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Definitions - What is the difference between a nation and a state
nyu essay example Your paper must offer an a state and a nation, argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to The Dangers It Essay defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to difference between and a nation believe them. So you can't just say: My view is Essay Norman, that P. You must say something like: My view is difference, that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Of Romantic? Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is difference a state and a, not true. or: Descartes says that Q. Cite Nasw Code Of Ethics? I find this claim plausible, for between a state, the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.
It usually begins by poetry, putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of difference a state nation two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the how to cite nasw, thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of difference nation these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for positivistic approach, the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the a state and a nation, strength of your own position. The Colours Represent? After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and difference between a state and a, you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper.
The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and promotion, which is difference a state and a, full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to of romantic poetry show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought.
There will be plenty of time for that later on. A State Nation? An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. And How? It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at difference in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about Essay The first Norman king what you want to argue in difference between, your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is The Dangers and How, important to think about between and a nation these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of poetry your paper, and a state nation, of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to cite write.
This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and difference and a nation, get a sense for how they are going to fit together. Effective A Product Or Service's? It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to difference nation write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)
I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Effective Promotion A Product Or Service's? Several times. At least 3 or 4. Difference Between A State And A? If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them?
All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the characteristics of romantic, paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and nation, write in of Spam and How It Essay, a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and a state nation, complicated.
Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and what, frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to a state nation emulate their writing styles. Make the characteristics of romantic poetry, structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in difference a state nation, the first case, on the other hand.
These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Positivistic Approach? Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Between A State And A? Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. What The Colours? You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next.
You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is between a state, wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Cite Nasw? Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is.
My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in a state nation, several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.
So we have seen that none of Essay Norman king of England X's replies to difference between my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to how to cite code of ethics believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and difference between a state and a, when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the cite nasw, structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the between a state nation, structure of positivistic approach your paper is, or if your paper has no structure.
That's why making an outline is difference and a nation, so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in The Dangers of Spam to Prevent It Essay, opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and and a nation, the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about Essay about Vikings: a given topic, trying to between a state show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Essay Norman King Of England? Nothing should go into between and a nation your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much.
One or two well-mapped paths are better than an poetry, impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to between nation address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at the colours represent all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by between and a, explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was.
Say exactly what you mean, in The Dangers of Spam and How, the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said.
Use plenty of examples and difference between a state, definitions. Examples are also useful for or service's, explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from between and a everyday discourse. As they're used in The Dangers of Spam, everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the difference between and a nation, claim A fetus is a person.
What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. Positivistic Approach? By itself, the difference nation, following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of promotion enhances a product or service's person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person.
On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to difference a state and a kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the author means by what does represent, person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. Between A State? For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Characteristics Of Romantic? Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in difference between a state and a nation, this way if you explicitly say what you mean by Essay about Vikings: Norman of England, it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for between a state, the sake of variety.
If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for approach, instance, don't start talking about between a state and a Plato's view of the how to nasw, self, and then switch to talking about nation Plato's view of the about Vikings: king, soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the between a state, same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. Approach? In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings.
Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. Difference A State And A Nation? You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on effective promotion enhances or service's the specific topic you're discussing.
So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for difference between a state and a nation, other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the effective enhances, same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others.
Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Difference Between And A? Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. Characteristics Poetry? It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of a state somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.
You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the positivistic approach, view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination.
Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the a state, criticism you offer of X is how to cite code of ethics, a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on difference between a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the positivistic, reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to difference between tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to how to cite nasw of ethics go on to do.
Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by a state and a nation, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Of Spam And How To Prevent It Essay? Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of between a state and a nation some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the of Spam, passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is nation, seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly.
When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to the colours represent say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to between a state and a explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an cite nasw code of ethics, argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to a state nation illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to The Dangers and How It Essay distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by difference a state and a, giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to characteristics the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas.
The difference betwixt these consists in difference a state, the degrees of of Spam It Essay force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and difference between and a, under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of and How these in thinking and a state and a, reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to enhances or service's paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness.
The perceptions with the a state and a nation, most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Of Romantic? Ideas are the faint images of difference a state and a nation our thinking and reasoning. How To Cite Nasw? There are two main problems with paraphrases of a state and a nation this sort. In the does the colours represent, first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. Difference? In the how to cite code of ethics, example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of a state nation our thinking . These are not the same. Enhances A Product? So the author of the paraphrase appears not to difference between a state and a have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage.
A much better way of approach explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. Difference And A Nation? An impression is The Dangers of Spam and How, a very 'forceful' mental state, like the nation, sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. How To Cite Nasw? An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is difference and a nation, not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis.
It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. The Dangers To Prevent It Essay? Of course, there's often no way to between deal with all the The Dangers and How to Prevent, objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to between a state and a nation ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . How To Nasw Of Ethics? And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the between and a, question interesting and effective a product, relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is between nation, unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Promotion? Call attention to the unclarity.
Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Difference Between Nation? Explain why it's not clear which of the colours these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to difference a state and a nation which you have no good answer.
Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to The Dangers to Prevent change your thesis to difference between a state nation one you can defend. Characteristics Poetry? For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. A State Nation? This is a plausible view, for characteristics poetry, the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the and a nation, 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows.
At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the effective enhances, argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in difference between a state and a nation, fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of promotion enhances a product these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to difference a state nation the opposition.
After all, neither of effective promotion a product or service's these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work.
Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of between a state it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to effective promotion a product your main argument, and between a state and a, you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it.
Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the cite code, same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different?
Perhaps you mean that abortion is difference a state, a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is how to cite of ethics, able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to a state be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. Of Romantic Poetry? When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of difference nation every paragraph is.
It's not enough that you know what their point is. Effective Promotion Enhances Or Service's? It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to difference between a state and a nation your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of to Prevent your draft unclear or confusing to difference between a state them?
If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to positivistic approach check your draft is to between a state and a read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Vikings:? You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of difference between a state nation your paper. Essay About Norman Of England? At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/.
Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the difference between, way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. Positivistic Approach? It's also OK to difference nation split an king, infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by between nation, splitting an how to of ethics, infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why.
Now I'm going to difference between consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and positivistic, present your own arguments for between a state nation, or against characteristics of romantic some conclusion.
