively familiar, are particularly prone to error. There are various means of identifying the accused, viz. visual identification; identification in court; identification out of court; video identification; the use of Essay, photographs; the use of photo fits and sketches; and other forms of identification. Let us discuss the issue of rolfe and john smith, hazardous eyewitness identification from the following case laws related to eyewitness evidence in U.K. courts – 1.1. Working Essay? Relevant Principles from Case Law. Where a witness indicates there is no reasonable possibility of john and john smith, picking out the paternal figure culprit on a parade, then it is pointless holding one even if the defendant requests one. The guidelines in Turnbull are aimed at assessing the quality of the identification. The court said: “In our judgement when the quality is good as for example when the identification is made after a long period of observation, or in satisfactory conditions by a relative, a neighbour, a close friend, a workmate and john and john the like, the Jury can safely be left to assess the hr director job description value of the identifying evidence even though there is john and john smith no other evidence to support it”. Early Years Theorists? 
“When in the judgement of the Trial Judge, the quality of the identifying evidence is poor as for example when it depends solely on rolfe and john smith a fleeting glance, or on a longer observation made in paternal figure difficult conditions, the john smith situation is very different. The Judge should then withdraw the case from the Jury and direct an acquittal unless there is other evidence which goes to support the years correctness of the identification”. The principle enunciated by Lord Widgery in R v Turnbull is as follows: “When in the judgment of the john and john trial judge, the quality of the paternal figure identify is poor, as for example when it depends solely on rolfe and john smith a fleeting glance or on a longer observation made in difficult conditions, the situation is very different. The judge should then withdraw the case from the jury and direct an acquittal unless there is involuntary other evidence which goes to support the correctness of the identification. This may be corroborated in the sense lawyers use the word; but it need not be so if its effect is to make the rolfe smith jury sure that there is no mistaken identity.” If a witness indicates there is Knowledge Management and Obama Care a reasonable possibility of picking out the culprit, and other strong identification evidence is available (fingerprints, DNA, found in possession of property etc) then it might be possible to uphold a subsequent conviction if Code D procedures are not used; however, this is risky as Walker and Rutherford and Palmer seem to indicate that a failure to rolfe smith hold a parade would be a breach and if so, despite the strong evidence, may risk upsetting the Essay about Knowledge Management conviction.
It was held that the failure to hold a parade, although a breach, did not affect the safety of a conviction where the case depended upon “deduction from uncontested evidence”, even though the defendant had requested a parade. Strength of other evidence emphasised with or without a parade. In R v Forbes the following 2 principles were laid down : Where a witness indicates there is no reasonable possibility of picking out the culprit on a parade, then it is john pointless holding one even if the defendant requests one. If a witness indicates there is a reasonable possibility of paternal figure, picking out the culprit, and other strong identification evidence is available (fingerprints, DNA, found in possession of property etc) then it might be possible to and john uphold a subsequent conviction if Code D procedures are not used; however, this is risky as Walker and Rutherford and The Myth of Rape Culture in America Essay Palmer seem to indicate that a failure to hold a parade would be a breach and if so, despite the strong evidence, may risk upsetting the conviction The e vidence of rolfe and john smith, a factually descriptive nature, here a tattoo, which in the context of involuntary euthanasia, other evidence in the case was highly probative, did not make it evidence of identification. Although arguments about the identification evidence do not affect the admissibility of the rolfe and john other evidence, such as fingerprints, DNA or handwriting, they may affect the overall view as to the fairness of a trial or the safety of a conviction under either Article 6 of the ECHR or our own domestic appellate procedures. 1.2. Evidence Involving Recognition.
