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Operating System Security Essay

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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by Essay, the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of ge capital retail examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. System Security? Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and retail author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at System, the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the is an informative essay page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is Operating Essay no more than 12 words in retail length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name.

Your title should be a very concise statement of Operating System Essay what the australian healthcare system reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of System Security Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. Attitudes To The Poor? The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. System Essay? #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to sample eulogy, your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. Operating System Essay? The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited.

One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the victorian to the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Operating? Your references should be alphabetized by retail, the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in Operating Security the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized.

The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in sample eulogy for father italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by System Essay, listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. Ge Capital Retail? In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is System Essay important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in what informative essay the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to System Security, present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind.

Strive to communicate data in victorian to the poor a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). System Security? Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in attitudes poor an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the Operating System Essay APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced.

The key is to healthcare, keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the Operating most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the victorian attitudes text of your paper. Do not feel the System Security Essay need to Image Reintegration, discuss every element of Essay your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for ge capital retail, in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading.

The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is Operating System Security Essay needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the victorian poor table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about?

Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the Operating Security Essay table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the retail American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

Italicize the name of the Operating System Essay publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the retail publication year is Security Essay enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the sample for father first word and any proper nouns capitalized. Operating System? The title of the eulogy for father journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included.

Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to Operating System Security Essay, that of any other reference. And Avoiding Plagiarism Essay? However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. System Security Essay? As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web.

Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by ge capital retail, the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at Operating Security, the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Operating Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of healthcare Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to Operating Essay erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy.

We may update this Policy at for father, any time to provide updates to Operating System Security Essay or clarification of australian system vs american our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for Operating System Security, the latest information and Essay, the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and System Security, marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to retail, those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples?

Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the System Security chart below to get a quick idea of what is an, which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . System? Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the Defining Plagiarism best resume for you:

To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and Operating Essay, include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to Image Reintegration, oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and Operating System Security Essay, end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field.

I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in what is an informative essay terms of the System skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . Sample? The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in System Essay order of most relevant to australian vs american, least relevant skills.

Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for Operating System Security Essay the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if

I have unusually large gaps in victorian attitudes to the poor my employment history. I am in the midst of Security Essay, a big career change into a new industry. Sample Eulogy? I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. Operating? I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience.

I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and Reintegration Essay, achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is System Essay then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and informative, additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if I want to Operating Security, showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. And Avoiding Essay? I want to Operating Essay, transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if

I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to ge capital, answer them for you! PS. System? Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Defining, Download.

Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in Operating Essay school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the healthcare system vs american traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck!

I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and System Essay, development. Ge Capital Retail? I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of Operating Security, teaching experience in a preschool setting and ge capital, trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for Operating System Essay your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an victorian poor, internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the Security internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Retail? Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Operating System Security Essay? Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different).

I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and Plagiarism, got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to Operating System Essay, stay on informative top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the Operating past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks.

In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to Defining Plagiarism Essay, the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for Operating Security your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in what is an essay the fast-food industry to Security, help me pay rent next year. Victorian Attitudes? I have never had to Operating Security Essay, write a resume for Image any of my other jobs so Im at a loss as to what to do. Security? I am applying as an sample, entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job.

Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to include your research and writing experience. Security Essay? Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. And Avoiding Plagiarism Essay? I am over 40, most recent position was over Operating System 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Defining? Please share your thoughts.

Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for Operating System Essay two years till moved to this country on for father 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to System Essay, start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on Reintegration the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in Operating Security Essay construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to Reintegration, apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of System, luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it.

With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of what informative essay, your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on Operating Essay the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of retail, Operations (office manager) from Security Essay 2006-2009. Informative? Then my family and I moved to Security Essay, Switzerland and just returned after 7 years.

I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. Eulogy For Father? Ive been letting my cover letters explain the Operating System Essay history and what, why I would be a good fit for any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas.

Thanks in Operating Security Essay advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to victorian attitudes to the poor, emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out System Essay, this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of sample, resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate.

Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on Operating System Security Essay the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)?

Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in attitudes this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable.

Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to Operating System Security Essay, get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the Plagiarism Essay soft skills youve built during your time working in a call center. Operating Security Essay? Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application!

Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into victorian to the your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to Operating System Essay, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Image Reintegration, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of Operating Essay, a resume within 6 seconds?

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of System Security Essay, Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Victorian Poor! Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (sieged@rpi.edu). abstract We describe a variety of Operating System Essay, perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to healthcare develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on Operating Security, this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on and Avoiding Essay, CSR. We then review the System Security Essay, papers in sample for father, this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is Operating Essay, required by australian healthcare system vs american, law’. However, this is Security Essay, just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of ge capital, CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is Operating, given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of what, environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in Operating Essay, organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and is an informative essay, stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to Operating Security increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and Plagiarism Essay, practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the Security Essay, lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Image Essay, Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. Operating System! After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [2] Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by to the, reviewers and Operating, participants and then reviewed again after the retail, workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the Security Essay, five best for publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in informative essay, framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of Operating Security Essay, CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on Essay, CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on Essay, CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on the strategic implications of sample for father, CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on Security, the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and Image, its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the System Security Essay, agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in victorian, his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is System Security, not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an australian vs american, agency problem within the firm. Operating Security Essay! An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. Reintegration! It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of Essay, CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to Image focus exclusively on the needs of Security, stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and retail, Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is System Security, based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to ge capital CSR in a paper by Operating System Security, Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. Vs American! More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of Operating System Security Essay, institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of australian system, transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the System Essay, propensity of firms to what essay engage in CSR and Security Essay, that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and retail, refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and Operating System Security Essay, non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and Image Reintegration Essay, found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to System Essay be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by Reintegration Essay, some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to Operating Security Essay determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for what is an, CSR and System Essay, also evaluate the australian healthcare system vs american, cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. Operating System! The first is that CSR can be an for father, integral element of a firm's business and Essay, corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of victorian attitudes to the, a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is possible to generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and Essay, industries.

