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A Map Of Colonial Africa Just Before The Outbreak Of World War I

Colonial africa map

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A Map Of Colonial Africa Just Before The Outbreak Of World War I

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Map - Colonial Africa in the Twentieth Century

badly argued essays Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Colonial Map! One of the compensation management, most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is writing, in colonial africa map, particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the early weeks to the very end of have your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating. It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to be clear and colonial, persuasive : arguing that you should be given the of the, job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and colonial, sustaining your career in myers-briggs, journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students. The list is endless, and africa, it is obvious that the way you present your arguments in written form can make the difference between success and failure - in which case you will have to think again.

In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for myers-briggs personality, essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and colonial africa map, methods are in the main common to all forms of formal writing in personality, which an argument or arguments need to be presented. Map! The focus here is Use and Types primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and africa map, fine reader of literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into presenting them clearly . Have A Soul! Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an colonial map, essay. The comments are based on years of experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms, indifferent at colonial africa map the University of Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in the past have been a list of notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by Types, indiscriminate underlining and the use of different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in africa map, ochre, followed by a list of polar formulas quotations in vermilion are pointless.

We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the colonial, fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to work at Essay Use and Types the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph . Colonial Africa Map! The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on of the no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. It takes experience and practice to colonial africa map, develop a sense of polar formulas when a new paragraph is colonial africa map needed and when it has been finished. Examine the introduction to this booklet and this guide to get some sense of how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear. The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the Essay Use and Types of Electrocardiograms, idea to be discussed within the map, paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the of the nurse, above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.).

The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in colonial africa map, a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Essay On The Use And! Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the actual writing. As you gain more experience you will find methods and colonial africa map, ways of working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle. Generally, however, the process will involve the following. You should examine carefully the statements made in polar formulas, the essay question , making sure you understand each word and africa map, what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at i stand ironing text this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of colonial africa them is essential. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining. Polar Formulas! Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. Colonial! There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in question.

To do this it can be useful to try to think of a title for your essay. This is not to Essay on The Use and Types, be confused with the essay question or title, but is concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an map, overview of nurse your approach and analysis, and highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). You should not assume that an essay has to africa map, include and cover all the compensation management, possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the main points is far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about africa map everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why.

Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why. Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about myers-briggs assessment them. Make sure the africa map, relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and compensation management, demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused.

A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about it and africa, do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write). Compensation Management System! You will probably find that you need to work out your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and are encouraged to prepare an outline of the essay: a point by point series of key words, phrases and ideas. Colonial! This will help you to organise the structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to have a soul, the essay as a whole. Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only. Africa Map! Others find it more useful to of the, draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Some students find it easier to africa, think and plan the here ironing full, essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing. Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. Colonial Africa! It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to Essay on The Types, be binding and may change as the work begins and develops. Colonial Africa! The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of planning and preparation even before the i stand here ironing full, actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to work through a number of ideas in africa map, depth and detail.

Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in terms of the role nurse using the time you spend on an essay efficiently and colonial africa, productively. As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. Of The! With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Colonial! Use the university resources.

Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to management, start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and map, do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to polar formulas, claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on colonial a computer than if you are writing by hand.

Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on personality a given subject or subjects . It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Colonial! Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Myers-briggs Personality Assessment! Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and colonial map, economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from point to the role nurse, point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and africa map, the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the essay to move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . I Stand Full! '. After each draft of the essay check that each point is map presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about?

Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the text. Polar Formulas! Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. Colonial Africa Map! A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of i stand ironing full serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Some students have merely stated that the africa, author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and here ironing text, then moved on to the colonial, next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and why they are being used in the piece of on The fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is being used then don't mention it.

You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the image'. Throughout your years at the University of Liège you will be writing essays on literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by colonial africa, students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Quotations need to Use and Types, be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of this guide). You should also provide some commentary on colonial the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material.

This is often likely to be the case as there is really little point in including 'bland' quotations in your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. The latter case can be useful, if handled well. Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. Polar Formulas! This tactic in essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to recognise when you are plagiarising. Africa Map! If you use other people's ideas and do we a soul, words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide). Essays need a conclusion , which for africa, the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to polar formulas, include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments.

You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. Map! People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to management system, make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. Colonial Map! This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. It is as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the evidence and decide one way or the other. Think about why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. I Stand Here Ironing Full! Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is colonial map ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in i stand, responding to the title. If so, say so.

A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the basis of the colonial africa map, essay. Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the argument your own and original. Your own voice should be heard. This needs to be qualified by the understanding that there is polar formulas a particular form and style in academic writing . This is generally formal, analytical , and 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an map, overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. Have! This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is africa a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on the subject of the essays you write being about your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to tailor and construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the Essay Types of Electrocardiograms, head of the course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to africa map, hear. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the text and elsewhere to back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument.

It is not particularly interesting for tutors to read in essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is polar formulas reproduced in a flat, unconvincing, and colonial, unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by arguments and management, interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and reading, not least because you will be enthused by them. Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on paper, then rewritten, and finally given to africa map, your tutor. Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished. Once the on The Use and Types, essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and colonial, make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about your tutor's comments, then ask.

If it is not possible to ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is a skill which has to assessment, be learnt and practised, it is an colonial map, ongoing process and do we a soul, you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an important part of colonial this process. Example 1: Using Quotations. The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Because the management, paper quotes from the colonial africa map, novel extensively, page numbers are found within the main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in a footnote to the first quotation.

Quotations from do we have, secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. Short quotations are included, in colonial africa map, quotation marks, within the main body of the i stand full, paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the rightness of her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and she is mine for life'. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for God, she moulds the child for her own ends. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129). Map! When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the on The Types, Church as the africa, body of Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and this is demonstrated in a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for compensation, confirmation. Africa! She becomes increasingly independent of Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for personality, the Classical. Eunice refuses to africa map, continue her role as the group's jester, or to go with them to the ballet.

Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions: All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to become at least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in do we have a soul, a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to colonial africa, Eunice, who was in fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. Essay Use And Types! (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is africa map above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146). Do We Have A Soul! This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the colonial africa, girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in myers-briggs personality assessment, producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The order is colonial africa alphabetical and polar formulas, determined by colonial africa map, the authors' names. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas. When referring to books you should include the author's name, place of publication, the publisher, and the role nurse, the date when the book was published. To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of map publication and the page numbers. Management! There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent. Consult the handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details.

This is africa map a model used by many British universities and polar formulas, publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84. Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Colonial Africa Map! Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and compensation, is used by most American universities and publishers.

Dahlgren, Pete. Colonial Africa! Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Gledhill, Christine. The Role Nurse! Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Africa Map! Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. 73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in do we a soul, Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in africa map, David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. 119-44.

Pettifer, James. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993. The essential information provided by compensation management system, each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for colonial, further advice. Polar Formulas! These books are on the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995)

1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7. All further references are to this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in colonial africa map, Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.

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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the africa, English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms, the general collapse. Africa Map. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of Essay on The Types language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Africa. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for polar formulas our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. Colonial Africa. It is Essay Types of Electrocardiograms, rather the same thing that is happening to africa map the English language.

It becomes ugly and Essay Types of Electrocardiograms, inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. Colonial Map. If one gets rid of myers-briggs personality assessment these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and africa map, is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to of the this presently, and africa, I hope that by that time the meaning of Essay on The Types of Electrocardiograms what I have said here will have become clearer. Colonial Africa Map. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written.

These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out compensation system of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the africa map, Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. Personality. On the one side we have the free personality: by africa definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. The Role Of The Nurse. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in colonial africa, them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Management System. Recall the africa, definition of love.

Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. I Stand Here Text. All the ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in colonial map, common hatred of Socialism and i stand ironing full, bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to colonial africa map foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at personality present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in colonial africa, the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of polar formulas Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of africa map Britain is do we, heard at colonial africa nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to Essay Use and Types of Electrocardiograms hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of colonial them.

The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is do we have, almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. Map. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of do we have phrases tacked together like the colonial africa map, sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of the role of the nurse prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS.

A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in africa, effect reverted to being an myers-briggs personality assessment, ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in map, between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the personality, changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Colonial. Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is polar formulas, sometimes written as tow the colonial, line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the polar formulas, worst of it.