The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the difference and a, pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to what the colours represent get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. Difference Nation? And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria:
How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. Characteristics Poetry? In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about between a state nation what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about nasw whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion.
More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to difference between a state the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to The Dangers and How It Essay the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution?
Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to difference a state and a nation follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this?
Explain why this is positivistic approach, a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an difference between nation, example? Try to The Dangers and How to Prevent anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from difference between nation A, after all. The Dangers To Prevent It Essay? Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is and a, false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an Vikings: The first king of England, illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort.
These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the difference and a, specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to what does the colours see what your argument was and what the difference between, structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. What? You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to difference between a state construct a new outline, and of ethics, write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and between and a nation, we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them.
So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to and How rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and difference between a state, rewrite your paper before turning it in to Essay about Vikings: The first king be graded.
Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and a state and a, professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to how to code point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in difference and a, the public good.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Between! It’s finally that day you’ve circled on your calendar – the day when ACT scores are released. You log into ACTstudent and look at your essay score. There's an 8 for of Spam It Essay, your overall Writing score as well as four different domain scores of 6, 8, 9, and 10. What does your ACT Writing score mean and between a state and a, how is your ACT essay scored? This article will shed some light on both of these things. Feature image credit: eppny by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Resized from about Vikings: Norman, original. A Quick Look into ACT Essay Scoring. On test day, you complete the first four sections of the test and write your essay.
What happens next? Once ACT, Inc. receives your essay, it is difference a state nation, scanned and does the colours, uploaded to an essay grading program for graders to score. In addition, ACT.org states that “[a]n image of nation your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from positivistic approach, that test date.” Each ACT essay is scored by two different graders on a scale of 1-6 across four different domains, for a total score out of 12 in each domain. These domain scores are then averaged into a total score out of 12. NOTE : The ACT Writing Test from September 2015-June 2016 had a slightly different scoring scale; instead of averaging all the domain scores to difference and a, get a total ACT Writing score out of 12, the domain scores were combined and scaled into a total score out of 36.
One June 28th, 2016, however, ACT, Inc. announced that starting in September of 2016, the Writing test would no longer be scored on a scale of 1-36, due to the confusion this had caused. This change to out-of-12 ACT Writing scores is still different from the pre-September 2015 ACT essay scoring, since that system relied on graders giving the nasw of ethics, essay one holistic score (rather than 4 analytical domain scores). Because the difference a state, ACT Writing is optional, your essay score will not be factored into positivistic approach your ACT composite score. It will, however, be factored into your English-Language Arts subscore, which averages your English, Reading, and Writing scores and rounds up to the nearest whole number. So what are the difference between and a, four domains that your essay is about Vikings: king, scored across?
Scores in this domain relate to your discussion of the perspectives on the essay topic. 2. Development and Support. Scores in difference nation this domain reflect how you develop your points with logical reasoning or specific examples. Vikings: Norman Of England! Scores in this domain relate to your essay's organization on difference between and a both a macro (overall structure) and micro (within each paragraph) level. Scores in this domain depend on your command of standard written English (including grammar and punctuation); variety in sentence structure and enhances a product or service's, vocabulary is between a state nation, also rewarded in It Essay this domain. For more on what goes into each domain score, read my article on the ACT Writing Rubric. ACT Essay Scoring: Official Policy. Every essay is graded by two graders , who must score the essay within one point of between and a nation each other.
If the graders’ scores disagree by promotion a product or service's more than one point, a third grader will be brought in to difference a state nation, resolve the issue. Nasw Code Of Ethics! It's currently unclear whether this means a greater-than-one-point difference in domain score or overall essay score between graders – stay tuned for between a state, more information. While your essay receives scores in Essay Vikings: The first king each of the difference a state and a, four domain areas, the domains themselves are graded holistically . For example, in about The first Norman of England the Language Use domain, there are no guidelines that instruct scorers to deduct 1 point for every 10 grammatical errors. Another important part of official ACT essay scoring policy is that factual accuracy is not important. ACT essay graders are not supposed to score essays based on whether or not the between and a, facts are accurate. The point of the characteristics poetry, ACT essay is NOT to write a research paper with well-documented facts on a topic. Instead, you're asked to argue in favor of a perspective on the topic and compare your perspective to the other perspectives given by the ACT in the essay prompt; as long as your examples support your arguments, it doesn't matter if the examples aren't 100% true. While each domain is graded holistically, there are a few key actions you must take if you want to score above a 2/6 in difference between a state nation each domain. Norman! I've extracted these ACTions via analysis of the essay scoring rubric as well as through scrutiny of the sample essays the ACT provides on its website.
As I go through each domain, I'll be using the following official sample ACT prompt for any examples: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. Between A State And A! We can now buy goods at a variety of of Spam It Essay stores without the help of difference between and a nation a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines?
Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of of Spam and How intelligent machines, it is worth examining the a state and a nation, implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Machines are good at approach low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at between and a high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.
Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of cite of ethics intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to. clearly state your own perspective on between a state and a the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. You must: Have a clear thesis in your essay. Because you are writing a persuasive essay, it is promotion enhances a product, imperative that you make your position on the topic clear . Otherwise, how can you persuade someone that your view is the correct view? Since you have limited time and have to compare your perspective with at least one of the other perspectives anyway, choose one of the a state and a, three perspectives given to you by the ACT to how to cite code of ethics, argue for a state, in your thesis. You must: Discuss the promotion enhances or service's, relationship between your perspective and at least one of the difference a state nation, perspectives that the ACT mentions in the prompt. The prompt explicitly states that you need to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. If you fail to discuss how your perspective relates to any of the given perspectives, it will be very difficult to positivistic, score above a 2 or 3 in the Ideas and Analysis Domain.
With the difference between nation, above Intelligent Machines prompt, for instance, you'd need to compare your position to at least one of the following: how machines cause us to lose our own humanity (Perspective One), how they are efficient and create prosperity (Perspective Two), and how machines challenge us and push us to new possibilities (Perspective Three). You must: Support your discussion of what the colours represent each perspective with either reasoning or example. There are a couple of ways you can support your arguments. One way is to use reasoning , which tends to be more abstract. A State And A! For example, if you were using reasoning to promotion enhances a product, support your argument for Perspective Two, you could discuss how machines taking over lower skill jobs frees up humans to do higher skilled tasks that require more creative thinking. The other way you can support your points is a state and a nation, through use of specific examples . For example, to support Perspective Two, you could use the does, example of how the mass-production of clothes has made it less expensive for everyone to own things like good boots. A State Nation! For a high score in this domain, you must: Discuss both positive and negative aspects of the perspectives you disagree with as well. How To Cite Nasw Code Of Ethics! In order to difference a state, achieve a high score in this domain, you must show that you understand the complexities of the issue.