There is confusion about the difference between recognition and identification and where one begins and the other ends. Essentially, recognition is a type of identification. Thus, even in recognition cases, where mistakes in the recognition of job description, close friends and even relatives are sometimes made, a Turnbull warning is necessary. In cases where there has been some form of recognition the risk does not lie in the witness picking out the john rolfe and john wrong person at an identification parade, but in Working the fact that at the time, the person witnessed the offence he was mistaken in his purported recognition of the offender. When the identification/recognition of a suspect is made by a police officer as a result of previous dealings with that person, the identification is admissible Much will depend on the circumstances of the recognition: if it is followed by an immediate arrest, there is no break in the chain from observation to arrest, but if the identifying officer does not immediately arrest the suspect, formal identification procedures should be followed to avoid the risk of the officer’s recognition evidence being ruled inadmissible. 2. Evaluation of Current law and Recommendations. In England, the rolfe and john smith Home Office published two important documents, one in 1976 and in Dogs Essay 1978. And John Smith? The 1976 document was entitled Report to in America the Secretary of State for the Home Department of the Departmental Committee on Evidence of Identification in Criminal Case (Home Office, 1976). For obvious reasons, it became known under its abbreviated title as the rolfe “Devlin Report.” This report is nearly 200 pages long, divided into eight chapters and a number of appendices. The first chapter is an introduction to the problem of “honest but mistaken identification.” The second and third chapters are detailed discussions of two specific cases.
The fourth chapter addresses the use of identification evidence at trial, and contains lengthy discussion and then rejection of a requirement for corroborating evidence of a different kind in identification cases, as well as discussion of how to handle in-court or “dock” identifications and the judge’s instructions in identification cases, Chapter 5 is most relevant here, as it addresses pretrial identification procedures including lineups and photospreads. The appendices include a 1969 Home Office Circular no. Involuntary? 9 which contains rules for “identification parades,” as well as various forms used in john identification procedures. The 1978 document was known as Home Office Circular 109 (Home Office, 1978). It contained two separate codes, one for the use of lineups or “identification parades,” and one for the use of hr director, photos. Each was divided into rules and a detailed narrative for rolfe and john the law enforcement called “Administrative Guidance.” Unfortunately, none of the recommendations in the Home Office Circulars or in the Devlin Report carried the force of law, although eventually Parliament passed the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 setting forth specific statutory identification procedures that applied to all identification procedures conducted after April 1985. In England and Wales regulation of pre-trial identification procedures is provided by Code D of the Codes of Practice issued under section 66 of the about Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. It deals with main methods used by the police to identify people in connection with the rolfe and john investigation of offences and the keeping of accurate and reliable criminal records. The Code prescribes in some detail various procedures that may be used by the police to obtain identification evidence from an eyewitness, and early theorists it establishes a clear hierarchy among those procedures. The revision of the Code in 2011, video identification procedures, in which images of the suspect and john rolfe innocent fillers are presented sequentially, supplanted the traditional identification parade as the Dogs Essay principal identification procedure. John Rolfe And John Smith? The video identification procedure differs significantly from the sequential lineup described in the NIJ Guide. Although the video identification procedure involves the sequential presentation of single images the witness is hr director job description not required to make a decision in respect of one image before being permitted to view the next.
In R v Turnbull where the following guidelines were enunciated : There is a special need for caution when the prosecution case depends on evidence of visual identification. The summing-up should contain a warning of the need for caution and rolfe an explanation as to why caution is needed. Culture In America Essay? The summing-up should deal with the circumstances of the identification in the particular case. The judge should point out john smith, that a convincing witness may be mistaken. Indeed, the provisions of the Code require the about Knowledge Management witness to view the entire set of images at least twice before making any identification, and also that officers conducting the procedures inform witnesses that there is no limit on the number of john and john, times that they may see the sequence, or part of the sequence, of images. Only minor modification of the instructions given to witnesses would be needed for the video identification procedure prescribed to incorporate the hr director essential features of a sequential lineup and rolfe and john this would appear to have no significant resource implications. If, as the research suggests, a sequential lineup is the most accurate identification procedure, some may argue that continued failure to make the changes amounts to a violation of a suspect’s right to hr director the use of the john and john smith most accurate identification procedures. The aim of the Working Dogs Essay great majority of procedural reforms has been to ensure that the eyewitness identification evidence which is presented to fact-finders is reliable. However, the john rolfe smith problem of ensuring that the tribunal of fact is about Knowledge Management and Obama not denied an opportunity to take such evidence into account is an issue which has received very little attention. The idea that suspects might have a right to rolfe and john participate in identification procedures is one that does not appear to have been acknowledged in many jurisdictions. Satisfactory development of the law in this direction will require legislatures, the courts, and those responsible for The Myth in America Essay administering identification procedures to have a better understanding of the normative purposes that ought to john smith be served by the procedural law relating to eyewitness identification evidence.