In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the map, original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the assessment, trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of colonial africa symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . The Role. In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of colonial gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to do we have be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to colonial africa map be expected in the near future, deserving of do we serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an africa, air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements.

Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Essay Types. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for colonial any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in assessment, the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the africa, normal way of coining a new word is to have a soul use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the colonial map, English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS.

In certain kinds of compensation writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is colonial map, normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to i stand full text any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of map Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about do we a soul Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at colonial africa map once that language was being used in an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’.

The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to myers-briggs assessment make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the colonial africa map, defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is personality, a democracy, and colonial africa, fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the the role of the nurse, person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Colonial Africa Map. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality.

Now that I have made this catalogue of polar formulas swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. Africa. This time it must of its nature be an of the nurse, imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into colonial africa map, modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and compensation management system, saw under the sun, that the colonial africa, race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to here full men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in africa, competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.

The beginning and ending of the management system, sentence follow the colonial africa map, original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into myers-briggs assessment, the vague phrases ‘success or failure in competitive activities’. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in colonial africa map, that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of do we a soul modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. Africa Map. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and Use and Types, only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. Colonial Map. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first.

Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and do we a soul, making the results presentable by colonial map sheer humbug. The Role Of The. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is map, easy. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in of the, mind or a conclusion to colonial africa map which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. Myers-briggs Personality Assessment. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of colonial africa mixed metaphors.

The sole aim of a metaphor is to nurse call up a visual image. When these images clash — as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into map, the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the personality assessment, writer is colonial africa, not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Polar Formulas. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the map, general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to compensation management system look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the colonial map, whole of the have, article in which it occurs. In (4), the africa map, writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of system stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink.

In (5), words and colonial africa, meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. Management. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to colonial africa all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and nurse, letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you — even think your thoughts for you, to colonial africa a certain extent — and at need they will perform the personality assessment, important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself.

It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is map, bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of the role undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the colonial africa map, speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.

And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. Of The. If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is africa, when one utters the responses in polar formulas, church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at colonial africa map any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible.

Things like the personality assessment, continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of map their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for management years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of africa map scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. I Stand Here Ironing. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. Colonial Map. He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in Essay on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms, killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so’. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the colonial, Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to i stand full text political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the colonial, Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.’ The inflated style itself is a kind of do we have euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the colonial africa map, details. The great enemy of on The Use and Types clear language is insincerity. Colonial Africa Map. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’.

All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find — this is myers-briggs personality assessment, a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify — that the German, Russian and colonial africa map, Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. Personality. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better.

The debased language that I have been discussing is in africa map, some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of assessment aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. Africa Map. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to compensation management system write it. I open it at colonial africa random, and here is almost the do we have, first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and colonial africa, political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to of the say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into colonial africa, the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is the role of the, probably curable.

Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the colonial africa map, general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is compensation management system, not true in detail. Silly words and colonial africa, expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is the role of the, a long list of colonial africa map flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of myers-briggs personality assessment Latin and Greek in africa map, the average sentence, to drive out myers-briggs personality assessment foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to colonial make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and polar formulas, turns of speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and africa, syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a ‘good prose style’.

On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Personality Assessment. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. Africa. What is i stand ironing, above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. Colonial. In prose, the on The, worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to map describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it.

When you think of Essay on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the africa, job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and of the, sensations. Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and colonial map, humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in Essay on The Use and, doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails.

I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is colonial, possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Management System. Never use the passive where you can use the active.

Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an map, everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought.

Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for do we advocating a kind of political quietism. Africa. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against polar formulas, Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to colonial map yourself. Assessment. Political language — and colonial, with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to have a soul make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind.

One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and colonial map, the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946. Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays’. — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and myers-briggs personality assessment, Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. Africa Map. — 1961. Nurse. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. Colonial Africa. — 1965. — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of management system George Orwell’. — 1968.

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Category:Maps of colonial Africa - Wikimedia Commons

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Map - Colonial Africa in the Twentieth Century

an essay on my hero You know what I always liked about Batman and Iron Man over the rest of the colonial map, superheroes? The fact that they are (relatively) normal guys. They don’t need any special powers to fit into myers-briggs personality assessment the same category as Spiderman, Superman, or Wonder Woman. Heroes can be, and map usually are, real people . And that’s exactly what we’re going to on The focus on africa, when writing a hero essay–who your real-life hero is and why. Before we get started on how to compensation make your hero essay awesome, we first must answer the question what is africa map a hero essay?

Put simply, a hero essay is one in the role which you describe someone you look up to or admire. Colonial? This could be a family member, teacher, community leader, friend, celebrity, or even a random stranger who did a kind deed. When writing about whoever you end up choosing, keep in mind that the hero essay is not just describing what the person is like. You need to i stand expand on certain qualities that you admire in the person, and colonial africa why you admire those qualities. Unlike Professor X, your reader can’t read your mind, so you have to i stand here ironing make those connections in your writing. To bring your hero to africa life on the page, it also helps to have examples or anecdotes of those qualities. Now let’s get into the technical side of writing a hero essay. For the on The Types, purposes of my examples, I’m going to use one of the heroes I mentioned above–Batman!

The first thing you want to do is colonial map choose your hero. Obviously, for me, it’s Batman. For you, choose someone who you can write a whole essay on. You don’t want to wind up halfway through your essay with nothing left to full say–which brings me to the next step. To ensure that you have a fully fleshed out essay, it’s best to make an outline.

This way you’ll know in which order to write your details, and colonial you’ll know that your essay will be fully developed by the time you’re done writing it. Every essay–and, thus, every essay outline–should have at least three things: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Hero essays are no different. Your hero essay introduction should include three main components: A hook : The hook is the first sentence or two of your introduction and is what grabs your reader’s attention. Whether this is a quote, anecdote or statistic, be sure your hook draws readers in and leaves them wanting more. A little bit of myers-briggs, background : Your hero essay will probably be about colonial, someone you know (though it doesn’t have to be). Therefore, your reader probably won’t know who the person is–and even if they do, include some background information anyway. This could mean a brief description of have a soul, your relationship to the person, or any details–such as their occupation, hobbies, etc.–that are relevant to setting up your essay.

Your thesis statement : The thesis statement is where the introduction all comes together. It’s what explains exactly what you’re writing about and provides a brief preview of your essay to the reader. My introduction might look something like this: The city of Gotham is one of the most crime-ridden places in the country, not because of petty crimes, but because of true criminal masterminds. Africa Map? But one man has dedicated his life to polar formulas ridding the streets of evildoers, making the city safe for its citizens–Batman. Batman is colonial africa a hero to Essay Use and Types not just me, but to an entire city because of his timeliness in responding to danger, his unwavering sense of justice, and his awesome gadgets. Colonial Africa? You probably noticed that I included three different qualities in my thesis statement (timeliness, justice and i stand full awesome gadgets), which would make my hero essay a 5-paragraph essay. However, yours, unless specified by your instructor, can be more or fewer than five paragraphs. The key is to write a complete story that clearly depicts your hero.

No matter how many paragraphs are in the body sections of your hero essay, each paragraph should have at least three elements: A topic sentence: Your topic sentence lets the reader know what the main idea of the paragraph is. Africa Map? Support for polar formulas the topic sentence: For a hero essay, your support will usually come in the form of one or more anecdotes. These serve as examples to back up your point. Map? A good transition to here the next paragraph: Transitions are important because they make your writing flow. Avoid starting paragraphs with “First,” “Second,” “Finally,” “Next,” “Another reason I like this person,” or similar language. Phrases like these make your writing sound immature and clunky. Putting a good transition at africa the end of your paragraphs enables you to go right into the next paragraph and avoid all those useless words. Personality Assessment? I’m only going to africa map show you my first body paragraph, but I think you’ll get the point. Batman may cut it close sometimes, but he manages to save most people just in time. When the Joker threw Batman’s love interest, Rachel, off of a building, Batman jumped after her and protected her as they fell, which saved her life. The Role? Batman also saved Commissioner Gordon who was attacked by gangster Alberto Holliday while escorting Holliday’s rival, Sal Maroni, to jail.

Of course Batman can’t possibly save everyone on time–he’s just one man. But because of his clear sense of justice, he tries to save as many people as possible. At last we come to the conclusion. This does not have to be as long as your body paragraphs. It needs only two important things: A brief summary of what you wrote about: Don’t simply restate your thesis statement. You’ve gone into a fair amount of detail since then, and you want the summary to reflect that. A closing statement : This should give your hero essay a sense of closure.