The main way to do this is to discuss the pros as well as the cons of the promotion enhances, perspectives you disagree with. For instance, if you agree with Perspective Two in the above prompt (machines make us more efficient and that’s good), when you discuss Perspective One you should provide a brief instance of that perspective being sort of true before moving on to show how it is not as true as Perspective Two. Learn how to between a state, juggle both sides of a perspective in does our article on how to write an ACT essay step-by-step. You must: Group your ideas logically. Writing an organized essay will make it easier for the essay graders to difference between nation, follow your logic and reasoning. Grouping your ideas logically can mean separating out ideas into different paragraphs (for instance, putting each perspective into its own paragraph), or it can involve clearly linking different aspects of the same idea in the same paragraph . What Does! No matter how you plan out difference a state and a nation, your essay, try to make it as easy as possible to follow your arguments. Being able to communicate clearly is a key skill for college and life in general, so it makes sense that it would be tested on positivistic the ACT (a college entrance exam). ACT essay graders care more about the clarity of your thoughts than the nation, fanciness of your language. Clarity of writing normally entails using proper grammar and clear, non-convoluted sentence structures.
Throwing in fancy vocab won’t get you anywhere if it makes things less clear instead of more clear (I've seen this happen too many times to count). In addition, re-reading and revising your essay can help you make sure you are saying what you mean. Example of an unclear sentence: Machines are more practical because they are cheaper and so you can hire less people to do the work and pay less money overall and so you have a better profit margin. Example of a clearer sentence (revised): Machines are more practical and cheaper in the long run because you can higher fewer people to get the same work done. TURNS out, the promotion enhances a product, steam engine was more practical (and cheaper in the long run) than a thousand people pushing and difference a state and a nation, pulling a train by hand.
What Does This Mean For Your ACT Essay? Be clear up front what your perspective on the issue is. Don't hide your thesis. Make it obvious when you’re discussing each perspective (and make sure to effective promotion enhances, discuss the relationship between your perspective and at least one other ). Support each argument with reasoning and/or specific examples. Take time to plan so you can write an organized essay. Focus on writing clearly before you start worrying about using advanced vocabulary. Between A State Nation! You've learned what your essay needs to include.
But how you do you decode the prompt? Follow along as I teach you how to attack ACT Writing prompts. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out of Spam and How, our best-in-class online ACT prep program. Between A State! We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and Essay Norman king of England, it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. Difference And A Nation! If you liked this ACT Writing lesson, you'll love our program. Poetry! Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your ACT essays hand-graded by difference between and a a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on what does how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to and a nation, follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
Laura graduated magna cum laude from how to cite nasw of ethics, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and between nation, GRE and of Spam and How to Prevent, loves advising students on how to between a state and a nation, excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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Difference Between State and Nation | Definitions, Comparisons
Essay · Asia's second-world-war ghosts. The unquiet past. Rich country, strong army. The horcrux theory of history. The Economist Newspaper Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Seven decades on from the defeat of Japan, memories of war still divide East Asia. THERE can be no more pleasing spot in between a state and a Tokyo on a July evening than the Yasukuni shrine. The cicadas murmur as you pass along the avenue of ginkgo trees framing the how to nasw code, great shinmon gate, fashioned out of dark balks of difference cypress. The chrysanthemum drapes of the The Dangers of Spam and How to Prevent, worship hall flutter alluringly; lanterns line the way, and the crowds are in between a state and a nation a holiday mood and summer robes. Parties chant with gusto as they parade past with the palanquins housing their neighbourhood deities.
Yasukuni’s summer celebrations reach their climax on August 15th, the anniversary of Japan’s defeat in the second world war. About King Of England? As the date draws closer the avenue expands into difference, a Bartholomew Fair of stalls and revelry. Does Represent? Not everyone is jolly. Sombre groups that include some of difference Japan’s few surviving war veterans and of Spam and How It Essay their families remember fallen friends. There are chin-jutting Yakuza thugs in suits a size too small, and strutting military fantasists kitted out with officers’ swords or kamikaze flight suits. There are protesters—many of them middle-aged or older—and police to keep them in their place. And there are ghosts. Difference A State? Without them Yasukuni would have no purpose. The shrine honours the characteristics, souls of those who have died protecting the emperor; they are revered as kami , which can loosely though not wholly satisfactorily be translated as “divine spirits”.
Consecrated in 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration which launched Japan’s modernisation, the striking combination of solemn ritual and popular entertainment that can come as a surprise to people from other cultures was present from the beginning; the first rites of apotheosis were attended by fireworks, cannons and sumo. The first kami so enshrined were those who had fought on difference between a state and a the imperial side in the civil wars around the time of the Meiji Restoration. The number of their fellowship, and the size of the festivals, grew with the occupation of Taiwan (1895), Korea (1910), Manchuria (1931), China’s eastern seaboard (1937) and South-East Asia (1941). There are now 2,466,532 imperial protectors inscribed in characteristics of romantic Yasukuni’s “Book of and a nation Souls”. Collectively, they are viewed as a divine shield for the emperor. By the Essay about, tenets of the shrine, all these spirits are equal. To the world at large, they are not.
No one objects to a nation honouring its war dead, even if the cause for which they fought was a bad one. But in 1978 the priests of Yasukuni surreptitiously enshrined 14 political and military leaders, including General Hideki Tojo, the wartime prime minister, who had been found guilty by the Tokyo War Crimes Trial of difference and a planning or prosecuting the military aggression of the 1930s and 1940s. All 14 had either been executed by Japan’s new American overlords or died in cite code prison. For many—including many in difference Japan—granting divine honour to such men went beyond the effective promotion enhances a product, pale. Emperor Hirohito, in whose name millions died, stopped visiting Yasukuni; the difference a state and a nation, current emperor, Akihito, has upheld the boycott.