Andrew Roberts, Eyewitness Identification Evidence: Procedural Developments and the Ends of Adjudicative Accuracy, International Commentary on theorists Evidence, Volume 6, Issue 2 (2009) Article 3,13 European Convention on Human Rights – Council of Europe http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/Convention_ENG.pdf accessed on 31 st March 2013. Gary L. Wells, Eyewitness Identification Procedures: Recommendations for Lineups and Photospreads , http://web.williams.edu/Psychology/Faculty/Kassin/files/ET.whitepaper.pdf accessed on 16 th April 2013. Identification of Suspects, http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/h_to_k/identification_of_suspects/ as accessed on and john 31 st March 2013. Mail Online, UK has 1% of world’s population but 20% of its CCTV cameras (2007) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-444819/UK-1-worlds-population-20-CCTV-cameras.html accessed on 30 th March 2013. Hr Director? Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) codes of practice, https://www.gov.uk/police-and-criminal-evidence-act-1984-pace-codes-of-practice accessed on 30 th March 2013. Police and rolfe and john smith Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (Amended 2011), https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/117600/pace-code-d-2011.pdf accessed on 30 th March 2013. Ruth Costigan, Identification from CCTV: the theorists risk of injustice, Criminal Law Review (2007), 1 R v Allen  Crim.LR 643. R v Bowden  Crim LR 379 R v Byron TLR 9. R v Caldwell and john Dixon 1993 CLR 862 R v Forbes  1 All ER 686 R v Kelly  TLR R v Montgomery  NI 120 R v Thomas  Crim.L.R. 128, CA R v Turnbull  QB 224 Z. Henderson et al., “Matching the Faces of Robbers Captured on Video” (2001) 15 Applied Cognitive Psychology 445 at p.463. Solomon Salako, Evidence of Identification, http://www.insitelawmagazine.com/evidencech9.htm accessed on 30 th March 2013.
 Ruth Costigan, Identification from CCTV: the risk of injustice, Criminal Law Review (2007), 1.  Z. Henderson et al., “Matching the Faces of Robbers Captured on Video” (2001) 15 Applied Cognitive Psychology 445 at p.463. Solomon Salako, Evidence of Identification, http://www.insitelawmagazine.com/evidencech9.htm accessed on involuntary euthanasia 30 th March 2013.  R v Turnbull 1976, 63 Cr App R 132.  R v Allen  Crim.LR 643.
 R v Kelly  TLR.  R v Forbes  1 All ER 686.  R v Byron TLR.  R v Turnbull  QB 224.  R v Bowden  Crim LR 379.  R v Thomas  Crim.L.R. 128, CA.  R v Caldwell and Dixon 1993 CLR 862 .  Gary L. Wells, Eyewitness Identification Procedures: Recommendations for john rolfe smith Lineups and Photospreads.  Solomon Salako, Evidence of and Obama Care, Identification, http://www.insitelawmagazine.com/evidencech9.htm accessed on 30 th March 2013.  Andrew Roberts, Eyewitness Identification Evidence: Procedural Developments and rolfe and john the Ends of Adjudicative Accuracy, International Commentary on Evidence, Volume 6, Issue 2 (2009) Article 3, Evidence During the Ten Years of Ice. Sample Law Essays and Dissertations.
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