Think about why your hero is important and why you or other people want to emulate this person. Here’s what my conclusion would look like: Batman has saved countless lives–including Rachel, Commissioner Gordon, and colonial many citizens of Gotham–and in many cases just in polar formulas time. Colonial Africa? Because of his commitment to myers-briggs personality justice, he refuses to colonial africa map kill or harm anyone, including his nemeses, and commits acts of selflessness without pay or other incentives. In addition to the role of the his incredible personal qualities, he also has amazing gadgets, like boomerangs, the Batmobile, and colonial smoke bombs, to help him achieve justice on the streets of Gotham. Perhaps if more people were this moral and have a soul selfless (and had the africa, right tools for the job), the have, whole world could stop evildoers in their tracks, just like Batman. Tips to Make Your Hero Essay Super. Now that you have the basics down, it’s time for a couple helpful hints on how to go from an okay hero essay to colonial a great one. Pick a person people might not expect . Your instructor has probably read a dozen or more hero essays by the time he or she gets to compensation system yours.

One way to africa map make yours stand out on The is to choose to write about someone unexpected. This could be a younger sibling that has overcome adversity or the homeless man who helped push cars up a hill in a snowstorm. On the africa map, same note, pick qualities that people might not expect . If you don’t have any unexpected people to write about, or you just simply don’t want to, another option is writing about unexpected qualities. Most people can look up to myers-briggs personality someone for their kindness, generosity, intelligence, or even fame. But writing about someone’s creativity, courage, determined spirit, or optimism in extreme misfortune can be a fresh take on a common essay theme. These are just two ways to make your hero essay more nuanced. A little bit of complexity and out-of-the-box thinking in your writing will take it to the next level. Just think about it this way, it’s better to have a Dark Knight essay (nuanced and complex) than an Adam West Batman essay (simple and a little corny). Image by marvelousRoland via flickr. Image via spinoff.comicbookresources.com. I hope that I’ve given you enough to get those creative juices flowing.

If you finish your hero essay and you still don’t think it’s up to map par, send it over to here ironing full text one of the colonial map, Kibin editors. They’ll help you make it great. I Stand Ironing Text? Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the colonial africa map, Author. Polar Formulas? Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education.

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A Map Of Colonial Africa Just Before The Outbreak Of World War I

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Category:Maps of colonial Africa - Wikimedia Commons

essay press Note: this Renascence Editions text was transcribed by africa map, Risa.S. Bear, July 2003, from the personality assessment Lutrell Society reprint of the edition of 1704. Any errors that have crept into the transcription are the fault of the present publisher. Map? The text is in the public domain. Content unique to this presentation is here, copyright 2003 the colonial africa map editor and The University of Oregon. For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher. Printed in myers-briggs assessment, the Year, 1704.

S Ome Persons think that laying a Tax upon Printed News, may be of Service; but in map, my Opinion, it will only i stand ironing, give Encouragement to the News Writers to vent their own Opinions thro'-out England: besides the small Sum that can be raised by africa map, it is not worth mentioning. A LL Men pretend the Licentiousness of the Press to be a publick Grievance, but it is much easier to say it is the role, so, than to prove it, or prescribe a proper Remedy; nor is it the easiest Grievance to Cure. To put a general stop to publick Printing, would be a check to Learning, a Prohibition of Knowledge, and make Instruction Contraband: And as Printing has been own'd to be the most; useful Invention ever found out, in order to polish the Learned World, make men Polite, and encrease the Knowledge of colonial, Letters, and on The Types, thereby all useful Arts and Sciences; so the high Perfection of Human Knowledge must be at a stand, Improvements stop, and africa map, the Knowledge of the role of the, Letters decay in colonial africa map, the Kingdom, if a general Interruption should be put to Essay Use and of Electrocardiograms the Press. To Restrain the Licentious Extravagance of Authors therefore, and bring the africa map Press under Regulations, is the Case before us, and this is for that Reason call'd, An Essay on the role of the nurse, the Regulation of the africa Press. 'Twould be endless to Essay on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms examine the Liberty taken by the Men of Wit in the World, the loose they give themselves in Print, at Religion, at Government, at Scandal; the prodigious looseness of the Pen, in broaching new Opinions in Religion, as well as in Politicks, are real Scandals to colonial africa the Nation, and well deserve a Regulation.

No Nation in i stand, the Christian World, but ours, would have suffered such Books as Asgill upon Death; Coward against the Immortality of the Soul; ———— on Poligamy; ————— against the Trinity; B ————— t 's Theory; and abundance more tending to Atheism, Heresie, and Irreligion, without a publick Censure, nor should the Authors have gone without Censure and africa map, Punishment, in any place in management system, Europe , but here. On these accounts, I cannot but agree that a Regulation, or due Restraint of the Press, is a good work. But the next and colonial map, most material Enquiry is, how shall it be obtain'd? By a License Office, says a Messenger of the Press, that I may be employ'd to make work in the Town, as has been done in do we have, the days of colonial africa map, yore. That this is the hopes of a forward Party upon that head, is very plain to make out, but I shall avoid charging any Body, and only proceed to examine what are the proper Consequences of a License to i stand here ironing full the Press. First , It makes the Press a slave to a Party; let it be which Party it will, I meddle not with that; but whatever Party of Men obtain the Reins of Management, and have power to colonial africa map name the Person who shall License the Press, that Party of Men have the whole power of keeping the World in Ignorance, in all matters relating to Religion or Policy, since the Writers of that Party shall have full liberty to impose their Notions upon the World, and if any Man offers to reply, the Licenser shall refuse the Copy. This has been accounted Arbitrary, and a soul, not the colonial map least Grievance in former Reigns; for Essay of Electrocardiograms, indeed an absolute submitting the Press to the will of colonial africa, a Licenser, is bringing the whole Trade of Books, and the whole Body of Learning, under the Arbitrary Power of Mercenary Men. The Labours of the most capable Scholar, the Elaborate Works of the most exquisite Artist, the most Practical Discourse on myers-briggs personality, the Divinest Subject, Dissertations and Transactions in colonial map, all Sciences shall fall to the Ground, and the Student lose his Years of Labour, and the World the compensation management Advantage of colonial map, his Learning and Parts, unless a sum of Mony can be rais'd to bribe a Mercenary Licenser, and a Hackney Messenger.

'Twould be endless to reckon up the Use and Types of Electrocardiograms many Volumes on all needful Subjects, which were absolutely rejected in the days of the colonial africa Press's Restriction, when the most Orthodox Divinity was suppress'd, because the Man was not approv'd that wrote it, and a Book was Damn'd for the Author, not the Author for the Book. This was a branch of Arbitrary Power in the Government; for in Rightful Governments they do not Tyrannize themselves, but if the Officers are allow'd to impose upon them, Under-Spur-leathers are always the Tyrants; a Government regulated by Laws, and compensation management, Govern'd according to such Regulations, never willingly put it into the power of colonial, any Inferiour Officer to Tyrannize over his fellow Subjects. I observe there are sorts of people who are willing to promote a general License, and very studious to defend it; but 'tis plain they are such as promote Principles in Argument, which they can but very sorrily defend; and flattering themselves, from what Grounds I believe they themselves hardly know; that they may obtain a Licenser to their Advantage, they suppose from thence a liberty to obtrude their preposterous Notions upon the World, and by favour of a Law and an Arbitrary Licenser, partial to their own Factions, suppress the possibility of a reply. These people are in the right to personality assessment desire such a thing, as a Licenser; for false and designing Reasoning, requires the map support of Power to defend it from the invincible force of Truth and personality assessment, Demonstration. But methinks they should be able to see that the present Government is not so suited to those Principles, as that they should expect: so Arbitrary and unjustifiable an Office should be erected, after so many Years being laid side. The People of England do not believe the Parliament will make a Law to abridge them of that Liberty they should protest, for tho' it were more true than it is, that the Exorbitances of the colonial africa map Press ought to be restrain'd, yet I cannot see how the supervising, and passing all the Works of the Learned part of the World by the role of the nurse, one or a few Men, and giving them an colonial map absolute Negative on do we have a soul, the Press, can possibly be reconcil'd to the liberty of the English Nation. Laws are often made against Fa£ls not in map, them­selves unlawful, but as Convenience and do we have a soul, Reason of State requires, and Circumstances may make a thing unfit to be allow'd in a Country, which would otherwise be no Crime; but in these Cases such Laws are enforc'd by map, a Penalty, and he that will suffer the Penalty, is always at Liberty to commit the Crime. But in this case a Man is abridg'd of his Liberty, and must not do this or that, whether it Transgresses the Law or no. For Example, a person having Writ a Book, brings it to one or other Licenser, the Law is not express that such a Book shall not appear in compensation system, the World, there is no Crime committed, but the colonial africa Book shall be Damn'd in personality, its Womb, not because any thing in it is colonial map, offensive to management the Government, Irreligious, Blasphemous, or any other way Criminal, not because 'tis a Book unfit to appear, but because Mr. Licenser does not please to like it.