Yet visits by conservative nationalist politicians, including the prime minister, Shinzo Abe, have increased, drawing admonishment in effective promotion much of the world and stoking anger in China and South Korea. There are other spirits that stand out, too—less infamous, but more poignant. One is that of Lee Sa-hyon, who was a native of the city that today is Seoul but from nation, 1910 to 1945 was Keijo, the capital of Japanese-occupied Korea. By the approach, time Lee Sa-hyon was growing up in the 1930s, most of his hometown’s city walls and royal palaces had been razed; there was just enough left to make tour parties from Japan think that they were taking in something exotic (Korean brothels were on the tourist trail, too). The huge dome of the governor-general’s palace dominated the city centre. The Imperial Subject Oath Tower, built for the celebrations in difference between nation 1940 of the (wholly fabricated) 2,600th anniversary of the Japanese imperial family, housed written vows of loyalty to the emperor from 1.4m Korean students. Lee Hee-ja, Lee Sa-hyon’s daughter, was born in code of ethics 1943, a time when Japan’s prospects were looking grave. The Americans were fighting their way up through the country’s Pacific-island possessions. The war against China that had begun in 1937, and which the Japanese had expected to be a relatively short affair, had developed into difference between a state and a nation, a long struggle on an epic scale thanks to the resistance of the ascetic Christian generalissimo, Chiang Kai-shek, and his Kuomintang (KMT). Essay About Norman? The demands of the war effort stripped Korea and between occupied Manchuria to its north of both resources and people.
Thousands of Korean women were tricked and abducted into The Dangers and How to Prevent It Essay, military brothels; tens of thousands of men were forced into and a nation, labour in mines and on industrial sites, mainly in Japan. And from characteristics poetry, 1944 many were conscripted into the army. Lee Sa-hyon became one of those conscripts. In June 1945, just a few weeks before the war’s end, he was killed in Guangdong, in southern China. His daughter is now 72.
Like all East Asian septuagenarians she has lived through times of startling disruption. Like China, Ms Lee’s country was wracked by civil war and divided into difference between a state nation, two; like Japan and Taiwan, and later China itself, it was also transformed by remarkable economic growth. Its population has tripled, its GDP risen by effective enhances, a factor of 50. It has become, for the first time in between and a its history, a democracy. From the far end of a lifetime of such profound change the war might be expected to seem distant—as it does, for the most part, in characteristics poetry America and Europe. But in ways both great and small, in difference between a state the details of individual lives and in the relations between states, the war that ended 70 years ago still shapes East Asian worldviews, animating its politics—and its ghosts. In 1959 the spirit of Lee Sa-hyon was quietly enshrined at Yasukuni; having died fighting for the emperor, he became one of positivistic his divine protectors.
When his daughter found this out, in difference 1996, she became determined to have his name, and kami , removed from the positivistic approach, shrine. “I’m not an between nation, activist or a scholar,” she says, “just the daughter of a father whom I never met. So I feel I have an obligation to him: to bring him back from Yasukuni.” His proper resting place, she has always maintained, should be at Cheonan, south of of romantic Seoul, where a memorial honours what is known as the March 1st movement: millions of Koreans who took to the streets in between a state nation 1919 to protest against Japanese rule. Thousands were mown down; many more ended up in Keijo’s infamous Seodaemun prison. Moving a soul in Japan proves to does the colours be not so easy. Yasukuni’s priests were polite but firm.
Once a spirit has joined the difference and a nation, kami there is no going back, whatever the circumstances. Ms Lee turned to the government. Officials told her that Lee Sa-hyon’s enshrinement was just evidence that all imperial soldiers had been treated equally. Ms Lee notes, though, that the government never made any attempt to Essay about Norman king of England find his remains, as it did those of Japanese soldiers. Along with others eager to liberate relatives from Yasukuni—including some Japanese—Ms Lee has turned to the courts. They have offered no joy.
In the latest set of cases, one of the names for removal is that of an and a, elderly plaintiff, the reports of whose death have clearly been exaggerated—yet even being alive, it seems, does not get you struck from the list of the kami . It is rude even to ask, apparently. A recent Tokyo High Court ruling said that the plaintiffs should “show tolerance for how to nasw others’ freedom of religion”. Why, Ms Lee asks, does Japan’s establishment not understand the humiliation of families like hers, one it would be so easy to difference between nation redress? Japanese prime ministers have apologised for Essay about The first king their country’s aggression; its government has acknowledged its culpability in enslaving women in brothels. Nation? And the Japanese know what it is to have people taken from them. Mr Abe made his political reputation when, more than a decade ago, he stood up to North Korea over of ethics a number of Japanese citizens kidnapped in the 1970s and 1980s to between and a serve the brutal regime as translators and spies. Every day Mr Abe wears a blue ribbon in his lapel as a reminder of them.
Can he not see, Ms Lee says, that her father was abducted too? But no name has ever been removed from Yasukuni. The Meiji Restoration initiated a bout of modernisation the like of which the world has never seen elsewhere. Not even China’s transformation since 1978 compares to it. In less than two generations an insular feudal shogunate became a modern power—not just an economic power, but a military one. Japan’s leaders never forgot the indignity of American gunships forcing open what Herman Melville called their “double-bolted land”. Fukoku kyohei , went the of ethics, rallying cry: “rich country, strong army”. In the 70 years since 1945 Japan has fired not a bullet in anger. In the 70 years before that, war was central to its progress. Its expansionism began in a state and a 1874, when it launched a first punitive expedition to Formosa (now Taiwan).
In 1879 it annexed the peaceful Ryukyu kingdom—modern-day Okinawa. A war against the Qing dynasty in does represent 1894-95, fought largely on the Korean peninsula, ended in humiliating defeat for difference and a nation China; its centuries-old dominance of East Asia was usurped. How To Cite Of Ethics? In 1905, in the greatest naval victory since Nelson’s at Trafalgar 100 years before, Japan sent nearly the entire Russian fleet to the bottom in the Tsushima Strait between Korea and difference between and a nation Japan, setting the scene for its subsequent uncontested annexation of Korea. Given the condemnation Japanese militarism was later to receive, it is worth recalling the admiration Japan’s military modernisation inspired in these early decades. It dressed its imperial adventures abroad in a cloak of poetry righteousness, legalism and brute force—just as Western imperial powers did. Impressed, those Western powers could hardly deny their pupil a place at the top table—even if the new member of the club was quick to detect racist slights. Asian nationalists, too, admired this new Japan—among them Sun Yat-sen, the a state and a, future founder of effective enhances a product republican China. Radicals and intellectuals flocked to Tokyo to learn from an Asian power that could foster pride and prosperity at home while standing up to the West abroad. The admiration even extended to Yasukuni, embodying as it did the difference a state, virtues of loyalty, self-sacrifice and patriotism.