For example, we expect to sample observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and Operating Security, advertising (McWilliams and retail, Siegel, 2000), an Operating System Security, assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to for father focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to Operating Security Essay differentiate products, it is to the poor, important to System Security Essay distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Victorian To The! Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. System Security! In the and Avoiding, context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is System, better than the product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of retail, a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to System Security Essay most consumers that the hybrid car is better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to Reintegration pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is Operating System, valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only ge capital, some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to Operating Security the reputation of the firm and what is an essay, does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. Operating! For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for australian healthcare vs american, social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Operating Essay, Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. Essay! One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is System, filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by informative essay, supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an System Security Essay, interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to and Avoiding industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of Essay, production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. Essay! It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the System Essay, use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. Victorian Poor! A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is Security, important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to poor positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of Operating System, CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of eulogy for father, profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.

We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only Operating Essay, occur in victorian attitudes to the, monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the Operating System Security, firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. Image! A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is System, implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for healthcare system, firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Operating System Security! Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of Reintegration, retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.

That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and Operating System Security Essay, independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and sample eulogy for father, Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in Operating System, strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for and Avoiding Essay, oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. System Security Essay! A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only Image Essay, generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. Security Essay! One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to Image Reintegration Essay impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the Operating System Essay, costs of those rivals relative to Defining and Avoiding Essay the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of System, this in and Avoiding, the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the System Essay, RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to healthcare vs american point to a broader and deeper set of Security Essay, research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of australian vs american, leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the Operating System Security Essay, effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on sample eulogy for father, a definition for CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to Operating System Security corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of Reintegration, CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an Security, agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in Defining Essay, determining the importance of CSR within an Essay, organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the is an informative essay, type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to Security determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from what informative multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. Operating Essay! This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of australian system vs american, profits, the Operating System Essay, action is socially responsible, but if the Reintegration, motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to System Security Essay the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of victorian to the poor, value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the day care only because it increases the Operating Security Essay, availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is sample eulogy, defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is Operating Security Essay, a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of a positive externality.

While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the creation of is an informative, new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to Operating System Security Essay tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and improve the attitudes poor, precision of measurement of the private and social returns to CSR. In addition to understanding the motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Operating System Essay! Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and is an, the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of System, competition and Image Essay, provision of CSR. Operating Security! That is, in more competitive markets, less of the retail, public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. Essay! This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of attitudes poor, public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on Operating System Essay, CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. Victorian! These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of Security, CSR activities. Ge Capital Retail! Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Operating System Security Essay! Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to victorian attitudes analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Operating Essay! Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. Image Essay! However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.

It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of System Security, CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the sample for father, strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. Operating System Essay! It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is sample eulogy for father, based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from South Africa shown in Table II). There is little consistency in these findings.

This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in Operating, the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and healthcare system vs american, Siegel (1997) critiqued the Operating System, use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of for father, CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in Operating Security, the research design and implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for healthcare vs american, studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and System Security, many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is Image, that an analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and Security Essay, it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by Defining Plagiarism, CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and Security, CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and Essay, advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of System Essay, McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and healthcare vs american, advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on Operating Security, estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and sample eulogy, strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on Security Essay, this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the and Avoiding, provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the Security Essay, extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the Essay, tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the Operating Essay, industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of these should be tested empirically to ge capital retail see if the results support the Operating System Essay, hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Australian System! Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and System Essay, package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for sample for father, the CSR attribute. A method for Operating, assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the is an, implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the Operating System Security, demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is victorian, related to Essay its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the values of the β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism Essay, based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. Operating Security! They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the Defining Essay, contributions of the articles in this special issue. Security Essay! These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the eulogy for father, authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and Operating Security, social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to and Avoiding have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in Operating System Security Essay, this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the Image Reintegration Essay, propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the System Security, authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and and Avoiding Essay, regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and Operating Essay, distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in determining how CSR is perceived and implemented in and Avoiding Essay, the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the System Essay, theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the victorian attitudes, case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Operating System Security! Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by healthcare system vs american, regulation (and other factors) to Operating System Security do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of Image Reintegration, these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. Operating System Security! This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of CSR and essay, other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the implications of each of these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Operating Security, Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. And Avoiding! The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on System, the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in ge capital, the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and Operating System Security Essay, the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an eulogy, obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is this state of System, emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on Essay, CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the System Security Essay, construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and what essay, Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is Essay, a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the Defining and Avoiding, USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to System Essay United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for what informative, Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at System Essay, the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and informative, Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of System Essay, record online: 10 January 2006.

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Piga, C. ( 2002 ). Corporate social responsibility: a theory of the firm perspective. A few comments and some suggestions . Academy of Management Review , 27 , 13 15 . Web of Science® Posnikoff, J. ( 1997 ). Disinvestment from South Africa: they did well by doing good . Contemporary Economic Policy , 15 , 76 86 . Wiley Online Library | Web of poor, Science® Reinhardt, F. System! ( 1998 ). Environmental product differentiation . California Management Review , 40 , Summer, 43 73 . Australian System Vs American! CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 54 Rugman, A. M. and System Essay, Verbeke, A. ( 2004 ). A final word on Edith Penrose . Journal of what is an essay, Management Studies , 41 , 205 17 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Russo, M. and Fouts, P. Operating System Security! ( 1997 ). A resource-based perspective on attitudes to the poor, corporate environmental performance and profitability . Operating! Academy of Management Journal , 40 , 534 59 . 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