I know no Nation in the World, whose Government is not perfectly Despotick, that ever makes preventive Laws, 'tis enough to make Laws to punish Crimes when they are committed, and not to put it in the power of any single Man, on pretence of preventing Offences to commit worse. Even the Laws against Theft and Murther, do not say they shall not commit the colonial africa map Crime, but if they do, they shall be so and so punish'd. 'Tis for polar formulas, the Commands of God to map say, Thou shat not do this or that, Kill, Steal, commit Adultery, and the like; but Man can only say, if any Man shall wilfully do this, or that, commit this or that Crime, he shall suffer such or such Pains, and Penalties; and Use and Types, some are of opinion, all men have a Native right, as to Human Liberty , to africa map commit any Fact, if they submit to the penalty which the Types of Electrocardiograms Law inflicts; for as to its being a sin against God, the Laws have nothing to say to that, and as to a sin against Civil Government, there can be no such thing as a Crime till the Fact is map, committed, and have a soul, therefore to anticipate the Man by colonial africa, Laws, before the Crime, is to abridge him of his Liberty without a Crime, and so make a Punishment without a Transgression, which is illegal in its own Nature, and Arbitrary in the most intense degree. It might not be improper here to text Examine what particular Inconveniences attend such a Law in our present Case, and upon what just Grounds I except against. 1. Africa Map? I object against it as the first step to restore Arbitrary Power in management system, this Nation, and the worst way of restoring it, viz . by a Law. For to africa map go back again to that which we once complain'd of of Electrocardiograms, as Arbitrary, is a tacit acknowledging the former Complaint to colonial africa map be groundless, and giving us cause to think that there's more steps of that Nature to be introduc'd. 'Tis ill making Precedents in cases so dangerous, where the Liberty of a Nation is concern'd; and I cannot doubt but our wise Legislators will consider what the Consequences of of the, yielding in the least point of the colonial africa Subjects Priviledges are, and we have always found them very tender of the least; punctilio's of that great Fundamental, the Peoples Liberty. 'Tis needless to quote Cases, the general practice of the House of Commons, ever since the liberty of the Subject, was to secure the English freedom, and carefully to watch against all Encroachments of any sort, either from without or from any Parties among themselves. 2. 'Tis a Foundation of Frauds, Briberies, and all the ill practices possible; the absolute conduct of so considerable an Article, being committed to the Breast of a few Men, every part of their proceedings are Arbitrary and Unreasonable: Nay, even when he passes a Book that ought to be pass'd, yet 'tis Arbitrary in him, because he passes it not because it ought so to be pass'd, but because he has receiv'd some Perquisite, Gratuity, or other Argument to prevail upon him to nurse do it.

Take this Licenser without a Fee, and fancy an Author brings a Copy to colonial map him, suppose of myers-briggs personality, Divinity, and where is the Book against which he can find no excuse, tho' Penn'd with never so much caution? here it reflects upon the Church, there upon the Government; this seems to look asquint on such an Article of the africa Church of England , that at too much a Ceremony in the Liturgy and Rubrick, and he cannot allow it to here text be Publish'd; but send him the next morning two or three Guineas , and you have the Imprimatur at first word. Suppose it be a Book of Politicks, then this Sentence is colonial africa, a reflection on this great Man, that on another, this may signifie the Parliament, that the King or Queen, but still the on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms Guineas sets it all to right again, the colonial map Gold makes the Book Orthodox and Loyal, and of the nurse, private Constructive Objections vanish in the Mist raised before his Eyes by colonial map, the Mony. Then suppose this or that Licenser, a Party-Man, that is, One put in, and upheld by a Party; suppose him of on The Use and, any Party, which you please, and a Man of the opposite Kidney, brings him a Book, he views the Character of the Man, O , says he, I know the Author, he is a damn'd Whig, or a rank Jacobite, I'll License none of his Writings ; here is Bribery on one Hand, partiality to Parties on colonial map, the other; but get a Man of his own Kidney to own the very same Book, and as he refus'd it without opening before, he is as easie to pass it now, not for the Good or Ill in the Book, but on both Hands for the Character of the Author. There is another Engine of Fraud comes in to make up this Complication of Frauds, and ill Practices, and that is the Messenger of the Press, and Essay, this serves for the Receiver, while the t'other is the Th—f, and he takes the Fees, and colonial africa, the Licenser does the Work, and so casting up together they bring all to an Account of Profit and Loss. Personality Assessment? This is the Broker of the Press, the colonial africa map Stock-jobber of the License-Office; he Talks with you, and Treats with any Body to nurse get a Book Licensed, and Rates his Fees as he finds the Person more or less Obnoxious to his Master, or his Party. This is a New Mouse-Trap, and he that will come into the Press must expect to be catch'd in it, and then in a little Time all the africa force of the Law, so far as design'd against polar formulas, the Exorbitance of the Pen is Evaded and Eluded, all revolves in the Bribery and Villainy of Officers and Licensers, the Law looks like a Phantome of the Brain, made for one Man in an Age to raise a Fortune by, and he must turn Round to perform it. These Things have often been consider'd in Parliament, and have been the true Reasons why our Wise Representers, tho' willing enough to Restrain any undue Liberty, yet have always avoided this Pernitious Remedy, as a thing of colonial africa, much worse Consequence to the Constitution and Privileges of Englishmen , than the Licentiousness of the Press can be to the Government.

To Cure the ill Use of Liberty, with a Deprivation of Liberty, is like cutting off the Leg to cure the Gout in the Toe, like expelling Poison with too Rank a Poison, where both may struggle which Poison shall prevail, but which soever prevails, the Patient suffers. If the Exorbitance of some few People in Printing Seditious and Dangerous Books, must Abridge all the Men of Learning in Use and of Electrocardiograms, the Nation of their Liberty in Printing, what after exceeding toil and africa, unwearied Pains they are willing to Communicate to Posterity, then who will Study, who will breed up their Children to Letters, when all the Fruits of their Labours are liable to the Blast of the Arbitrary Breath of myers-briggs personality assessment, Mercenary Men. By such a Law, a Fellow of no Letters, of map, Knowledge too little to fit him for a Ballad-Singer, shall be Capable of Tyrannizing over the whole World of Learning, and no Book can see the Light without his leave, when after a Man has wrote enough to have all the World acknowledge him, and such a Work, which in some Countries he would have sufficient Gratification for, here he shall not bestow it on the World, without putting himself to personality assessment the Charge of Bribing the Licenser, and so cannot give them his Labour, but he must give them his Money too. In this very thing the colonial africa map King of France out does all the Princes of Europe , where such Encouragement is given to Learning, that all useful Books in the World now speak French , and have, a Man may be an Universal Schollar, read Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and all the Antient Poets; Cicero, Plato, Epictetus, Aristotle, and all the map Antient Philosophers; St. Athanasius , St. Full? Augustine , and all the Primitive Fathers; Plutarch, Livy, and all the africa map Antient Historians, and yet neither understand a Word of Greek or Latin , and have a soul, pray let us Examine if ever the Press has been Restrain 'd to the Absolute Power of a Licenser or Reviser, on the contrary all the Liberty and Encouragement imaginable has been given to the Press, all the Abbies, and publick Libraries in the Kingdom are oblig'd to take One, and when any Author has publish'd an Extraordinary Piece, the King himself has thought fit to reward him with a Magnificence, peculiar to the Pride and State of the French Court. But this Liberty has been the Life of Learning, and ever since Cardinal Richlieu Erected the Royal Academy, no Nation in the World ever flourish'd in africa, Learning like them. The English Nation has always carried a figure equal to i stand here full text their Neighbours, as to all sorts of Learning, and in some very much superior, and africa map, tho' without all those Encouragements, have not yet sunk their Character that way. But we cannot say that Learning is grown to such a height that it needs a Check, that it wants a Tyrant of the Press to govern it: Knowledge is much Improv'd, 'tis confess'd, but the World is not so over-run with Letters, that it should be Tax'd as a Vice, and Laws made to Suppress the little Degrees of it, that are attain'd to. What those Gentlemen propose to themselves who are so forward to procure, or at least so eagerly plead for this Padlock to the Press, I cannot imagine, unless it be that they have some grounds to do we hope they shall keep the Key. And what can the colonial map design of that Power be?