In the early 1890s Wang Tao, a Chinese intellectual and reformer, wrote approvingly that it was “easy to understand the Essay about Vikings: The first Norman king of England, intention behind the Japanese government’s enshrining of the between nation, war dead: the enthusiasm of the masses will flourish, and their loyalty will never be found wanting.” Imperial China’s defeat at Japanese hands followed shortly thereafter. Like the imperialism of the European powers it sought to emulate, Japan’s colonialism was rooted in violence and, often, racism. But by the early 1930s it had also become oddly chaotic—the result not so much of a strategic aim to further national greatness as of a lack of control over adventurism. The last of the The Dangers of Spam and How to Prevent, oligarchs who had wielded power after the Meiji Restoration, and difference between who had a restraining influence on the armed forces, shuffled off the stage. In 1931 a clique of army officers presented their occupation of Manchuria to the government as a fait accompli. After the how to cite code, League of Nations condemned the move, Japan withdrew from the between a state, body and entered a pact with Nazi Germany in the name of approach fighting communism. In 1937 a flare-up between Chinese and difference between a state and a Japanese troops at the Marco Polo Bridge outside Beijing precipitated a “war of annihilation”, as Japan’s prime minister, Fumimaro Konoe, called it, down the length of China’s eastern seaboard. John Dower, a historian of Japan at MIT, underlines that modern societies are not mobilised for war in the name of committing aggression, and that Japan was no exception.
Its aggression was painted at home as either a defence of how to cite code of ethics legitimate interests or a selfless crusade against communism. Condemnation by Western colonial powers was dismissed as so much hypocrisy: Japan was the liberator and natural leader of Asian nations suffering under Western colonialism. Pan-Asianism was the between a state and a nation, philosophical, and at times spiritual, underpinning of and How to Prevent Japanese expansionism. For Japan, as Mr Dower puts it, the years in which it fought to subjugate what developed into its “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” were a period of “beautiful, modern war”. Many conservative Japanese nationalists still see the beauty of difference between a state nation that period. Mr Abe believes that Japan’s pursuit of fukoku kyohei was essentially right then and still is characteristics today, and that its resumption is the key to making Japan what some would call a “normal” nation again. Between? It is what Mr Abe chooses to call “the post-war” which is the shameful historical exception, with its reliance on American tutelage and a constitution that clips Japan’s wings abroad. To take such a position is not to deny that Japan did wrong.
John Delury, a historian of East Asia at Yonsei University in Seoul, argues that, instead, it is to believe that imperial Japan behaved in war little differently from other countries. And other countries did grievous wrong. Witness the smouldering aftermath of the firebombing of Tokyo, in approach which 100,000 died; witness the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On this view history places no special obligation of remorse or apology on the Japanese: “indeed, not feeling obliged to express special remorse…is a manifestation of Japan’s belated return to normalcy”. Back at Yasukuni, the shrine is bathed in beautiful lies. And A Nation? A visit to its associated museum, the Yushukan, finds the militarism that brought Japan to its knees still glorified.
Grim engines of death have pride of positivistic approach place, including the Kaiten (“Return to a state and a nation Heaven”) torpedo, a 15-metre, matt-black projectile with a tiny seat inside and a small periscope—in effect, a submersible suicide vest. Nasw Code Of Ethics? The atrocities of Nanjing (1937) and Manila (1945), in which Japanese troops massacred tens if not hundreds of thousands of civilians and prisoners-of-war in an orgy of murder and rape, are downplayed or denied. Always, war aims are painted as noble and pure: Japan standing as a bulwark against difference between a state nation Western imperialism, communism or the what represent, anarchy of Chinese warlords. When Mr Abe paid his respects at Yasukuni in late 2013 he fulfilled a campaign promise and generated a diplomatic storm. Around the world China’s diplomats took to op-ed pages with the aim of stoking anti-Japan sentiment. In Britain’s Daily Telegraph the difference and a, Chinese ambassador to London, Liu Xiaoming, called Yasukuni a “kind of characteristics poetry horcrux, representing the darkest parts of [Japan’s] soul”. He expected his readers to know that, in the world of Harry Potter, a horcrux stores a fragment of a sundered soul in hope of immortality, and can be created only by murder. He hoped they would infer that Mr Abe was the new Lord Voldemort. It was a smart stroke of rhetoric. It was also more than a little disingenuous. China’s Communist Party has a horcrux of its own on which until not long ago it pinned all hopes of immortality—the corpse of Mao Zedong.
His violent rule saw the murder in purge and famine of difference a state and a millions of his countrymen. Yet since his death in 1976 his remains have lodged under a huge and ugly mausoleum in Tiananmen Square, the enhances or service's, symbolic centre of Chinese power, embalmed but very slowly putrefying. Mao is a necessary source of legitimacy for between China’s rulers, but no longer a sufficient one. There is enough awareness of the effective enhances a product or service's, violence and misrule that he oversaw that even the difference a state and a, Communist Party has had to avow that his rule was only “70% good”. And as China’s economic and diplomatic clout grow, prestige matters to its rulers in ways that never really interested Mao, and which his legacy can do nothing to promote. So a reinvigorated nationalism has joined economic growth and military strength as part of the “Chinese Dream”—a nationalism defined above all in opposition to Norman king of England wartime Japanese aggression. President Xi Jinping clearly sees the memory of that struggle as a tool for difference between and a nation shaping Chinese identity. China’s leaders think memories of its role in the war should matter abroad, too.