If it be that they would have the Advantage to Print what they please, and that the nurse adverse Party should not have the liberty of the Press to Reply, is a sign the Cause they Embark in is not to be Defended, and will not bear an Answer, and africa, if it be that that they would have no Writing at all, but such points as they are doubtful in, 'tis an Unquestionable Argument that their Cause won't bear Canvasing, and that the less 'tis Examined into, the personality assessment better for map, them. Some People have an Arrogance peculiar to here text themselves, and can venture things into colonial map the World upon the Reputation of a bold Expression, presuming, no Man will venture Examination after the positive Assertion of their Pen. If these Gentlemen are so full of Assurance, Anglicè , Impudence, as to affirm things without Ground, when other Men as well Read as themselves, are at their Elbows to Confute them, to Examine their Authorities and reprove them when they Act without Authority; what work would such Men as these make in the World with their Cause, if this Padlock of the Press was set on by the Laws, and here text, they were to keep the Key, that is, in short, if they had a full License to vent their Notions, and the Law should place a Sentinel of their own at the Door of the Press, that no Man but he that had the Word should come there. We should have more Wise Nations quoted upon us for things no Nation ever did, and africa map, Precedents brought in by Wholesale, without any other Authority than the Imprimatur of the Party. New and Old Association-Men might then cry out of Rebellion in Scotland , from the Presbyterian , and make the World believe the Cameronians were up in Arms there to polar formulas restore Episcopacy . Boys may beat Men if their Hands were Ty'd; if the Hands of a Party are ever Ty'd up by a Law of Licensing, 'tis not then who talks Sense, or Matter of Fact, nor who has the best of the Argument, nor who can say most to the purpose, but who shall be Licensed to speak what he has to map say, and who not, who shall Talk, and who shall hold his Tongue. This I take to be the true state of the Case, and if it be so, I leave it to any body to do we have judge, whether a License of the Press can be consistent either with the Encouragement due to Learning, the Liberty of colonial, this Nation, the Reason of the thing, or the Reputation of any Party who desire it. It remains to Enquire, First, Is it then fit the Licentiousness of the Press should be Unrestrain'd? And Secondly, How shall it be done?

To the First I reply. Licentiousness of all sorts ought to the role nurse be Restrain'd, whether of the Tongue, the Pen, the Press, or any thing else, and it were well if all sorts of africa, Licentiousness were as easy to Govern as this; but to polar formulas Regulate this Evil by an Evil ten times more pernicious, is colonial africa, doing us no service at polar formulas, all. 'Tis apparent the Injury done to the whole Nation, by severely Punishing small things, and letting more substantial Grievances alone, is what there has been Cause to Complain of. There are Parties in all our Justice and Crimes have, or have not been Punish'd, as Parties and colonial, Sides have Govern'd. But I am not going to write a Satyr on Government, several has paid Dear enough for that; to give me Notice what is to be expected from such a Liberty; as 'tis in all the World so it has too much been here, where there are Powers and Parties always struggling, there must be a Byass of Justice as this or that Side prevails.

But 'tis pitty the Press should come into a Party-strife: This is like two Parties going to War, and one depriving the compensation management other of all their Powder and Shot. Ammunition stands always Neuter, or rather, Jack a both Sides, every body has it, and then they get the Victory who have most Courage to use it, and Conduct to manage it. And thus 'tis in the Press, with submission to colonial africa Powers, this I think is a just Consequence from Reason, that since this Nation is unhappily Divided into polar formulas Parties, every Side ought to have an equal Advantage in the use of the Press, and this can never be in Case of Licensing; for whatsoever Party assumes the Power of placing this Paper Magistrate, will, in effect, have an colonial map Exclusive Power over the Press, to polar formulas give their Friends a full liberty of Affirming , and to refuse the other Side the liberty of Replying . Now, as our Legislation cannot be said to be of map, any Party, because they are Whole; so they cannot make a Law which can be equal to the Whole, while it gives the Power to on The Use and any one Party. It cannot be prov'd, that any one Party has more Right, as a Party , to Publish any thing than another, and africa map, therefore cannot in Justice have more liberty given them to do it: For no Man can justly Demand an Exclusive Power, where he had no precedent Right. Besides, 'tis a Scandal both to i stand full text the Merit of a Cause, and colonial map, the Wit of the Managers, that any Party shou'd fly to the Law to suppress his Adversary's Pen.

If two Men fall Out, and one having struck the other, the Person who receiv'd the Blow instead of Fighting him goes to Law with him for the Assault. I Stand Here Ironing Full Text? 'Tis a natural Consequence for all Men to believe such a Man was afraid to Fight; either he was a Coward in colonial map, his Nature, or he thought himself over-matcht, and his Enemy would be too hard for him. So where a Party flies to the Engine of the Law to prevent their Opponent's appearing in Print, it looks like a Confession that they would have the Advantage, if the the role Liberty was not Restrain'd by the Law. But then to have a Law which should be so Circumstanc'd, as that one Party shall Write and Print, and africa map, the other shall not, this has a further Scandal in it, it not only Confesses superiority in the Enemy Suppressor, but seems to have something base in the Party, like getting two Men to hold a Man while I Beat him. The Grand Question then seems thus, You own the Liberty of the Press ought to of the be restrain'd, but you are of the Opinion a Licence is Arbitrary and Unequal.

How then would you have the colonial end Answer'd? 'Tis not for me to direct the Legislative Authority, nor do these Sheets pretend to polar formulas it, but to me the properest Methods seem to africa be such as follow. 1. To make an Act that no Man shall, by Writing or by Printing, Argue, Dispute, Reflect upon, or pretend to Vindicate such and such Points, Persons, Bodies, Members, c. of the State or the Church, or of nurse, any other Matter or Thing as the Law shall mention, and they will be such as the Law-makers see proper to insert. 2. That if any shall presume to do so, they shall be punish'd in such or such a Manner. By the first, all Men will know when they Trangress, which at present, they do not; for colonial map, as the Case now stands, 'tis in the Breast of the Courts of Justice to make any Book a Scandalous and Seditious Libel, and nothing is more ridiculous than the Letter of an polar formulas Indictment in such Cases, and the Jury being accounted only colonial africa map, Judges of Evidence, Judges of Essay Types of Electrocardiograms, Fact, and colonial map, not of the Nature of it, the Judges are thereby Unlimited.

In the Case of Mr. Delaun , who was Indicted at do we have, the Old Baily, for Writing a Book, call'd, A Plea for the Nonconformists, says the Indictment, and africa, the said Delaun did then, and there by Force and Arms write the aforesaid Scandalous and Seditious Book, against the Peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his Crown and Dignity, which are the actual Words in have, most Indictments of that nature. All these Evils would be Obviated, and Men might know when they Transgress, and when they do not. Laws in their Original Design are not made to draw Men into Crimes, but to africa map prevent Crimes; Laws are Buoys set upon dangerous Places under Water, to warn Mankind, that such Sands or Rocks are there, and the Language of them is, Come here at your Peril. The Crime of an management Author is map, not known; and I think verily no Book can be wrote so warily, but that if the Author be brought on his Tryal, it shall be easy for a cunning Lawyer, ay for personality, a Lawyer of colonial map, no great Cunning, to myers-briggs assessment put an Innuendo upon colonial africa, his Meaning, and make some Part of it Criminal. Thus it was in the Case of B axter's Comment upon on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms, the New Teflament; Algernon Sidney's Answer to Sir Robert Filmer; De Laun's Plea for the Nonconformists; Anderton's two Books; and so it may be with this Book, or the colonial africa map best in of the nurse, the World. Now since there are Dangers thus conceal'd in the Law, and colonial africa map, no Man can tell when he offends, 'twould be a wholsome Piece of Justice to do we a soul all the Nation, to place a Buoy on the Rock, and whoever splits on it afterwards would deserve no pity. Such a Law would be a sufficient Restraint to the Exorbitance of the Press, for then the Crime would be plain, and colonial africa map, Men would be afraid of committing it. Whereas the present uncertainty of the Crime seems to be the greatest Occasion of the Crime, for Men are apt to be bold in a Thing which they cannot find expressly Condemn'd by the Letter of the Law. Secondly , As the Crime may be stated, so may the Punishment, and polar formulas, then no Man can be at the Mercy of arbitrary Men; no Sidneys will be found to have Sentence revers'd, and Attainders taken off; no De Launs die in Prison under Exorbitant Fines; no post Factum's, no Complaint can be made by the Person offending, because they know what they were to trust to.

And above all, the End of restraining the Press would be obtain'd by it; for when Men know both the Crime and the Punishment, they would be much more wary of the one for fear of the other. I humbly conceive, the uncertainty of both at present, is the real, if not the only Ground of the Licentiousness of the Press. When I am told the present Liberty of the colonial map Press is a Grievance, I must say, the reason is plain, 'tis because there is a Liberty, and no Law to ascertain the Fact. But let the Law adjust the Crime, and here ironing full text, tie it to the Penalty, that Authors may know what to trust to; there needs no Licenser to pick Men's Pockets, permit Crimes when he is colonial africa, paid for them, and refuse useful and valuable Books if he is not fee'd. But here remains a Question unanswer'd, that in other Cases is not usual. Assessment? There are many ways to commit this Crime, and lie conceal'd; the Crime may be committed, and the Malefactor hard to be found, and colonial africa map, therefore the Licensing the Press was thought necessary to prevent the Fact, because when committed, the Offender is not easily brought to Justice. This is easily answered, and the Parliament has thought fit, in two Cases, to make a Precedent that exactly reaches the Case, and Use and, they are, first , in the Case of buying stolen Goods; and the other is, in putting off, or exchanging counterfeit Money; both which, tho' Accessaries to the Crime, are now made equally Criminal with the Principal, if knowingly done. If in africa, the Case of the Press, a Law be made to make the last Seller the Author, unless the Name of Author, Printer, or Bookseller, be affix'd to the Book, then no Book can be published, but there will be some body found to answer for it. Whoever puts a false Name, to polar formulas forfeit. . Map? . . On The Types? c . Nor can this be thought hard upon the Seller of the Book, because as he knows the Consequence, no Bookseller will be so foolish as to sell any Book that has not the Name of some Printer, Bookseller, or Author affix'd to the Title; and so this Law will answer two Ends together; be a means to africa map prevent the Use and of Electrocardiograms Crime, and fix the Offender if it be committed.

If the Name of the Author, or of the Printer, or of the Bookseller, for africa, whom it is printed, be affix'd, every Man is safe that sells a Book; but if not, then no Man will sell it, but he that hath some private Reason for propagating what the Book treats of, and such a Man has some Title to pass for the Author. I place the Excellency of a Law very much, as before, in the Power and Efficacy it has to prevent the Crime; and the Justice of polar formulas, that Law can never be plainer, than when the Fact is ascertain'd, the Penalty settled, and the Criminal describ'd: No Man can then be Guilty, but he that is wilfully and knowingly so, and whoever is so, let him suffer, no Man will be concern'd for him. All the Excuse that ever I could meet with for colonial africa map, a Licenser, was built upon a soul, the Difficulty of discovering the true Author of a Book, and the Difficulty being such, that no Laws could easily be made effectual, to fix the Writer of any thing, they found room for the Stratagem of a Licenser. Colonial? I call it an Excuse for it, because 'tis plain, the Licenser was not found out as a Remedy for the Evil: But the Design of a Licenser being first resolv'd on, the pretended Difficulty was made a Handle to introduce the new Engine into the World, and place this Monarch of the Press, as a Tyrant to i stand here ironing text exercise his absolute Authority over the World of Letters, and so suppress one Mischief by another. But leaving the Press in the full Enjoyment of all its just Liberties, and answer all these Ends, while 'tis yet fenc'd about with due Restriction of Laws, every Man may have a full Freedom of promoting the africa Extent of Learning, exercising his Parts, defending his Arguments, and answering his Adversary, and yet at the same time will know how far he may go with safety, and when he transgresses : If any Man then gives offence, he knows it, and what he must expect; if any Man does thus offend, the Law knows the Offender, and how to punish him: All things would run in the open free Course of Laws. Criminals and Laws, Offences and Punishment are due Opposites, and ought always to stand in of the, view of one another. If the Punishment or the Law is conceal'd from the Offender, he is trapann'd into the Crime to his Destruction, when he knows nothing of the Matter, and the Law is made a Gin or Snare to hook him into Punishment, which is contrary to the Nature of africa, Laws, and the Practice of all just Governments. A Law therefore to settle what an myers-briggs Author may or may not do, to bring the map Offences of the Pen to a Regulation, and then to annex the personality assessment Punishment to the Crime, would bring all this Matter to a Square. Authors would be known as soon as the Book, because this Law would oblige the Printer or Bookseller to colonial africa map place the have Author's Name in the Title, or himself.

Nor is colonial map, it the of the small Advantage of this Law, to colonial africa have the i stand text Punishment of Authors adjusted; for I know nothing in which our Laws have been executed with a greater Irregularity, no Crime has been punish'd with such improper Punishments, such arbitrary Latitude, or such inconsistent Variety. In other Cases we have Crimes and Punishments link'd together; if a Man robs a House, counterfeits the Coin, or kills a Man, he knows what he has to trust to, but Authors have never known their Punishment: We have had the very same Crime punish'd with trifling Fines of Twenty Shillings, and exorbitant Fines of a Thousand Marks, and yet the Twenty-Shilling-Man hath the greatest Guilt; writing of a Book has been punish'd with Fines, Whippings, Pillories, Imprisonment for Life, Halters and Axes: How 'tis possible the Guilt of the Pen can extend to merit all these several Penalties, is a thing I never met with a Lawyer yet that could resolve. There must be something else than Law in the Case; when I shall commit an Offence, and be fin'd 20 Mark, or perhaps less; another, for the same Crime, shall not be prosecuted at colonial, all; another hang'd or beheaded. All the World cannot shew me a Crime punished by such unequal Variety, where the Crime is the do we have a soul same in Kind, and can only differ in Circumstances; nor is it possible those Circumstances can have so much Variety, such unusual Distance in colonial map, their Nature, as there has been in the Punishments; but all this comes from the Law having left the Punishment unsettled, and plac'd it in the unlimited Judgments of Men. This Law would also put a Stop to assessment a certain sort of Thieving which is now in full practice in England , and which no Law extends to punish, viz . some Printers and Booksellers printing Copies none of their own.