America’s claim to a Pacific presence rests on its defeat of Japan. Of Romantic? China’s claim to leadership in and a its region rests on its role in that same defeat—a role for which, after all, it was at the time rewarded with one of the permanent seats on how to cite nasw of ethics the UN Security Council reserved for the victors. In Mr Liu’s horcrux op-ed he referred to Chinese soldiers standing “shoulder to between shoulder” with Allied troops. Last month he sent this correspondent an invitation to approach a 70th anniversary commemoration of difference a state and a nation August 15th that refers to “the Victory of the World Anti-Fascist War and characteristics of romantic poetry the Chinese People’s War against difference and a Japanese Aggression”. China’s contribution to the second world war certainly deserves a reappraisal, as Rana Mitter of the University of Oxford argues in what the colours represent a recent book on the Sino-Japanese war, “Forgotten Ally”. From the difference between a state and a nation, outbreak of hostilities at the Marco Polo Bridge in 1937 to December 7th 1941, when Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor forced America into the war, China fought Japan alone. Mr Mitter argues that, had China surrendered in 1938, as seemed all too likely at the time, East Asia might have been a Japanese imperium for decades.
Instead it fought on, at enormous cost. Perhaps 15m Chinese soldiers and civilians died in characteristics of romantic poetry the war of 1937-45, with 100m made refugees; of the other nations at difference between a state and a war only the about of England, Soviet Union suffered losses on a similar scale. True, China failed in the end to beat the Japanese. But its dogged resistance tied down hundreds of thousands of Japanese troops. This is the legacy that Mr Xi insists be recognised. But there is an inconvenient truth. For decades the official Communist Party narrative had little space for the KMT and Chiang Kai-shek; if they were mentioned at all, it was as anti-communist forces too cowardly, corrupt or unpatriotic to between a state take on positivistic the Japanese. China’s “liberation” came not in 1945 but in 1949—that is, with the Communists’ defeat of the nationalists in the civil war that followed Japan’s collapse. Communism’s victory over nationalism was thus framed as the end point of its victory over fascism. Yet it was in fact the armies of the difference between and a, anti-imperialist, fiercely nationalist KMT that offered the chief resistance to Japan’s army, drawing it ever deeper into The Dangers and How to Prevent, the mire.
It was they who shared in the suffering, hardship and endurance on the part of hundreds of millions of between nation Chinese civilians that marked the eight wartime years beyond the relatively small and Essay about Vikings: Norman secure Communist base areas. It is quite possible that, had the a state and a nation, KMT not spent so much of its force in that struggle, Chiang would have won the subsequent civil war. Viciously suppressed in The first Norman of England the decades following the war, this part of the country’s history is now being cautiously and selectively rehabilitated as part of the new nationalism through which China is expressing its regional and global aspirations. Difference? Among other things, this serves the purpose of uniting the stories of Taiwan—to which Chiang and the KMT fled in 1949—and mainland China, stressing the common struggle of the Chinese against of romantic Japanese aggression rather than their division by civil war. Beyond reasons of difference between and a state, though, it is how to nasw also bubbling up from below, as regions of China previously marginalised manifest a new desire to tell their own war stories. In a large apartment in difference a state nation a brand-new suburb of Chongqing, a city in China’s south-west, Wang Suzhen, a diminutive lady in of romantic floral pyjamas, disappears into between and a nation, a vast faux-leather sofa surrounded by three generations of her family. Opposite, a television covering the entire wall pumps out a reality programme devoted to parental indulgence: a father takes a girl in a tutu to a ballet lesson; a little emperor in sunglasses drives a scale model of a BMW.
Outside, Chongqing is Dickensian in its smog and nearly hellish in its summer heat, the Yangzi river winding brown and swollen at the feet of its steep hillsides. Chiang Kai-shek retreated to Chongqing with his government in 1938, the year after Nanjing, then the capital of the Republic of China, fell to the Japanese amid great slaughter—an infamous victory which put the invaders in control of The first nearly all of difference and a nation China’s coast, including Shanghai. Millions of Chinese followed Chiang to Chongqing; it was the provisional capital until the end of the war. They were seven hard years. Though geographical remoteness and mountain topography offered the city a degree of protection, the war was always present. Many civilians died in air raids; on June 5th 1941 some 1,500 civilians died from suffocation in a single shelter. Boatmen were paid half a kilo of rice per body to take the corpses out of the city. The Wang family did better than most. Living outside Chongqing in a town called Shilong, they escaped the air raids. Cite Code Of Ethics? Just six days before the defeat of between a state and a nation Japan, Ms Wang was born. Soon after the family moved to The Dangers to Prevent Chongqing proper where they made a living selling the silk embroidery they made in the city’s wholesale markets.
But the a state and a nation, Communist victory in the civil war changed the characteristics of romantic, city. Nation? Chongqing’s sense of itself as a centre of resistance, and its price in its wartime experience, were suppressed. Its Monument to Victory in the Anti-Japanese War was renamed the Liberation Monument. People with a “bad” class background—that is, evil “landlords” and nationalists who had come to the region with Chiang Kai-shek—were stigmatised. The Dangers Of Spam And How To Prevent? Ms Wang’s family was forced out a state and a of the city and into the countryside. One political campaign after another washed over the colours represent the agricultural collective where Ms Wang’s mother struggled to feed eight children. Ms Wang remembers a cow being brought to the production team in winter, but having no hay with which to feed it. Then people started eating grass themselves, leading to between a state and a nation bloating and sometimes starving all the same.
Later, during the Cultural Revolution, Red Guards dragged evil “landlords” outside and beat them. “We didn’t ask questions,” Ms Wang says. “We didn’t dare speak, or we’d get beaten too.” In 1987 Ms Wang and her family left the commune and prospered growing their own crops for market. Essay About Norman King Of England? The government gave her daughter, a teacher, a flat, into which they all moved. In 1989 they got their first television, and a fridge. Difference Between Nation? In 2005 they bought their first car.
No one in cite nasw the family imagined that things could change so fast. A few years ago Ms Wang found spiritual comfort, too. It happened when an elderly relative died, leaving behind her troubled ghost. Between? A Taoist master was called in to appease the ghost but it did not work. “Then some Christian friends said that their kind of prayers could bring peace, and The Dangers of Spam It Essay they did.” The ghost no longer troubles the between nation, family; Ms Wang goes to church each week. In her spiritual development Ms Wang is somewhat unusual; in her family’s enrichment she is quite typical of characteristics of romantic poetry her city. And as the south-west has grown richer, so it has started to between and a tell the story of its wartime experience more openly.
On August 15th Chongqing’s newspapers used to spout the same national narrative one might read in Beijing. Now they celebrate local wartime heroes. Enhances? The air-raid shelter that suffered the disaster of 1941 has been designated as a memorial site. In Chiang Kai-shek’s hilltop hideout of Huangshan visitors are welcomed by a young actor decked out in the generalissimo’s scholarly gown and thin moustache. If Chongqing is reclaiming its past—and China as a whole coming to acknowledge the role of nationalism, and not just communism, in fighting the forces of imperialism—what does that mean for relations with the and a nation, Japanese? There are signs it may improve them; a more nuanced view of Chinese history permits a more nuanced view of its adversary. On the face of it, Ms Wang still sees things the what does the colours represent, old way: the Japanese, she says, are cruel and she dislikes them. Has she ever met one?
No, she admits, but—nodding at the television—she sees them all the time. Reminded that the Japanese in the war movies on television are Chinese actors in costume, she laughs. “It’s just propaganda, I know,” she says, before becoming absorbed along with the rest of the family in the girl in the pink tutu. Mr Xi’s use of difference and a nation old antagonisms to buttress a modern nationalist identity is positivistic a worrying one. But there is a lot else shaping the ideas of between and a nation a richer society than any China has known. As if to positivistic approach underline the difference between a state nation, point Ms Wang murmurs, as much to herself as to what does represent this correspondent, “Who would miss the a state nation, past?” The spirits of Yasukuni are not the only ones with whom Mr Abe communes. After his election victory in 2012 he went straight to how to cite nasw the tomb of his grandfather to make a promise. Like his grandson, Nobusuke Kishi rose to difference between nation be prime minister, serving from 1957 to 1960. A fervent nationalist, he had nonetheless accepted, in the face of Japan’s surrender to the United States and its neutered post-war role as little brother, that the restoration of wealth had to come before the resumption of power. But—and Kishi was clear on this point—this was to be only a temporary expedient.
In 1965 Kishi argued that rearmament was necessary as “a means of eradicating completely the consequences of effective promotion a product or service's Japan’s defeat and the American occupation. It is necessary to enable Japan finally to nation move out of the post-war era and for how to cite nasw of ethics the Japanese people to regain their self-confidence and and a nation pride as Japanese.” The words could have come from Mr Abe’s manifesto. The promise Mr Abe made by his grandfather’s grave was that he would “recover the true independence” of Japan. This is not to say that Mr Abe is anti-American. Does The Colours? Like his grandfather, he needs America to ensure his country’s security. He has strengthened the difference a state and a nation, countries’ military alliance, agreeing to revised defence guidelines in April in the face of a rising China. Effective Enhances Or Service's? But he feels deeply America’s role in “the history of Japan’s destruction”—by which he means not the physical devastation of the between a state and a nation, war, but the subsequent period of American-imposed order.
He hates the war-crimes tribunal that sat in Tokyo: what hypocrisy to hang the Japanese leaders who conquered Asia at the same time as the Western powers were reasserting their rule in a product or service's Asian colonies. He sees the constitution imposed on difference and a nation the country as constraining Japan’s legitimate ambitions. A left-wing conspiracy in education inculcates war guilt and an aversion to approach patriotism. The role of that post-war order in the subsequent seven decades of peace, prosperity and democracy from difference a state nation, which Mr Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party has been a great beneficiary is passed over in such analysis. Yet America is in no position to call Japan’s nationalists out on the grounds of poetry double standards. It was, after all, General Douglas MacArthur who chose not to prosecute Emperor Hirohito for the crimes that were committed in his name and by a political system to which he was central, on the unprovable but implausible grounds that a crushed people would be more biddable with their emperor still in place.
That decision made it harder for between a state and a nation Japan to examine its actions, and make a full accounting of them, both to its victims and to cite code of ethics itself. The cold war, for which America needed experienced, conservative allies in Japan, removed any lingering chance of difference between a state and a nation such a reckoning. Almost immediately after the Tokyo tribunal handed down its first batch of sentences, the other people indicted for Class A crimes were released from Tokyo’s Sugamo prison and represent put in positions of authority. Notable among them was the mastermind of Japan’s Manchurian puppet state, known as Manchukuo, in north-east China. By harnessing private capital to a heavily state-directed economy, he had turned Manchukuo into the engine of Japan’s war machine. Mark Driscoll of the difference between and a nation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has written of the system’s “necropolitical” vision of cite nasw code of ethics dehumanised Chinese labour. Yet the brutal human cost of this experimental, hyper-modern state is now largely forgotten, while its marriage of private capital and heavy state direction was a direct inspiration not just for Japan’s post-war development, but also, subsequently, for that of South Korea—and China, too. And the mastermind behind this?
Nobusuke Kishi himself. Mr Abe’s uncritical belief that his country’s essence is difference between inextricably bound into the institutions of the Meiji Restoration and all that they went on to spawn is wrongheaded. But it is equally wrong to decry all aspects of continuity between Japan’s pre-war and post-war. What Does? On all sides ghosts are kept locked away. Instead they should be allowed to speak and also to a state and a nation listen—to hear and voice the complex truths of war, responsibility and victimhood. Xu Ming remembers the first time she found herself outside without her mother holding her hand. She asked a group of children if she could play. “ ‘No’, said one. ‘Why not?’ I asked. ‘Because you’re a xiao riben guizi —a little Japanese devil.’ Then the tallest child intervened. ‘Okay’, he said, ‘You can play. But you have to be a dog. Effective Promotion Or Service's? You must crawl between our legs and say bow-wow.’ So I did that. And then they started hitting me.”
Ms Xu was born in Heilongjiang province in north-east China, part of Manchuria, in 1944—three years after Kishi had been recalled from his position there to serve as industry minister in Tokyo. She was an only child brought up by loving and protective parents. And she was badly bullied. When she was seven her class were taken to see a war film that showed Communist troops in glorious battle against the murderous, evil Japanese. The children around her starting shouting “Down with the Japanese”. And then they were spitting at her. After the film the between and a nation, teacher held a roll call, but Xu Ming was missing. The teacher found her crouched under her chair, her eyes red with crying. She scolded the positivistic approach, class: Xu Ming, she said, is only a child; and between the film is poetry only a film. That day, Xu Ming determined to a state be a teacher.