This is really a most: injurious piece of Violence, and a Grievance to all Mankind; for it not only robs their Neighbour of their jusT: Right, but it robs Men of the africa map due Reward of Industry, the Prize of Learning, and the Benefit of the role of the nurse, their Studies; in the next Place, it robs the Reader, by printing Copies of other Men uncorrect and colonial map, imperfect, making surreptitious and spurious Collections, and innumerable Errors, by which the Design of the Author is do we have, often inverted, conceal'd, or destroy'd, and the Information the World would reap by a curious and well studied Discourse, is dwindled into Confusion and Nonsense. 'Twere endless to instance in the Mischiefs which have been done of africa, this kind. Polar Formulas? An Author prints a Book, whether on a Civil or Religious Subject, Philosophy, History, or any Subject, if it be a large Volume, it shall be immediately abridgd by some mercenary Bookseller, employing a Hackney-writer, who shall give such a contrary Turn to the Sense, such a false Idea of the Design, and so huddle Matters of the greatest Consequence to­gether in abrupt Generals, that no greater Wrong can be done to the Subject; thus the sale of africa, a Volume of twenty Shillings is spoil'd, by perswading People that the polar formulas Substance of the Book is contain'd in the Summary of 4 s . price, the Under-taker is ruin'd, the colonial africa Reader impos'd upon, and the Author's perhaps 20 Years Labour lost and undervalued : I refer my Reader, for the Truth of this, to the several Abridgments of the Turkish History, Josephus, Baxter's Life, and a soul, the like. I think in Justice, no Man has a Right to make any Abridgment of a Book, but the Proprietor of the Book; and I am sure no Man can be so well qualified for the doing it, as the Author, if alive, because no Man can be capable of knowing the true Sense of the colonial africa map Design, or of giving it a due Turn like him that compos'd it. This is the first Sort of the Press-Piracy, the next is pirating Books in smaller Print, and meaner Paper, in order to sell them lower than the first Impression. Do We? Thus as soon as a Book is publish'd by the Author, a raskally Fellow buys it, and immediately falls to colonial work upon it, and if it was a Book of a Crown, he will contract it so as to sell it for two Shillings, a Book of three Shillings for one Shilling, a Pamphlet of a Shilling, for 2 d . Myers-briggs Personality? a Six-penny Book in a penny Sheet, and the like. This is down-right robbing on the High-way, or cutting a Purse, (were they not afraid of their Deserts) is a Ruin to Trade, a Discouragement to Learning, and the Shame of a well mannag'd Government.

The Law we are upon, effectually suppresses this most villainous Practice, for every Author being oblig'd to set his Name to the Book he writes, has, by this Law, an undoubted exclusive Right to the Property of it. The Clause in the Law is a Patent to map the Author, and settles the Propriety of the Work wholly in himself, or in such to whom he shall assign it; and 'tis reasonable it should be so: For if an Types Author has not the right of africa, a Book, after he has made it, and the benefit be not his own, and the Law will not protect him in that Benefit, 'twould be very hard the Law should pretend to punish him for it. 'Twould be unaccountably severe, to make a Man answerable for the Miscarriages of a thing which he shall not reap the benefit of if well perform'd; there is polar formulas, no Law so much wanting in the Nation, relating to Trade and Civil Property, as this, nor is there a greater Abuse in any Civil Employment, than the printing of other Mens Copies, every jot as unjust as lying with their Wives, and colonial africa map, breaking-up their Houses. This Grievance a Licenser will never remedy; nay these People who aft them in secret, and without Principles, are out personality assessment of the reach of a Licenser, for they value not the Law, are unaccountable themselves , and have their Hawkers and Mannagers under them. But if an Author has a Right of Action given him by Law, not against him only who shall print his Copy, but against the Publisher of it also; and this Law being made full and colonial map, express, the Evil will die, for no body will dare to sell the Book, when the ironing full text vilainous Pirate has finish'd the Impression.

It has been objected against such a Regulation of the Press, That it will fill the colonial map Town with scandalous Lampoons and Pasquinadoes , which will be handed about in manuscript, and do as much harm as Printing. To this I must answer, A Restraint upon the Press will do so, and always did; and I appeal to any Man's Judgment, to shew me a time when ever the Town swarm'd with things of that Nature, as it did in myers-briggs personality assessment, King Charles the Second's Time, King James 's, and some part of King William 's, when the Press was under the Government of a Licenser, and therefore this Law can no way be more instrumental to it than that was, nor I think will not be so much. I can see no further Objection against my Opinion, and shall be very willing to consider it when I meet with it; in the mean time, if any one can propose a better Method, more agreeable to the Justice of the Nation, and more effectual to all the Ends that are needful to map be consider'd, I hope he will not be discourag'd by this Essay, from making the Proposal.

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How Does a New York Private School Girl Become a Dominatrix? What Does It Take To Be a Dominatrix? This story is adapted from Katie Roiphe’s new book of essays, In Praise of Messy Lives. Photograph by Andrew Brucker. When you start, the dominatrix says, it feels like being thrown into a deep ocean when you don’t know how to swim.

You are coughing up water, choking, feeling like you are drowning. Her first week at the dungeon Alexis Lass Trbojevic was overwhelmed by what she saw. What she saw was subs being whipped and caned, subs with bloody welts, subs walking on all fours on leashes, subs getting slapped in africa, the face and spat on, subs licking the bottoms of on The Use and Types women’s shoes, subs left bound in africa map, cages for six or eight hours. She had to remind herself of a line from The Night of the here full Iguana , “Nothing human disgusts me ” She thought of her mother saying that you become brave by acting brave. Though she also thought of colonial africa map other things her mother would say about what she was doing.

In the on The Use and Types of Electrocardiograms beginning it was very hard to get the voice of her Upper East Side upbringing out of her head, to separate the flock of colonial map preppie Spence girls in management system, their green plaid uniforms, the colonial africa map blocks of doorman buildings and tulip lined avenues, from the the amorphous entity she was beginning to think of as her self. Do We? Those first days in the dungeon, wearing latex, whip in her hands, she hears a voice call her trashy, a whore, a loser, but she doesn’t know if it’s her voice. Then somewhere she crosses over. The world she has moved into is so extreme, so profoundly and flamboyantly unacceptable that it frees her from the narrow or confining definitions of a successful life; it’s not like failing a little, or not fitting in a little. Colonial Map? It’s like going to myers-briggs Mars. The abstractions here are easier to understand than the specifics. By that I mean that if you watch 30 seconds of one of the africa map fetish films Alexis makes, in polar formulas, which a woman steps in stiletto heels on a man’s genitals, you will not see Alexis’ world as clearly as if you read Susan Sontag’s essay on sadomasochism and fascism: “The color is black, the material is leather, the colonial africa map justification is truth, the aim is ecstasy, the fantasy is personality, death.” When Alexis first told her mother what she was doing her mother said, “Don’t come in the house.” Alexis' mother was the closest person in the world to her. Alexis said, “Fine i f that’s what you want.” In the end her mother let her back into the house.

But the break is still there, not visible, but there, the break where you find in yourself the colonial africa ability to walk away from everything you have known; the break is thrilling, liberating and, as Alexis says, a little like dying. Alexis describes her mother as a dark, remote, beautiful creature, drinking coffee, smoking long cigarettes reading her books by dead Russians. “She would probably be the compensation best domme in colonial, the world,” Alexis says. One of the tricky financial issues that Alexis runs into polar formulas, with her fetish film business is africa, that she can’t resist spending money on the aesthetics: She wants a real goat skull for of the nurse, the Viking shoot, or an antique morgue table from the thirties, or the colonial africa perfect cigarette holder for a film noirish shoot, or an compensation management system art deco chaise longue, or a Caroline Herrera vintage Roman gown. It could be her weakness as a businesswoman that Alexis cares about how her films look more than she cares about colonial africa map, cheaply and efficiently delivering the management system fetish. In fact it seems like her heart is colonial, most unambiguously in assessment, painting the africa sets, in the installation, in the design, in the construction work, in the hunt for costumes and props, in the composition, in the look.

Alexis often explains her attraction to sadomasochism in general as aesthetic. “There is something beautiful about the sound of do we a whip in the dark,” she tells me when she is describing her first days in africa map, the dungeon. Do We Have? For her there is also something beautiful in the inversion of regular life: the colonial africa way the a soul men are on their knees, small, bent over, and the women are taller. I begin to notice that Alexis uses the word “aesthetically” when she wants to distance herself from other things that are happening. On the other hand she is truly interested in the aesthetics of sadomasochism, and I can’t think of a time where I have seen her where she doesn’t have paint under her fingernails. Of course I want to know why Alexis is drawn into the Scene. This will not be a question that she answers easily, though she is africa map, generous enough to try. In fact she has already told me that this is the management very question the Scene is designed to obscure; it is behind stage, off limits, hidden in some box with chains. “I know no one goes through this world untouched,” she says. “But I needed to africa map be touched more.” One day when she was still trying to be an actress a man came up to her on the street and told her she should be a dominatrix. He had seen some mannish edge, some unusual confidence in of the, her walk.

In this version of events, the Scene has chosen her. But Alexis has other versions, like the one where she is an aspiring actress, an artist, a smart, dyslexic girl from the Upper East Side without obvious office skills in an expensive and demanding city, and colonial map, she accidentally stumbles on an easy way to make a living. But why this particular easy way to make a living? Or maybe a better question is why is this particular way to make a living easy for personality, her? Alexis says that she has “anger issues,” but she is not sure where they come from. One day she tells me about colonial, a boyfriend she had who was an editor at the New York Times . Personality Assessment? She was drinking then, and africa, one night at Elaine’s, for reasons that are obscure to the role her, she punched him. Warning: The following photos are not safe for work. The captions in this slideshow were taken from Katie Roiphe’s essay, “What Does It Take To Be a Dominatrix?” The captions in quotation marks are direct quotes from colonial dominatrix Alexis Lass Trbojevic.

In the beginning, it was hard to get the voice of her Upper East Side upbringing out of her head. There is nurse, something beautiful about the sound of a whip in the dark. She began to colonial map order wild animals over the Internet. Nothing human disgusts me. I learned to fight from the cats. Alexis says she has anger issues. I needed to be touched more. The break is thrilling, liberating, and a little like dying. Recently she was angry at her current boyfriend for not doing something that he said he would do. There was a whip in front of her, and sort of full text instinctually she reached for africa map, it.

He started running. She says, “What could he do? A big, strong man can’t grab a whip. That’s what so fascinating; you can decapitate someone with a whip.” She laughs as she tells this story. Myers-briggs Personality Assessment? “Of course I was like, I am sorry I am sorry I am sorry! It’s bad.

It’s like I don’t know how else to act.” Some of her anger she attributes to the frustrations of being a wild, imaginative child trying to fit in at Spence, a rigid, highly structured Upper East Side girls’ school, where she learned, among other things, to curtsey. There, from a very early age, she would come up with elaborate lies to cover up for her dyslexia, to africa try to obscure the reasons she couldn’t read aloud or fast enough or well enough. She remembers one day in i stand here ironing full text, art class they were making clay figures. Alexis made hers with breasts, and the other girls thought she was strange.

When Alexis was growing up there were no other children in the house but there were cats. Colonial Africa? When she was 3 or 4, she remembers going to the birthday party of the role nurse a classmate, who was a maharajah’s grandson. Africa Map? His face was covered in scratches because she had scratched him. “I didn’t have siblings,” she explains. Compensation System? “I learned to fight from the cats.” Once, right out of college, Alexis had a very brief marriage. She knew it was over because she began to order wild animals over colonial map the Internet. For a while she had one wolf and one half-wolf running around her apartment on the waterfront in Brooklyn.

When I ask her what separates her from the girls in her films, the have other dommes and adult actresses she hires, who are not as compelling to map watch, she says, “I hit harder.” Sessions are exhausting because you are managing someone else’s fantasy. The Role? Alexis describes it as “walking on eggshells upon eggshells.” She watches her subs very closely, for a glance averted, a flicker of an eyelid, tension in shoulders, for colonial, the slightest alterations in do we have, body posture, for signs that she is going too far or not far enough or in the wrong direction. She is africa map, intuiting the fantasy from have them, almost drawing it out of their bodies, and colonial africa, she has to be fluid, shifting, perfectly responsive. These guys, she says, are about to blow. What is striking in her description is that it is the Use and of Electrocardiograms slaves who sound dangerous. The way she talks about it, it is like there is an explosion that she is working around, managing, navigating, negotiating. She compares it to being with mental patients on a ward without guards. Alexis describes the sadomasochistic drama as being organized around the idea of not facing what there is to face; the colonial africa whole structure of the fetish replaces any kind of rigorous introspection. She says, “It’s like these guys walk in nurse, and need surgery, and we are giving them a massage. “Is it acting?

Well, yeah. Colonial? But to be good at a role, it has to be you. And this one comes very naturally to me.” She says, “It’s a way to get out my anger, and I don’t feel bad for them because I have this 6-foot-tall man standing in front of me, and I am like poor you. Poor fucking you. I mean they could get up at any moment and punch me in the face. Game over.”

I wonder if with her particular array of nurse skills and talents, she is ever tempted to find a rich sub who would buy her an apartment. Colonial Africa? But for some reason this fantasy doesn’t work for Alexis. Even the compensation management idea of a rich boyfriend who buys her presents somehow ruffles her, and when in a former life she did have rich boyfriends buy her presents, she didn’t want them, thinking “What am I, your doll?” For her being dependent on colonial africa a man is as repellent and unthinkable as what she does would seem to many of the polar formulas stay-at-home moms sipping $11 lattes at D’Ambrosios on Madison Avenue. I ask Alexis how she would reply to colonial africa map an imaginary feminist who argues that she is degrading herself to fulfill male fantasies for money, that she is being exploited, in have a soul, her latex dishabille, for oppressive patriarchal fantasies. This is not how she thinks about the power relations in what she does, and she thinks about map, them a lot. Polar Formulas? Being dependent on one man’s fantasies or whims is different from being dependent on various fairly interchangeable and africa map, shifting subs’ payments for services rendered. She also points out a soul that the payments are called “tributes.” She sees that money as equalizing the situation, undoing the humiliation a little, delivering back to these men their ego after they have been totally broken down; in some way the tribute or payment restores these bent over, shirtless, beaten men back to the often exalted place they have in the outside world. Alexis’ dungeon slash studio floats above an anonymous, midtown street; the dungeon is very clean and colonial africa map, well lit and tastefully furnished for a dungeon.

Somehow it feels like early morning here, even though it is 2 in the afternoon. There is a skinny gray cat wandering past the myers-briggs personality assessment giant wooden cross, and a fluffy black one curled up on the ’30s morgue table, and one curled up asleep on the low mattress that is there for late nights. Alexis is tired from staying up until 2 shooting photographs of colonial africa a Viking girl covered in silver body paint with a goat skull. We are talking about Story of O , a famous French novel from the ’50s about sadomasochism. I am somehow simultaneously bored and disturbed by Essay Types the extremes of how O. is transfigured, how she vacates herself in the course of her baroque sexual enslavement. When Susan Sontag writes about O. she talks about “the voluptuous yearning toward the extinction of one’s consciousness.” I mention the scene where O. is map, branded, and Alexis says that she once took part in a branding.

She was with another domme who had a sub who was a math teacher from Ohio and wanted to be branded. They somehow found a branding iron that said “m.” It was just what they happened to find, but they thought maybe “m” could stand for “mistress.” Alexis thought that she could hold the blowtorch because she had done welding before. She was nervous, and the slave was nervous, but she held it steady, the flame blue and polar formulas, red. She stood in a leather bikini and stilettos, holding it very still, while the africa map other domme took the branding iron and ironing full text, put it on his skin. Africa? After it was over the dominatrixes started laughing, not a mean laugh, she explains, but nervous, relieved, scared. They had never done anything like that before. Alexis said to the other domme, “Are you just going to leave him like that?” And the other domme got some Neosporin, and the role, a bandage. Africa Map? But now she thinks the branding was going too far; she would never do anything like that anymore. I think of other people I know with what Alexis calls “anger issues,” the way it seeps into and poisons the lives of those around them, in socially acceptable ways, in i stand full text, ways not visible to the outside world, how things happen, minor dramas in the kitchen, books or other objects thrown or torn into pieces, fetishes unnamed and unwanted but still playing themselves out, accidental rituals of colonial africa map humiliation, humdrum or otherwise, little, banal stories of O. on the subway ride to work, the boring everyday way people “voluptuously yearn toward the extinction of their consciousness,” or not even that voluptuously. The Viking girl already sent Alexis a text this morning saying she is here ironing full, having second thoughts about the topless photos with silver body paint because her fundamentalist Christian family in Texas might see them.

Alexis is more or less taking the colonial africa position that body paint is clothes. Somewhere in of Electrocardiograms, the middle of this Alexis is telling me about a dinner party she went to with her parents on the Upper East Side, at the house of an important judge. They are sitting around the table, the judge, his wife, his son who goes to an all boys’ school, his 85-year-old mother with dyed red hair, Alexis and her family, and a couple of other Upper East Side friends, eating a pork roast from Lobel’s, with horseradish sauce. They are talking about colonial africa map, things they regret not doing. Someone turns politely to the the important judge’s 85-year old mother and asks her what she regrets not doing. She says, “I wish I’d been a stripper.”

In the here text dungeon, the window to map the fire escape is criss-crossed with bars. Alexis takes another sip of her orange soda and lights a menthol cigarette. Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. All contents 2017 The Slate Group LLC. All rights reserved.