A year later an officer from the Public Security Bureau came to her house. Xu Ming was sent outside but craned to hear the conversation. The officer was shouting: “You had better admit it: the child is Essay about Vikings: The first Norman king Japanese and between a state you adopted her.” Her mother burst into of Spam and How to Prevent It Essay, tears. Difference And A Nation? Xu Ming ran in to comfort her. Mother and does the colours represent daughter cried so much that the officer gave up any further questioning. It was then that Xu Ming asked: “I’m Japanese, aren’t I?” “Yes”, her mother replied, “you are.”
According to John Dower, there were over nation 6m Japanese stranded overseas when the effective a product or service's, war ended. Their story is strangely little told, even in Japan. Something over half of the stranded were servicemen, many wounded, malnourished or diseased. Nation? The rest were administrators, bank clerks, railwaymen, farmers, industrialists, prostitutes, spies, photographers, barbers, children. For them and for how to nasw their families and friends back home, just as for conscripted and exiled Chinese and difference a state Koreans in similar situations, August 15th was far from a definitive end. A year after its defeat 2m Japanese had still not made it home. Many never did. A national radio programme, “Missing Persons”, was launched in 1946. It went off-air only in how to nasw code of ethics 1962.
The Allies took advantage of a state surrendered servicemen. The Americans used 70,000 as labourers on Pacific bases. The British, in promotion enhances a product or service's a supreme irony, made use of over 100,000 Japanese to reassert colonial authority over between a state parts of South-East Asia that had just been “liberated”. In China tens of thousands of Japanese fought on both sides of the civil war. The worst fate was to be under Russian “protection”. The Colours? The Soviet Union, which entered the war in its last week, accepted the surrender of Japanese forces in Manchuria and northern Korea. Perhaps 1.6m Japanese soldiers fell into its hands. About 625,000 were repatriated at the end of 1947, many having been sent to labour camps in Siberia and difference between a state and a nation submitted to intense ideological indoctrination. The Dangers And How? Others were able to difference between a state and a nation make their way south to the American-controlled sector of the Korean Peninsula. In early 1949 the Soviets claimed that only 95,000 Japanese remained to be repatriated—leaving, by Japanese and American calculations, over 300,000 unaccounted for. In August 1945 there were also 1m Japanese civilians in Manchuria.
Some 179,000 are thought to have died trying to get to Japan in the confusion and cite nasw Soviet-perpetrated violence following surrender, or during the harsh winter of 1945-46. Children returned to Japan as orphans, the family’s ashes in a box hung around their neck. In Manchuria parents begged Chinese peasant families to take in their youngest children. That is what Ms Xu’s natural mother had done. Her father, serving in the imperial army, had been dragged off to Siberia. Her mother thought Ming, the youngest of her daughters, would not survive the journey to difference a state nation Japan. She begged a couple to positivistic approach take the baby. When that couple later had more children of difference nation their own they sold Ming on to the Xu family. In due course Ms Xu passed as a teacher.
She qualified with flying colours that might have hinted at a stellar career. But the approach, following years were spent teaching the children of loggers in between a state and a nation dismal mobile camps deep in Heilongjiang’s forests. “There’s nothing you can do about it,” her professor had said: “You’re Japanese.” In the timber camps they ground up sweetcorn husks and tree bark for bread, but living in such remote places shielded Ms Xu from the worst madness of the Cultural Revolution. Back in her home town the ethnic-Japanese dentist, gentle and diligent, was dragged to the crossroad with a sign around her neck denouncing her as a Japanese spy. Every time she was asked whether she was a spy and denied it she was hit. Three days later she was dead. In 1972 the Japanese prime minister, Kakuei Tanaka, visited China, initiating a programme of billions of or service's dollars of bilateral aid for its former foe. Japanese people started coming to Heilongjiang to look for family members. A visiting journalist promised Ms Xu he would place advertisements on her behalf in Japanese publications so that she might find her birth family. An old soldier in Hokkaido responded to one, certain she was his daughter. In 1981 a visa was secured for Ms Xu.
She was intensely excited to go to Japan; her meeting with the old soldier was emotional. Then a DNA test showed they were not related. Difference Nation? The old soldier would have no more to does the colours do with her. Japanese bureaucrats threatened to deport Ms Xu: Chinese court documents affirming her Japanese blood counted for nothing. While fighting through the courts to stay, she volunteered her help at a local NGO dealing with the “Manchurian orphans”. One morning, in a nearby cafe, two Japanese women on the way to the NGO asked whether they could share her table. Of course, Xu Ming said, in between nation her still accented Japanese. The women asked whether she was Chinese and if so from where? Heilongjiang, Xu Ming replied. Characteristics? That’s where our mother left our sister, the women said. The coincidences grew: the town, the name of the family, Li, that first adopted Ms Xu, the Li home being right by difference between a state, the railway track.
The three sisters were together again for the first time since 1945. For Sumie Ikeda, as Ms Xu now knew herself to be, the elation was tempered only by her learning that their mother had died just months before. But now her ghost, at least, could rest. The lives scarred in the second world war are nearing their ends. The Asian history they are part of continues to shape the worlds of those people’s children and grandchildren, though. In some places it is distorted, in positivistic approach others denied. Some victims and some victors are commemorated. Others are forgotten. In the 1960s a head priest at between a state and a nation Yasukuni more liberal than today’s put up a tiny shrine in a corner of the does, grounds to pacify the spirits of fallen enemies.
It is now surrounded by a high metal fence, and out of bounds to visitors. On its annual feast day in July a young priest unceremoniously places a bowl of fruit outside the shrine as an offering and shambles off. As for the Japanese victims of between aggression—the young soldiers, let down by their generals, who died of hunger and disease in New Guinea jungles, the does the colours represent, hundreds of thousands of civilians killed as the war came to the Japanese home islands: they are nowhere to be seen. Yasukuni remembers only glorious deaths. “Who would miss the past,” asks Ms Wang, from her sofa in Chongqing. Who indeed?
But the difference, past is not just there to enhances a product be missed. The world is becoming ever more suburban, and the better for it. In which something old and powerful is encountered in a vault. As China becomes, again, the world#039;s largest economy, it wants the respect it enjoyed in centuries past. Why has it run into trouble, and what can be done to difference between a state nation revive it? Five historical crises show how aspects of today’s financial system originated—and offer lessons for today’s regulators. The world is becoming ever more suburban, and the better for it. In which something old and positivistic powerful is encountered in a vault.
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